Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a novel fiber bundle imaging based on spatial compounding induced by random transverse motion to remove the pixelation effect, to improve resolution, and to increase image quality. The experimental results using a USAF target and pyramidal neuron cell showed that 20-frame compounding improved image quality (contrast-to-noise ratio by >9dB, global SNR by >6dB, equivalent number of looks by >1.8times, and 1/β by >1.5times), resolution by better than 2 μm, and completely eliminated pixelation artifact.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. F. Gmitro and A. R. Rouse, Opt. Photon. News 20(11), 28 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. A. Flusberg, A. Nimmerjahn, E. D. Cocker, E. A. Mukamel, R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, L. D. Burns, J. C. Jung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 5, 935 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Lee and J.-H. Han, Opt. Lett. 38, 2023 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Kyrish, R. Kester, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. Tkaczyk, Proc. SPIE 7558, 755807 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Bedard and T. S. Tkaczyk, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 080508 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Vercauteren, A. Perchant, G. Malandain, X. Pennec, and N. Ayache, Med. Image Anal. 10, 673 (2006).
  12. Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, W. Choi, and W. Choi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 6800213 (2014).
  13. W. Wang and F. Chang, J. Comput. 6, 2559 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Briechle and U. D. Hanebeck, Proc. SPIE 4387, 95 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. C. Adler, T. H. Ko, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 29, 2878 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. Sattar, L. Floreby, G. Salomonsson, and B. Lovstrom, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6, 888 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2014 (2)

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, W. Choi, and W. Choi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 6800213 (2014).

S. S. Gurbani, P. Wilkening, M. Zhao, B. Gonenc, G. W. Cheon, I. I. Iordachita, W. Chien, R. H. Taylor, J. K. Niparko, and J. U. Kang, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 057004 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

N. Bedard and T. S. Tkaczyk, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 080508 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Han and J. U. Kang, Appl. Phys. B 106, 635 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

X. Liu, Y. Huang, and J. U. Kang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 046003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Wang and F. Chang, J. Comput. 6, 2559 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

J.-H. Han, J. Lee, and J. U. Kang, Opt. Express 18, 7427 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kyrish, R. Kester, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. Tkaczyk, Proc. SPIE 7558, 755807 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

A. F. Gmitro and A. R. Rouse, Opt. Photon. News 20(11), 28 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

B. A. Flusberg, A. Nimmerjahn, E. D. Cocker, E. A. Mukamel, R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, L. D. Burns, J. C. Jung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 5, 935 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

T. Vercauteren, A. Perchant, G. Malandain, X. Pennec, and N. Ayache, Med. Image Anal. 10, 673 (2006).

2005 (1)

B. L. Luck, K. D. Carlson, A. C. Bovik, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 14, 1265 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2001 (1)

K. Briechle and U. D. Hanebeck, Proc. SPIE 4387, 95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

F. Sattar, L. Floreby, G. Salomonsson, and B. Lovstrom, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6, 888 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Adler, D. C.

Ayache, N.

T. Vercauteren, A. Perchant, G. Malandain, X. Pennec, and N. Ayache, Med. Image Anal. 10, 673 (2006).

Barretto, R. P. J.

B. A. Flusberg, A. Nimmerjahn, E. D. Cocker, E. A. Mukamel, R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, L. D. Burns, J. C. Jung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 5, 935 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bedard, N.

N. Bedard and T. S. Tkaczyk, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 080508 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bovik, A. C.

B. L. Luck, K. D. Carlson, A. C. Bovik, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 14, 1265 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Briechle, K.

K. Briechle and U. D. Hanebeck, Proc. SPIE 4387, 95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Burns, L. D.

B. A. Flusberg, A. Nimmerjahn, E. D. Cocker, E. A. Mukamel, R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, L. D. Burns, J. C. Jung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 5, 935 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, K. D.

B. L. Luck, K. D. Carlson, A. C. Bovik, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 14, 1265 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, F.

W. Wang and F. Chang, J. Comput. 6, 2559 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheon, G. W.

S. S. Gurbani, P. Wilkening, M. Zhao, B. Gonenc, G. W. Cheon, I. I. Iordachita, W. Chien, R. H. Taylor, J. K. Niparko, and J. U. Kang, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 057004 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Chien, W.

S. S. Gurbani, P. Wilkening, M. Zhao, B. Gonenc, G. W. Cheon, I. I. Iordachita, W. Chien, R. H. Taylor, J. K. Niparko, and J. U. Kang, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 057004 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, W. Choi, and W. Choi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 6800213 (2014).

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, W. Choi, and W. Choi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 6800213 (2014).

Choi, Y.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, W. Choi, and W. Choi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 6800213 (2014).

Cocker, E. D.

B. A. Flusberg, A. Nimmerjahn, E. D. Cocker, E. A. Mukamel, R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, L. D. Burns, J. C. Jung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 5, 935 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Elter, M.

S. Rupp, C. Winter, and M. Elter, in Proceedings of the 31st Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2009), pp. 3677–3680.

Floreby, L.

F. Sattar, L. Floreby, G. Salomonsson, and B. Lovstrom, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6, 888 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Flusberg, B. A.

B. A. Flusberg, A. Nimmerjahn, E. D. Cocker, E. A. Mukamel, R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, L. D. Burns, J. C. Jung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 5, 935 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gmitro, A. F.

A. F. Gmitro and A. R. Rouse, Opt. Photon. News 20(11), 28 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gonenc, B.

S. S. Gurbani, P. Wilkening, M. Zhao, B. Gonenc, G. W. Cheon, I. I. Iordachita, W. Chien, R. H. Taylor, J. K. Niparko, and J. U. Kang, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 057004 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Gurbani, S. S.

S. S. Gurbani, P. Wilkening, M. Zhao, B. Gonenc, G. W. Cheon, I. I. Iordachita, W. Chien, R. H. Taylor, J. K. Niparko, and J. U. Kang, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 057004 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Han, J.-H.

Hanebeck, U. D.

K. Briechle and U. D. Hanebeck, Proc. SPIE 4387, 95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

X. Liu, Y. Huang, and J. U. Kang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 046003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Iordachita, I. I.

S. S. Gurbani, P. Wilkening, M. Zhao, B. Gonenc, G. W. Cheon, I. I. Iordachita, W. Chien, R. H. Taylor, J. K. Niparko, and J. U. Kang, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 057004 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Jung, J. C.

B. A. Flusberg, A. Nimmerjahn, E. D. Cocker, E. A. Mukamel, R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, L. D. Burns, J. C. Jung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 5, 935 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. U.

S. S. Gurbani, P. Wilkening, M. Zhao, B. Gonenc, G. W. Cheon, I. I. Iordachita, W. Chien, R. H. Taylor, J. K. Niparko, and J. U. Kang, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 057004 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Han and J. U. Kang, Appl. Phys. B 106, 635 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, Y. Huang, and J. U. Kang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 046003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Han, J. Lee, and J. U. Kang, Opt. Express 18, 7427 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kester, R.

M. Kyrish, R. Kester, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. Tkaczyk, Proc. SPIE 7558, 755807 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, W. Choi, and W. Choi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 6800213 (2014).

Ko, T. H.

B. A. Flusberg, A. Nimmerjahn, E. D. Cocker, E. A. Mukamel, R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, L. D. Burns, J. C. Jung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 5, 935 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Adler, T. H. Ko, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 29, 2878 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kyrish, M.

M. Kyrish, R. Kester, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. Tkaczyk, Proc. SPIE 7558, 755807 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

Lee, J.

Liu, X.

X. Liu, Y. Huang, and J. U. Kang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 046003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lovstrom, B.

F. Sattar, L. Floreby, G. Salomonsson, and B. Lovstrom, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6, 888 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Luck, B. L.

B. L. Luck, K. D. Carlson, A. C. Bovik, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 14, 1265 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Malandain, G.

T. Vercauteren, A. Perchant, G. Malandain, X. Pennec, and N. Ayache, Med. Image Anal. 10, 673 (2006).

Mukamel, E. A.

B. A. Flusberg, A. Nimmerjahn, E. D. Cocker, E. A. Mukamel, R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, L. D. Burns, J. C. Jung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 5, 935 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nimmerjahn, A.

B. A. Flusberg, A. Nimmerjahn, E. D. Cocker, E. A. Mukamel, R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, L. D. Burns, J. C. Jung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 5, 935 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Niparko, J. K.

S. S. Gurbani, P. Wilkening, M. Zhao, B. Gonenc, G. W. Cheon, I. I. Iordachita, W. Chien, R. H. Taylor, J. K. Niparko, and J. U. Kang, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 057004 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Pennec, X.

T. Vercauteren, A. Perchant, G. Malandain, X. Pennec, and N. Ayache, Med. Image Anal. 10, 673 (2006).

Perchant, A.

T. Vercauteren, A. Perchant, G. Malandain, X. Pennec, and N. Ayache, Med. Image Anal. 10, 673 (2006).

Reichenbach, K. L.

Richards-Kortum, R.

M. Kyrish, R. Kester, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. Tkaczyk, Proc. SPIE 7558, 755807 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Richards-Kortum, R. R.

B. L. Luck, K. D. Carlson, A. C. Bovik, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 14, 1265 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rouse, A. R.

A. F. Gmitro and A. R. Rouse, Opt. Photon. News 20(11), 28 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rupp, S.

S. Rupp, C. Winter, and M. Elter, in Proceedings of the 31st Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2009), pp. 3677–3680.

Salomonsson, G.

F. Sattar, L. Floreby, G. Salomonsson, and B. Lovstrom, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6, 888 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sattar, F.

F. Sattar, L. Floreby, G. Salomonsson, and B. Lovstrom, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6, 888 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schnitzer, M. J.

B. A. Flusberg, A. Nimmerjahn, E. D. Cocker, E. A. Mukamel, R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, L. D. Burns, J. C. Jung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 5, 935 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R. H.

S. S. Gurbani, P. Wilkening, M. Zhao, B. Gonenc, G. W. Cheon, I. I. Iordachita, W. Chien, R. H. Taylor, J. K. Niparko, and J. U. Kang, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 057004 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Tkaczyk, T.

M. Kyrish, R. Kester, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. Tkaczyk, Proc. SPIE 7558, 755807 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tkaczyk, T. S.

N. Bedard and T. S. Tkaczyk, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 080508 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vercauteren, T.

T. Vercauteren, A. Perchant, G. Malandain, X. Pennec, and N. Ayache, Med. Image Anal. 10, 673 (2006).

Wang, W.

W. Wang and F. Chang, J. Comput. 6, 2559 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wilkening, P.

S. S. Gurbani, P. Wilkening, M. Zhao, B. Gonenc, G. W. Cheon, I. I. Iordachita, W. Chien, R. H. Taylor, J. K. Niparko, and J. U. Kang, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 057004 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Winter, C.

S. Rupp, C. Winter, and M. Elter, in Proceedings of the 31st Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2009), pp. 3677–3680.

Xu, C.

Yoon, C.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, W. Choi, and W. Choi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 6800213 (2014).

Zhao, M.

S. S. Gurbani, P. Wilkening, M. Zhao, B. Gonenc, G. W. Cheon, I. I. Iordachita, W. Chien, R. H. Taylor, J. K. Niparko, and J. U. Kang, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 057004 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J.-H. Han and J. U. Kang, Appl. Phys. B 106, 635 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, W. Choi, and W. Choi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 6800213 (2014).

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (2)

F. Sattar, L. Floreby, G. Salomonsson, and B. Lovstrom, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6, 888 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Luck, K. D. Carlson, A. C. Bovik, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 14, 1265 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

N. Bedard and T. S. Tkaczyk, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 080508 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Gurbani, P. Wilkening, M. Zhao, B. Gonenc, G. W. Cheon, I. I. Iordachita, W. Chien, R. H. Taylor, J. K. Niparko, and J. U. Kang, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 057004 (2014).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, Y. Huang, and J. U. Kang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 046003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Comput. (1)

W. Wang and F. Chang, J. Comput. 6, 2559 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Med. Image Anal. (1)

T. Vercauteren, A. Perchant, G. Malandain, X. Pennec, and N. Ayache, Med. Image Anal. 10, 673 (2006).

Nat. Methods (1)

B. A. Flusberg, A. Nimmerjahn, E. D. Cocker, E. A. Mukamel, R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, L. D. Burns, J. C. Jung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 5, 935 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

A. F. Gmitro and A. R. Rouse, Opt. Photon. News 20(11), 28 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

K. Briechle and U. D. Hanebeck, Proc. SPIE 4387, 95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Kyrish, R. Kester, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. Tkaczyk, Proc. SPIE 7558, 755807 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. Rupp, C. Winter, and M. Elter, in Proceedings of the 31st Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2009), pp. 3677–3680.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Fiber bundle fluorescence imaging system: (a) system schematic (CL, condenser lens; EF, emission filter; DM, dichroic mirror; OL, objective lens; FB, fiber bundle; mOL, miniature-objective lens) and (b) compounding process: transverse-motion-induced images are arranged and compounded to eliminate blank region (pixelation artifact).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Process for extracting available pixels: (a) background image after thresholding; (b) original fiber bundle image; (c) available pixels extracted by applying (a) to (b); and (d)–(f) magnified images of the square area in (a)–(c). Scale bar represents 50 μm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Obtained USAF target images: (a) original image and (b)–(f) compounded images using different numbers of sample images.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Resolution test: (a) group 7, original image; (b) group 7, compounded image (N=20); and (c) intensity variation graphs of pixels along the arrows.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Pyramidal cell imaging results: (a) original fiber bundle image, (b) Gaussian-filtered image, (c) compounded image using 20 sample images, and (d)–(f) magnified image of area in dotted white circle in (a)–(c). Scale bar represents 50 μm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Image Quality Parameters

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f*g=1N(i,j)ROI(f(i,j)mf)(g(i,j)mg)σfσg,
f*g=Sfg2SfSgN+SfSgN2(Sf2Sf2N)(Sg2Sg2N),whereSx=(i,j)ROIx(i,j).

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