Abstract

A technique is proposed for estimating the refractive index structure characteristic of air from data of a coherent Doppler wind lidar. The proposed technique is tested in atmospheric experiments. Time profiles of the structure characteristic in the atmospheric surface layer are obtained and compared with the time profiles of the dissipation rate of the kinetic energy of turbulence obtained from the same lidar data. It is shown in this way that coherent lidars can be used for investigating not only wind turbulence, but also temperature turbulence.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. V. A. Banakh and I. N. Smalikho, Coherent Doppler Wind Lidars in a Turbulent Atmosphere (Artech, 2013), p. 248.
  2. R. G. Frehlich and M. J. Kavaya, Appl. Opt. 30, 5325 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. G. Frehlich, Appl. Opt. 39, 393 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. A. Banakh, I. N. Smalikho, and C. Werner, Appl. Opt. 39, 5403 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. N. Smalikho, F. Köpp, and S. Rahm, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 22, 1733 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. J. Grund, R. M. Banta, J. L. George, J. N. Howell, M. J. Post, R. A. Richter, and A. M. Weickman, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18, 376 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. G. Frehlich and L. B. Cornman, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 355 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. N. Smalikho, E. L. Pichugina, V. A. Banakh, and W. A. Brewer, Russ. J. Phys. 55, 956 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  9. I. N. Smalikho and V. A. Banakh, Atmos. Ocean. Opt. 26, 404 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. N. Smalikho, V. A. Banakh, E. L. Pichugina, and A. Brewer, Atmos. Ocean. Opt. 26, 411 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  11. I. N. Smalikho, V. A. Banakh, E. L. Pichugina, W. A. Brewer, R. M. Banta, J. K. Lundquist, and N. D. Kelley, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30, 2554 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. S. Gurvich, A. I. Kon, V. L. Mironov, and S. S. Khmelevtsov, Laser Radiation in the Turbulent Atmosphere, (Nauka, 1976), p. 280 [in Russian].
  13. D. L. Hutt, Opt. Eng. 38, 1288 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Pierson, F. Davies, and C. Collier, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 240 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (4)

I. N. Smalikho, E. L. Pichugina, V. A. Banakh, and W. A. Brewer, Russ. J. Phys. 55, 956 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Smalikho and V. A. Banakh, Atmos. Ocean. Opt. 26, 404 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Smalikho, V. A. Banakh, E. L. Pichugina, and A. Brewer, Atmos. Ocean. Opt. 26, 411 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Smalikho, V. A. Banakh, E. L. Pichugina, W. A. Brewer, R. M. Banta, J. K. Lundquist, and N. D. Kelley, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30, 2554 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

G. Pierson, F. Davies, and C. Collier, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 240 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

I. N. Smalikho, F. Köpp, and S. Rahm, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 22, 1733 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. G. Frehlich and L. B. Cornman, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 355 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. J. Grund, R. M. Banta, J. L. George, J. N. Howell, M. J. Post, R. A. Richter, and A. M. Weickman, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18, 376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

D. L. Hutt, Opt. Eng. 38, 1288 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

Banakh, V. A.

I. N. Smalikho, E. L. Pichugina, V. A. Banakh, and W. A. Brewer, Russ. J. Phys. 55, 956 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Smalikho and V. A. Banakh, Atmos. Ocean. Opt. 26, 404 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Smalikho, V. A. Banakh, E. L. Pichugina, and A. Brewer, Atmos. Ocean. Opt. 26, 411 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Smalikho, V. A. Banakh, E. L. Pichugina, W. A. Brewer, R. M. Banta, J. K. Lundquist, and N. D. Kelley, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30, 2554 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Banakh, I. N. Smalikho, and C. Werner, Appl. Opt. 39, 5403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Banakh and I. N. Smalikho, Coherent Doppler Wind Lidars in a Turbulent Atmosphere (Artech, 2013), p. 248.

Banta, R. M.

I. N. Smalikho, V. A. Banakh, E. L. Pichugina, W. A. Brewer, R. M. Banta, J. K. Lundquist, and N. D. Kelley, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30, 2554 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Grund, R. M. Banta, J. L. George, J. N. Howell, M. J. Post, R. A. Richter, and A. M. Weickman, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18, 376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brewer, A.

I. N. Smalikho, V. A. Banakh, E. L. Pichugina, and A. Brewer, Atmos. Ocean. Opt. 26, 411 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Brewer, W. A.

I. N. Smalikho, V. A. Banakh, E. L. Pichugina, W. A. Brewer, R. M. Banta, J. K. Lundquist, and N. D. Kelley, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30, 2554 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Smalikho, E. L. Pichugina, V. A. Banakh, and W. A. Brewer, Russ. J. Phys. 55, 956 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Collier, C.

G. Pierson, F. Davies, and C. Collier, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 240 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cornman, L. B.

R. G. Frehlich and L. B. Cornman, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 355 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Davies, F.

G. Pierson, F. Davies, and C. Collier, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 240 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Frehlich, R. G.

George, J. L.

C. J. Grund, R. M. Banta, J. L. George, J. N. Howell, M. J. Post, R. A. Richter, and A. M. Weickman, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18, 376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grund, C. J.

C. J. Grund, R. M. Banta, J. L. George, J. N. Howell, M. J. Post, R. A. Richter, and A. M. Weickman, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18, 376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gurvich, A. S.

A. S. Gurvich, A. I. Kon, V. L. Mironov, and S. S. Khmelevtsov, Laser Radiation in the Turbulent Atmosphere, (Nauka, 1976), p. 280 [in Russian].

Howell, J. N.

C. J. Grund, R. M. Banta, J. L. George, J. N. Howell, M. J. Post, R. A. Richter, and A. M. Weickman, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18, 376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hutt, D. L.

D. L. Hutt, Opt. Eng. 38, 1288 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kavaya, M. J.

Kelley, N. D.

I. N. Smalikho, V. A. Banakh, E. L. Pichugina, W. A. Brewer, R. M. Banta, J. K. Lundquist, and N. D. Kelley, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30, 2554 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Khmelevtsov, S. S.

A. S. Gurvich, A. I. Kon, V. L. Mironov, and S. S. Khmelevtsov, Laser Radiation in the Turbulent Atmosphere, (Nauka, 1976), p. 280 [in Russian].

Kon, A. I.

A. S. Gurvich, A. I. Kon, V. L. Mironov, and S. S. Khmelevtsov, Laser Radiation in the Turbulent Atmosphere, (Nauka, 1976), p. 280 [in Russian].

Köpp, F.

I. N. Smalikho, F. Köpp, and S. Rahm, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 22, 1733 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lundquist, J. K.

I. N. Smalikho, V. A. Banakh, E. L. Pichugina, W. A. Brewer, R. M. Banta, J. K. Lundquist, and N. D. Kelley, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30, 2554 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mironov, V. L.

A. S. Gurvich, A. I. Kon, V. L. Mironov, and S. S. Khmelevtsov, Laser Radiation in the Turbulent Atmosphere, (Nauka, 1976), p. 280 [in Russian].

Pichugina, E. L.

I. N. Smalikho, E. L. Pichugina, V. A. Banakh, and W. A. Brewer, Russ. J. Phys. 55, 956 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Smalikho, V. A. Banakh, E. L. Pichugina, W. A. Brewer, R. M. Banta, J. K. Lundquist, and N. D. Kelley, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30, 2554 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Smalikho, V. A. Banakh, E. L. Pichugina, and A. Brewer, Atmos. Ocean. Opt. 26, 411 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pierson, G.

G. Pierson, F. Davies, and C. Collier, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 240 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Post, M. J.

C. J. Grund, R. M. Banta, J. L. George, J. N. Howell, M. J. Post, R. A. Richter, and A. M. Weickman, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18, 376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rahm, S.

I. N. Smalikho, F. Köpp, and S. Rahm, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 22, 1733 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Richter, R. A.

C. J. Grund, R. M. Banta, J. L. George, J. N. Howell, M. J. Post, R. A. Richter, and A. M. Weickman, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18, 376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smalikho, I. N.

I. N. Smalikho, V. A. Banakh, E. L. Pichugina, and A. Brewer, Atmos. Ocean. Opt. 26, 411 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Smalikho, E. L. Pichugina, V. A. Banakh, and W. A. Brewer, Russ. J. Phys. 55, 956 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Smalikho and V. A. Banakh, Atmos. Ocean. Opt. 26, 404 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Smalikho, V. A. Banakh, E. L. Pichugina, W. A. Brewer, R. M. Banta, J. K. Lundquist, and N. D. Kelley, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30, 2554 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Smalikho, F. Köpp, and S. Rahm, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 22, 1733 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Banakh, I. N. Smalikho, and C. Werner, Appl. Opt. 39, 5403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Banakh and I. N. Smalikho, Coherent Doppler Wind Lidars in a Turbulent Atmosphere (Artech, 2013), p. 248.

Weickman, A. M.

C. J. Grund, R. M. Banta, J. L. George, J. N. Howell, M. J. Post, R. A. Richter, and A. M. Weickman, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18, 376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Werner, C.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Atmos. Ocean. Opt. (2)

I. N. Smalikho and V. A. Banakh, Atmos. Ocean. Opt. 26, 404 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Smalikho, V. A. Banakh, E. L. Pichugina, and A. Brewer, Atmos. Ocean. Opt. 26, 411 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (5)

I. N. Smalikho, V. A. Banakh, E. L. Pichugina, W. A. Brewer, R. M. Banta, J. K. Lundquist, and N. D. Kelley, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30, 2554 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Smalikho, F. Köpp, and S. Rahm, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 22, 1733 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Grund, R. M. Banta, J. L. George, J. N. Howell, M. J. Post, R. A. Richter, and A. M. Weickman, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18, 376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Frehlich and L. B. Cornman, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 355 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Pierson, F. Davies, and C. Collier, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 240 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

D. L. Hutt, Opt. Eng. 38, 1288 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Russ. J. Phys. (1)

I. N. Smalikho, E. L. Pichugina, V. A. Banakh, and W. A. Brewer, Russ. J. Phys. 55, 956 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. S. Gurvich, A. I. Kon, V. L. Mironov, and S. S. Khmelevtsov, Laser Radiation in the Turbulent Atmosphere, (Nauka, 1976), p. 280 [in Russian].

V. A. Banakh and I. N. Smalikho, Coherent Doppler Wind Lidars in a Turbulent Atmosphere (Artech, 2013), p. 248.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Normalized signal-to-noise ratio as a function of the sensing range at Cn2=0 (1), 1014 (2), 5·1014 (3), 1013 (4), and 5·1013 (5) m2/3.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Distance between the lidar and the point of maximum Rmax of the SNR as a function of Cn2 for α=0 (curve 1), 0.1km1 (curve 2), and 0.3km1 (curve 3).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Time profiles of the structure characteristic of the refractive index of air Cn2 (circles, left scale) and the dissipation rate of kinetic energy of turbulence ε (solid curves, right scale) obtained from lidar data on March 30, 2011 (a), March 31, 2011 (b), April 1, 2011 (c), April 5, 2011 (d), April 6, 2011 (e), and April 7, 2011 (f).

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

βπ(R)=βπ(0)[1αR],
SNR(R)=[βπ(R)/βπ(0)]SNR0(R),

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