Abstract

We performed x-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) by Talbot–Lau interferometer using only a single transmission grating. Multiline metal targets embedded in a diamond substrate were irradiated with electrons to generate an array of x-ray lines of 1 μm width, which allowed XPCI within a 1 m source–detector distance in a configuration without a source or absorption grating. We directly resolved the self-image of the phase grating of 3 μm pitch using an x-ray image detector of 24 μm pixel size and successfully obtained absorption, differential phase, and dark-field images for 8 keV x rays.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Momose, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 6355 (2005).
  2. F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, Nat. Phys. 2, 258 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. F. Talbot, Philos. Mag. 9 (56), 401 (1836).
  4. T. Shimura, N. Morimoto, S. Fujino, T. Nagatomi, K. Oshima, J. Harada, K. Omote, N. Osaka, T. Hosoi, and H. Watanabe, Opt. Lett. 38, 157 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Momose, H. Kuwabara, and W. Yashiro, Appl. Phys. Express 4, 066603 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, Nat. Mater. 7, 134 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Momose, W. Yashiro, H. Maikusa, and Y. Takeda, Opt. Express 17, 12540 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

2011 (1)

A. Momose, H. Kuwabara, and W. Yashiro, Appl. Phys. Express 4, 066603 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, Nat. Mater. 7, 134 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, Nat. Phys. 2, 258 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. Momose, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 6355 (2005).

1836 (1)

H. F. Talbot, Philos. Mag. 9 (56), 401 (1836).

Bech, M.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, Nat. Mater. 7, 134 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brönnimann, Ch.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, Nat. Mater. 7, 134 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bunk, O.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, Nat. Mater. 7, 134 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, Nat. Phys. 2, 258 (2006).
[CrossRef]

David, C.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, Nat. Mater. 7, 134 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, Nat. Phys. 2, 258 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eikenberry, E. F.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, Nat. Mater. 7, 134 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fujino, S.

Grünzweig, C.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, Nat. Mater. 7, 134 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harada, J.

Hosoi, T.

Kraft, P.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, Nat. Mater. 7, 134 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuwabara, H.

A. Momose, H. Kuwabara, and W. Yashiro, Appl. Phys. Express 4, 066603 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Maikusa, H.

Momose, A.

A. Momose, H. Kuwabara, and W. Yashiro, Appl. Phys. Express 4, 066603 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Momose, W. Yashiro, H. Maikusa, and Y. Takeda, Opt. Express 17, 12540 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Momose, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 6355 (2005).

Morimoto, N.

Nagatomi, T.

Omote, K.

Osaka, N.

Oshima, K.

Pfeiffer, F.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, Nat. Mater. 7, 134 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, Nat. Phys. 2, 258 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shimura, T.

Takeda, Y.

Talbot, H. F.

H. F. Talbot, Philos. Mag. 9 (56), 401 (1836).

Watanabe, H.

Weitkamp, T.

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, Nat. Phys. 2, 258 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yashiro, W.

A. Momose, H. Kuwabara, and W. Yashiro, Appl. Phys. Express 4, 066603 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Momose, W. Yashiro, H. Maikusa, and Y. Takeda, Opt. Express 17, 12540 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

A. Momose, H. Kuwabara, and W. Yashiro, Appl. Phys. Express 4, 066603 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Momose, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 6355 (2005).

Nat. Mater. (1)

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, Nat. Mater. 7, 134 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, Nat. Phys. 2, 258 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Philos. Mag. (1)

H. F. Talbot, Philos. Mag. 9 (56), 401 (1836).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Conventional Talbot–Lau interferometer. (b) Configuration in which the x-ray source and source grating are replaced with multiline embedded x-ray targets. (c) Interferometer with a single transmission grating.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Scanning electron micrograph of the multiline Cu targets embedded in the polycrystalline diamond substrate.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) A part of the observed self-image obtained from the configuration with a single transmission grating. The pitch of the self-image was 100 μm. (b) Intensity profile along the line shown in Fig. 3(a).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Absorption (left), phase contrast (center), and dark-field (right) images of polymethylmethacrylate and polyethylene spheres and a grain of rice. The distance between the objects and detector was 30 cm. The bar indicates the scale on the detector plane. The ranges are 18%–100% in transmission, 16 to 16 μrad in refraction angle, and 22%–100% in visibility, respectively. The exposure time was 150 s.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Absorption (left), differential phase contrast (center), and dark-field (right) images of a dried fish. The distance between the object and detector was 30 cm. The bar indicates the scale on the detector plane. The ranges of the contrast are 10%–100% in transmission, from 23 to 23 μrad in refraction angle, and 23%–100% in visibility, respectively. The exposure time of the individual raw images was 50 s.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Visibility of the self-image as a function of the distance from the optical axis.

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