Abstract

A new method of measuring the refractive indices of nanoparticles has been proposed based on refractive index matching between nanoparticles and surrounding organic solvents. By finding the most transparent point of the transmittance spectrum, the refractive index of the nanoparticles is equal to that of the solvents at the corresponding wavelength. Utilizing a Rayleigh scattering model, the effects of refractive index mismatching (Δn) on the transmittance are investigated under different conditions. Some criteria for getting highly transparent nanoparticle dispersion and accurate refractive index measurements are suggested, which can support practical applications for nanomaterials in optical and optoelectronic applications.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2012

W. X. Sun, X. X. Cui, Z. Y. Wang, W. Wei, and B. Peng, J. Mater. Chem. 22, 6990 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tzuk, C. Goren, D. Raanan, and G. Strum, Opt. Lett. 37, 939 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2009

M. Li and Z. Zhou, Acta Opt. Sin. 29, 2499 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

W. G. Zhang, X. T. Tao, C. Q. Zhang, Z. L. Gao, Y. Z. Zhang, W. T. Yu, X. F. Cheng, X. S. Liu, and M. H. Jiang, Cryst. Growth Des. 8, 304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. Su, F. Xu, X. S. Cai, K. F. Ren, and J. Q. Shen, China Particuol. 5, 295 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Yu, K. H. Yu, W. Wei, X. X. Xu, X. M. Qiu, S. Liu, W. Huang, G. Tang, H. Ford, and B. Peng, Adv. Mater. 19, 838 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. X. Ye and D. Y. Fan, Acta Opt. Sin. 27, 951 (2007).

M. Daimon and A. Masumura, Appl. Opt. 46, 3811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

L. B. Scaffardi and J. O. Tocho, Nanotechnology 17, 1309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

L. B. Scaffardi, N. Pellegri, O. de Sanctis, and J. O. Tocho, Nanotechnology 16, 158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. Kyoung and M. Lee, Opt. Commun. 171, 145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. R. Yuan, D. Xu, M. G. Liu, F. Qi, W. T. Yu, W. B. Hou, Y. H. Bing, S. Y. Sun, and M. H. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 544 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Rheims, J. Koser, and T. Wriedt, Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 601 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

1992

R. Pynn, Phys. Rev. B 45, 602 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1983

1975

Ashkin, A.

Bing, Y. H.

D. R. Yuan, D. Xu, M. G. Liu, F. Qi, W. T. Yu, W. B. Hou, Y. H. Bing, S. Y. Sun, and M. H. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 544 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cai, X. S.

M. Su, F. Xu, X. S. Cai, K. F. Ren, and J. Q. Shen, China Particuol. 5, 295 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, X. F.

W. G. Zhang, X. T. Tao, C. Q. Zhang, Z. L. Gao, Y. Z. Zhang, W. T. Yu, X. F. Cheng, X. S. Liu, and M. H. Jiang, Cryst. Growth Des. 8, 304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chylek, P.

Cui, X. X.

W. X. Sun, X. X. Cui, Z. Y. Wang, W. Wei, and B. Peng, J. Mater. Chem. 22, 6990 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Daimon, M.

de Sanctis, O.

L. B. Scaffardi, N. Pellegri, O. de Sanctis, and J. O. Tocho, Nanotechnology 16, 158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dziedzic, J. M.

Fan, D. Y.

Y. X. Ye and D. Y. Fan, Acta Opt. Sin. 27, 951 (2007).

Ford, H.

R. B. Yu, K. H. Yu, W. Wei, X. X. Xu, X. M. Qiu, S. Liu, W. Huang, G. Tang, H. Ford, and B. Peng, Adv. Mater. 19, 838 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Z. L.

W. G. Zhang, X. T. Tao, C. Q. Zhang, Z. L. Gao, Y. Z. Zhang, W. T. Yu, X. F. Cheng, X. S. Liu, and M. H. Jiang, Cryst. Growth Des. 8, 304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Goren, C.

Hou, W. B.

D. R. Yuan, D. Xu, M. G. Liu, F. Qi, W. T. Yu, W. B. Hou, Y. H. Bing, S. Y. Sun, and M. H. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 544 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.

R. B. Yu, K. H. Yu, W. Wei, X. X. Xu, X. M. Qiu, S. Liu, W. Huang, G. Tang, H. Ford, and B. Peng, Adv. Mater. 19, 838 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, M. H.

W. G. Zhang, X. T. Tao, C. Q. Zhang, Z. L. Gao, Y. Z. Zhang, W. T. Yu, X. F. Cheng, X. S. Liu, and M. H. Jiang, Cryst. Growth Des. 8, 304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Yuan, D. Xu, M. G. Liu, F. Qi, W. T. Yu, W. B. Hou, Y. H. Bing, S. Y. Sun, and M. H. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 544 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koser, J.

J. Rheims, J. Koser, and T. Wriedt, Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 601 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kyoung, M.

M. Kyoung and M. Lee, Opt. Commun. 171, 145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Laiho, R.

R. Laiho and M. Lakkisto, Philos. Mag. B 48(2), 203 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lakkisto, M.

R. Laiho and M. Lakkisto, Philos. Mag. B 48(2), 203 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

M. Kyoung and M. Lee, Opt. Commun. 171, 145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Li, M.

M. Li and Z. Zhou, Acta Opt. Sin. 29, 2499 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M. G.

D. R. Yuan, D. Xu, M. G. Liu, F. Qi, W. T. Yu, W. B. Hou, Y. H. Bing, S. Y. Sun, and M. H. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 544 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

R. B. Yu, K. H. Yu, W. Wei, X. X. Xu, X. M. Qiu, S. Liu, W. Huang, G. Tang, H. Ford, and B. Peng, Adv. Mater. 19, 838 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X. S.

W. G. Zhang, X. T. Tao, C. Q. Zhang, Z. L. Gao, Y. Z. Zhang, W. T. Yu, X. F. Cheng, X. S. Liu, and M. H. Jiang, Cryst. Growth Des. 8, 304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Masumura, A.

Miller, M. J.

Mott, A. G.

Pellegri, N.

L. B. Scaffardi, N. Pellegri, O. de Sanctis, and J. O. Tocho, Nanotechnology 16, 158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peng, B.

W. X. Sun, X. X. Cui, Z. Y. Wang, W. Wei, and B. Peng, J. Mater. Chem. 22, 6990 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Yu, K. H. Yu, W. Wei, X. X. Xu, X. M. Qiu, S. Liu, W. Huang, G. Tang, H. Ford, and B. Peng, Adv. Mater. 19, 838 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pynn, R.

R. Pynn, Phys. Rev. B 45, 602 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Qi, F.

D. R. Yuan, D. Xu, M. G. Liu, F. Qi, W. T. Yu, W. B. Hou, Y. H. Bing, S. Y. Sun, and M. H. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 544 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, X. M.

R. B. Yu, K. H. Yu, W. Wei, X. X. Xu, X. M. Qiu, S. Liu, W. Huang, G. Tang, H. Ford, and B. Peng, Adv. Mater. 19, 838 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Raanan, D.

Ramaswamy, V.

Ren, K. F.

M. Su, F. Xu, X. S. Cai, K. F. Ren, and J. Q. Shen, China Particuol. 5, 295 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rheims, J.

J. Rheims, J. Koser, and T. Wriedt, Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 601 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Scaffardi, L. B.

L. B. Scaffardi and J. O. Tocho, Nanotechnology 17, 1309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Scaffardi, N. Pellegri, O. de Sanctis, and J. O. Tocho, Nanotechnology 16, 158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, J. Q.

M. Su, F. Xu, X. S. Cai, K. F. Ren, and J. Q. Shen, China Particuol. 5, 295 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Strum, G.

Su, M.

M. Su, F. Xu, X. S. Cai, K. F. Ren, and J. Q. Shen, China Particuol. 5, 295 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, S. Y.

D. R. Yuan, D. Xu, M. G. Liu, F. Qi, W. T. Yu, W. B. Hou, Y. H. Bing, S. Y. Sun, and M. H. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 544 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W. X.

W. X. Sun, X. X. Cui, Z. Y. Wang, W. Wei, and B. Peng, J. Mater. Chem. 22, 6990 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tang, G.

R. B. Yu, K. H. Yu, W. Wei, X. X. Xu, X. M. Qiu, S. Liu, W. Huang, G. Tang, H. Ford, and B. Peng, Adv. Mater. 19, 838 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tao, X. T.

W. G. Zhang, X. T. Tao, C. Q. Zhang, Z. L. Gao, Y. Z. Zhang, W. T. Yu, X. F. Cheng, X. S. Liu, and M. H. Jiang, Cryst. Growth Des. 8, 304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tocho, J. O.

L. B. Scaffardi and J. O. Tocho, Nanotechnology 17, 1309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Scaffardi, N. Pellegri, O. de Sanctis, and J. O. Tocho, Nanotechnology 16, 158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tzuk, Y.

Wang, Z. Y.

W. X. Sun, X. X. Cui, Z. Y. Wang, W. Wei, and B. Peng, J. Mater. Chem. 22, 6990 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wei, W.

W. X. Sun, X. X. Cui, Z. Y. Wang, W. Wei, and B. Peng, J. Mater. Chem. 22, 6990 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Yu, K. H. Yu, W. Wei, X. X. Xu, X. M. Qiu, S. Liu, W. Huang, G. Tang, H. Ford, and B. Peng, Adv. Mater. 19, 838 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wood, G. L.

Wriedt, T.

J. Rheims, J. Koser, and T. Wriedt, Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 601 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xie, S. S.

Xu, D.

D. R. Yuan, D. Xu, M. G. Liu, F. Qi, W. T. Yu, W. B. Hou, Y. H. Bing, S. Y. Sun, and M. H. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 544 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.

M. Su, F. Xu, X. S. Cai, K. F. Ren, and J. Q. Shen, China Particuol. 5, 295 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X. X.

R. B. Yu, K. H. Yu, W. Wei, X. X. Xu, X. M. Qiu, S. Liu, W. Huang, G. Tang, H. Ford, and B. Peng, Adv. Mater. 19, 838 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, T.

Ye, Y. X.

Y. X. Ye and D. Y. Fan, Acta Opt. Sin. 27, 951 (2007).

Yu, K. H.

R. B. Yu, K. H. Yu, W. Wei, X. X. Xu, X. M. Qiu, S. Liu, W. Huang, G. Tang, H. Ford, and B. Peng, Adv. Mater. 19, 838 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, R. B.

R. B. Yu, K. H. Yu, W. Wei, X. X. Xu, X. M. Qiu, S. Liu, W. Huang, G. Tang, H. Ford, and B. Peng, Adv. Mater. 19, 838 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, W. T.

W. G. Zhang, X. T. Tao, C. Q. Zhang, Z. L. Gao, Y. Z. Zhang, W. T. Yu, X. F. Cheng, X. S. Liu, and M. H. Jiang, Cryst. Growth Des. 8, 304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Yuan, D. Xu, M. G. Liu, F. Qi, W. T. Yu, W. B. Hou, Y. H. Bing, S. Y. Sun, and M. H. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 544 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, D. R.

D. R. Yuan, D. Xu, M. G. Liu, F. Qi, W. T. Yu, W. B. Hou, Y. H. Bing, S. Y. Sun, and M. H. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 544 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C. Q.

W. G. Zhang, X. T. Tao, C. Q. Zhang, Z. L. Gao, Y. Z. Zhang, W. T. Yu, X. F. Cheng, X. S. Liu, and M. H. Jiang, Cryst. Growth Des. 8, 304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W. G.

W. G. Zhang, X. T. Tao, C. Q. Zhang, Z. L. Gao, Y. Z. Zhang, W. T. Yu, X. F. Cheng, X. S. Liu, and M. H. Jiang, Cryst. Growth Des. 8, 304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. Z.

W. G. Zhang, X. T. Tao, C. Q. Zhang, Z. L. Gao, Y. Z. Zhang, W. T. Yu, X. F. Cheng, X. S. Liu, and M. H. Jiang, Cryst. Growth Des. 8, 304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Z.

M. Li and Z. Zhou, Acta Opt. Sin. 29, 2499 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Acta Opt. Sin.

Y. X. Ye and D. Y. Fan, Acta Opt. Sin. 27, 951 (2007).

M. Li and Z. Zhou, Acta Opt. Sin. 29, 2499 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

R. B. Yu, K. H. Yu, W. Wei, X. X. Xu, X. M. Qiu, S. Liu, W. Huang, G. Tang, H. Ford, and B. Peng, Adv. Mater. 19, 838 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. R. Yuan, D. Xu, M. G. Liu, F. Qi, W. T. Yu, W. B. Hou, Y. H. Bing, S. Y. Sun, and M. H. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 544 (1997).
[CrossRef]

China Particuol.

M. Su, F. Xu, X. S. Cai, K. F. Ren, and J. Q. Shen, China Particuol. 5, 295 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cryst. Growth Des.

W. G. Zhang, X. T. Tao, C. Q. Zhang, Z. L. Gao, Y. Z. Zhang, W. T. Yu, X. F. Cheng, X. S. Liu, and M. H. Jiang, Cryst. Growth Des. 8, 304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem.

W. X. Sun, X. X. Cui, Z. Y. Wang, W. Wei, and B. Peng, J. Mater. Chem. 22, 6990 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

J. Rheims, J. Koser, and T. Wriedt, Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 601 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

L. B. Scaffardi, N. Pellegri, O. de Sanctis, and J. O. Tocho, Nanotechnology 16, 158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Scaffardi and J. O. Tocho, Nanotechnology 17, 1309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

M. Kyoung and M. Lee, Opt. Commun. 171, 145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Philos. Mag. B

R. Laiho and M. Lakkisto, Philos. Mag. B 48(2), 203 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

R. Pynn, Phys. Rev. B 45, 602 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A, TEM image; B, HRTEM image; C, SAED; and D, XRD pattern of LaF3:Nd (10 mol.%) nanoparticles.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transmittance spectra of LaF3:Nd (10 mol.%) nanoparticle dispersion in DMSO/CHBr2CHBr2 with different volume ratios. (Nd3+ ion concentration is approximately 1×1020cm3, while the optical path is 5 mm.) The inset is a photograph of LaF3:Nd (10 mol.%) nanoparticles dispersion).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Dispersion curves of mixed solvents with different volume ratios (curves A–F), LaF3:Nd nanoparticles (G and H), and their single crystals (I and J).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Dependence of the transmittance of nanoparticle dispersion on the refractive index mismatching (Δn) between nanoparticle and solvent transmittance at different wavelengths.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Dependence of the transmittance of nanoparticle dispersion on the refractive index mismatching (Δn) between nanoparticle and solvent transmittance for different particle sizes.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Dependence of the transmittance of nanoparticle dispersion on the refractive index mismatching (Δn) between nanoparticle and solvent transmittance for different doping concentrations.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n21=1.4296λ2λ20.08512,
nD20=nDT+0.00045*(T20).
I(θ)=16π4a6I0λ4r21+cos2θ2(n2n02n2+2n02)2,
P=16π4a6Ioλ4r2·(n2n02n2+2n02)2·0π1+cos2θ2·2πr2sinθdθ=128π5n4a63λ04·(n2n02n2+2n02)2·Io,
β=PIo=128π5n4a63λ04·(n2n02n2+2n02)2.
N=mρ×43πa3=3m4ρπa3,
α=βN=32mπ4n4a3ρλ04·(n2n02n2+2n02)2,
T=eαL=e32mLπ4n4a3ρλ04·(n2n02n2+2n02)2.
m=cMVsNACd,
T=e32cMLVsπ4n4a3ρNACdλ04·(2Δnn+Δn23n2+4Δnn+2Δn2)2,

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