Abstract

We propose a real-time in situ method to detect slip initiation on the surface of silicon wafers during high-power laser beam irradiation. In this method, light is collected from the surface of a silicon wafer subjected to laser irradiation. When the slip is initiated, it strongly scatters the laser beam, allowing detection of the time of the slip initiation based on the resulting sudden increase in the scattering signal. To demonstrate the performance of this method, a silicon wafer specimen was illuminated by a near-infrared continuous-wave fiber laser beam (of wavelength 1070 nm) at four different laser powers, and the scattered light was detected. The scattering signal increased suddenly at the time of slip initiation. To confirm the occurrence of slip, the surface morphologies of the silicon specimens after laser irradiation were analyzed using an optical microscope; surface slips were observed only in the specimens for which the sudden increase in scattering had been detected. Thus, the proposed method is shown to be very effective for the real-time in situ detection of surface slip initiation induced by high-power laser beam irradiation on silicon wafers.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. H. Lee, W. S. Shin, and E. C. Kang, Appl. Opt. 52, 2055 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Kalisky and O. Kalisky, Opt. Mater. 34, 457 (2011).
  3. J. Zhang, X. T. Tao, C. M. Dong, Z. T. Jia, H. H. Yu, Y. Z. Zhang, Y. C. Zhi, and M. H. Jiang, Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 355 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. X. Wang, Y. Qin, B. Wang, L. Zhang, Z. Shen, J. Lu, and X. Ni, Appl. Opt. 50, 3725 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. N. Samant and N. B. Dahotre, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 29, 969 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. K. Dubey and V. Yadava, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 48, 609 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. C. Lee, W. K. Baek, H. J. Kwon, W. S. Shin, and J. J. Yoh, J. Mech. Sci. Technol. 27, 1745 (2013).
  8. J. Byskov-Nielsen, J.-M. Savolainen, M. S. Christensen, and P. Balling, Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 103, 447 (2011).
  9. C. D. Boley, K. P. Cutter, S. N. Fochs, P. H. Pax, M. D. Rotter, A. M. Rubenchik, and R. M. Yamamoto, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 043106 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. S. H. Choi and K. Y. Jhang, Opt. Eng. 53, 017103 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Masolin, P.-O. Bouchard, R. Martini, and M. Bernacki, J. Mater. Sci. 48, 979 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Garagorri, M. R. Elizalde, M. C. Fossati, D. Jacques, and B. K. Tanner, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 094901 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. H. Choi and K. Y. Jhang, Curr. Appl. Phys. 14, 843 (2014).
    [CrossRef]

2014 (2)

S. H. Choi and K. Y. Jhang, Opt. Eng. 53, 017103 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Choi and K. Y. Jhang, Curr. Appl. Phys. 14, 843 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (4)

A. Masolin, P.-O. Bouchard, R. Martini, and M. Bernacki, J. Mater. Sci. 48, 979 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Lee, W. K. Baek, H. J. Kwon, W. S. Shin, and J. J. Yoh, J. Mech. Sci. Technol. 27, 1745 (2013).

K. H. Lee, W. S. Shin, and E. C. Kang, Appl. Opt. 52, 2055 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Grynko, Y. Shkuratov, and J. Förstner, Opt. Lett. 38, 5153 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

X. Wang, Y. Qin, Z. W. Li, H. C. Zhang, Z. H. Shen, and X. W. Ni, Laser Phys. 22, 1627 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Garagorri, M. R. Elizalde, M. C. Fossati, D. Jacques, and B. K. Tanner, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 094901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

Y. Kalisky and O. Kalisky, Opt. Mater. 34, 457 (2011).

J. Byskov-Nielsen, J.-M. Savolainen, M. S. Christensen, and P. Balling, Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 103, 447 (2011).

X. Wang, Y. Qin, B. Wang, L. Zhang, Z. Shen, J. Lu, and X. Ni, Appl. Opt. 50, 3725 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

C. D. Boley, K. P. Cutter, S. N. Fochs, P. H. Pax, M. D. Rotter, A. M. Rubenchik, and R. M. Yamamoto, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 043106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

J. Zhang, X. T. Tao, C. M. Dong, Z. T. Jia, H. H. Yu, Y. Z. Zhang, Y. C. Zhi, and M. H. Jiang, Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 355 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Samant and N. B. Dahotre, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 29, 969 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. T. Su, K. Singh, W. Rozmus, C. Backhouse, and C. Capjack, Opt. Express 17, 13381 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

A. K. Dubey and V. Yadava, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 48, 609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. M. Fishburn, M. J. Withford, D. W. Coutts, and J. A. Piper, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. Q. Lu, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024022 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 759 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. Ha, T. Miyoshi, Y. Takaya, and S. Takahashi, Precis. Eng. 27, 265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

K. Takami, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 44, 181 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Backhouse, C.

Backman, V.

X. Li, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 759 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baek, W. K.

K. C. Lee, W. K. Baek, H. J. Kwon, W. S. Shin, and J. J. Yoh, J. Mech. Sci. Technol. 27, 1745 (2013).

Balling, P.

J. Byskov-Nielsen, J.-M. Savolainen, M. S. Christensen, and P. Balling, Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 103, 447 (2011).

Bernacki, M.

A. Masolin, P.-O. Bouchard, R. Martini, and M. Bernacki, J. Mater. Sci. 48, 979 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Boley, C. D.

C. D. Boley, K. P. Cutter, S. N. Fochs, P. H. Pax, M. D. Rotter, A. M. Rubenchik, and R. M. Yamamoto, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 043106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bouchard, P.-O.

A. Masolin, P.-O. Bouchard, R. Martini, and M. Bernacki, J. Mater. Sci. 48, 979 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Byskov-Nielsen, J.

J. Byskov-Nielsen, J.-M. Savolainen, M. S. Christensen, and P. Balling, Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 103, 447 (2011).

Capjack, C.

Choi, S. H.

S. H. Choi and K. Y. Jhang, Opt. Eng. 53, 017103 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Choi and K. Y. Jhang, Curr. Appl. Phys. 14, 843 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, M. S.

J. Byskov-Nielsen, J.-M. Savolainen, M. S. Christensen, and P. Balling, Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 103, 447 (2011).

Coutts, D. W.

J. M. Fishburn, M. J. Withford, D. W. Coutts, and J. A. Piper, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cutter, K. P.

C. D. Boley, K. P. Cutter, S. N. Fochs, P. H. Pax, M. D. Rotter, A. M. Rubenchik, and R. M. Yamamoto, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 043106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dahotre, N. B.

A. N. Samant and N. B. Dahotre, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 29, 969 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dong, C. M.

J. Zhang, X. T. Tao, C. M. Dong, Z. T. Jia, H. H. Yu, Y. Z. Zhang, Y. C. Zhi, and M. H. Jiang, Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 355 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dubey, A. K.

A. K. Dubey and V. Yadava, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 48, 609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Elizalde, M. R.

J. Garagorri, M. R. Elizalde, M. C. Fossati, D. Jacques, and B. K. Tanner, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 094901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fishburn, J. M.

J. M. Fishburn, M. J. Withford, D. W. Coutts, and J. A. Piper, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fochs, S. N.

C. D. Boley, K. P. Cutter, S. N. Fochs, P. H. Pax, M. D. Rotter, A. M. Rubenchik, and R. M. Yamamoto, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 043106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Förstner, J.

Fossati, M. C.

J. Garagorri, M. R. Elizalde, M. C. Fossati, D. Jacques, and B. K. Tanner, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 094901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Garagorri, J.

J. Garagorri, M. R. Elizalde, M. C. Fossati, D. Jacques, and B. K. Tanner, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 094901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Grynko, Y.

Ha, T.

T. Ha, T. Miyoshi, Y. Takaya, and S. Takahashi, Precis. Eng. 27, 265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X. H.

J. Q. Lu, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024022 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, D.

J. Garagorri, M. R. Elizalde, M. C. Fossati, D. Jacques, and B. K. Tanner, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 094901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jhang, K. Y.

S. H. Choi and K. Y. Jhang, Curr. Appl. Phys. 14, 843 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Choi and K. Y. Jhang, Opt. Eng. 53, 017103 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Jia, Z. T.

J. Zhang, X. T. Tao, C. M. Dong, Z. T. Jia, H. H. Yu, Y. Z. Zhang, Y. C. Zhi, and M. H. Jiang, Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 355 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, M. H.

J. Zhang, X. T. Tao, C. M. Dong, Z. T. Jia, H. H. Yu, Y. Z. Zhang, Y. C. Zhi, and M. H. Jiang, Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 355 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kalisky, O.

Y. Kalisky and O. Kalisky, Opt. Mater. 34, 457 (2011).

Kalisky, Y.

Y. Kalisky and O. Kalisky, Opt. Mater. 34, 457 (2011).

Kang, E. C.

Kwon, H. J.

K. C. Lee, W. K. Baek, H. J. Kwon, W. S. Shin, and J. J. Yoh, J. Mech. Sci. Technol. 27, 1745 (2013).

Lee, K. C.

K. C. Lee, W. K. Baek, H. J. Kwon, W. S. Shin, and J. J. Yoh, J. Mech. Sci. Technol. 27, 1745 (2013).

Lee, K. H.

Li, X.

X. Li, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 759 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. W.

X. Wang, Y. Qin, Z. W. Li, H. C. Zhang, Z. H. Shen, and X. W. Ni, Laser Phys. 22, 1627 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.

Lu, J. Q.

J. Q. Lu, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024022 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martini, R.

A. Masolin, P.-O. Bouchard, R. Martini, and M. Bernacki, J. Mater. Sci. 48, 979 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Masolin, A.

A. Masolin, P.-O. Bouchard, R. Martini, and M. Bernacki, J. Mater. Sci. 48, 979 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Miyoshi, T.

T. Ha, T. Miyoshi, Y. Takaya, and S. Takahashi, Precis. Eng. 27, 265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ni, X.

Ni, X. W.

X. Wang, Y. Qin, Z. W. Li, H. C. Zhang, Z. H. Shen, and X. W. Ni, Laser Phys. 22, 1627 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pax, P. H.

C. D. Boley, K. P. Cutter, S. N. Fochs, P. H. Pax, M. D. Rotter, A. M. Rubenchik, and R. M. Yamamoto, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 043106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Piper, J. A.

J. M. Fishburn, M. J. Withford, D. W. Coutts, and J. A. Piper, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qin, Y.

X. Wang, Y. Qin, Z. W. Li, H. C. Zhang, Z. H. Shen, and X. W. Ni, Laser Phys. 22, 1627 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, Y. Qin, B. Wang, L. Zhang, Z. Shen, J. Lu, and X. Ni, Appl. Opt. 50, 3725 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rotter, M. D.

C. D. Boley, K. P. Cutter, S. N. Fochs, P. H. Pax, M. D. Rotter, A. M. Rubenchik, and R. M. Yamamoto, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 043106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rozmus, W.

Rubenchik, A. M.

C. D. Boley, K. P. Cutter, S. N. Fochs, P. H. Pax, M. D. Rotter, A. M. Rubenchik, and R. M. Yamamoto, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 043106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Samant, A. N.

A. N. Samant and N. B. Dahotre, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 29, 969 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Savolainen, J.-M.

J. Byskov-Nielsen, J.-M. Savolainen, M. S. Christensen, and P. Balling, Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 103, 447 (2011).

Shen, Z.

Shen, Z. H.

X. Wang, Y. Qin, Z. W. Li, H. C. Zhang, Z. H. Shen, and X. W. Ni, Laser Phys. 22, 1627 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shin, W. S.

K. C. Lee, W. K. Baek, H. J. Kwon, W. S. Shin, and J. J. Yoh, J. Mech. Sci. Technol. 27, 1745 (2013).

K. H. Lee, W. S. Shin, and E. C. Kang, Appl. Opt. 52, 2055 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shkuratov, Y.

Singh, K.

Su, X. T.

Taflove, A.

X. Li, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 759 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, S.

T. Ha, T. Miyoshi, Y. Takaya, and S. Takahashi, Precis. Eng. 27, 265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takami, K.

K. Takami, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 44, 181 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takaya, Y.

T. Ha, T. Miyoshi, Y. Takaya, and S. Takahashi, Precis. Eng. 27, 265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tanner, B. K.

J. Garagorri, M. R. Elizalde, M. C. Fossati, D. Jacques, and B. K. Tanner, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 094901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tao, X. T.

J. Zhang, X. T. Tao, C. M. Dong, Z. T. Jia, H. H. Yu, Y. Z. Zhang, Y. C. Zhi, and M. H. Jiang, Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 355 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

Wang, X.

X. Wang, Y. Qin, Z. W. Li, H. C. Zhang, Z. H. Shen, and X. W. Ni, Laser Phys. 22, 1627 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, Y. Qin, B. Wang, L. Zhang, Z. Shen, J. Lu, and X. Ni, Appl. Opt. 50, 3725 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Withford, M. J.

J. M. Fishburn, M. J. Withford, D. W. Coutts, and J. A. Piper, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yadava, V.

A. K. Dubey and V. Yadava, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 48, 609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, R. M.

C. D. Boley, K. P. Cutter, S. N. Fochs, P. H. Pax, M. D. Rotter, A. M. Rubenchik, and R. M. Yamamoto, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 043106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

J. Q. Lu, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024022 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yoh, J. J.

K. C. Lee, W. K. Baek, H. J. Kwon, W. S. Shin, and J. J. Yoh, J. Mech. Sci. Technol. 27, 1745 (2013).

Yu, H. H.

J. Zhang, X. T. Tao, C. M. Dong, Z. T. Jia, H. H. Yu, Y. Z. Zhang, Y. C. Zhi, and M. H. Jiang, Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 355 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. C.

X. Wang, Y. Qin, Z. W. Li, H. C. Zhang, Z. H. Shen, and X. W. Ni, Laser Phys. 22, 1627 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, X. T. Tao, C. M. Dong, Z. T. Jia, H. H. Yu, Y. Z. Zhang, Y. C. Zhi, and M. H. Jiang, Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 355 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, Y. Z.

J. Zhang, X. T. Tao, C. M. Dong, Z. T. Jia, H. H. Yu, Y. Z. Zhang, Y. C. Zhi, and M. H. Jiang, Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 355 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhi, Y. C.

J. Zhang, X. T. Tao, C. M. Dong, Z. T. Jia, H. H. Yu, Y. Z. Zhang, Y. C. Zhi, and M. H. Jiang, Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 355 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

J. Byskov-Nielsen, J.-M. Savolainen, M. S. Christensen, and P. Balling, Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 103, 447 (2011).

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

J. M. Fishburn, M. J. Withford, D. W. Coutts, and J. A. Piper, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. H. Choi and K. Y. Jhang, Curr. Appl. Phys. 14, 843 (2014).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

X. Li, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 759 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. (1)

A. K. Dubey and V. Yadava, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 48, 609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

C. D. Boley, K. P. Cutter, S. N. Fochs, P. H. Pax, M. D. Rotter, A. M. Rubenchik, and R. M. Yamamoto, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 043106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Garagorri, M. R. Elizalde, M. C. Fossati, D. Jacques, and B. K. Tanner, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 094901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

J. Q. Lu, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024022 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. (1)

A. N. Samant and N. B. Dahotre, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 29, 969 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

A. Masolin, P.-O. Bouchard, R. Martini, and M. Bernacki, J. Mater. Sci. 48, 979 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Mech. Sci. Technol. (1)

K. C. Lee, W. K. Baek, H. J. Kwon, W. S. Shin, and J. J. Yoh, J. Mech. Sci. Technol. 27, 1745 (2013).

Laser Phys. (1)

X. Wang, Y. Qin, Z. W. Li, H. C. Zhang, Z. H. Shen, and X. W. Ni, Laser Phys. 22, 1627 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Zhang, X. T. Tao, C. M. Dong, Z. T. Jia, H. H. Yu, Y. Z. Zhang, Y. C. Zhi, and M. H. Jiang, Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 355 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

K. Takami, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 44, 181 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. H. Choi and K. Y. Jhang, Opt. Eng. 53, 017103 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

Y. Kalisky and O. Kalisky, Opt. Mater. 34, 457 (2011).

Precis. Eng. (1)

T. Ha, T. Miyoshi, Y. Takaya, and S. Takahashi, Precis. Eng. 27, 265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic diagram of the pretest setup for selecting the detector position and (b) schematic diagram and OM image of a specimen that underwent slip after 10 s of irradiation by a 1070 nm fiber laser at an irradiance of 130W/cm2.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Power of scattering light as a function of detector angle β (see Fig. 1(a)).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Schematic diagram and (b) experimental setup for real-time in situ detection of surface slip initiation during laser irradiation.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Scattering signals obtained at the irradiances of (a) 112, (b) 130, (c) 149, and (d) 168W/cm2.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Derivatives of the scattering signals obtained at the irradiances of (a) 112, (b) 130, (c) 149, and (d) 168W/cm2.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Typical OM images of the silicon wafer surface around the center of the laser spot after laser irradiation at the irradiances of (a) 112 and (b) 130W/cm2.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summary of Experimental Results at Each Laser Irradiance

Metrics