Abstract

In this Letter, we report Ge p-i-n avalanche photodetectors (APD) with low dark current (sub 1 μA below VR=5V), low operating voltage (avalanche breakdown voltage=813V), and high multiplication gain (440–680) by exploiting a point defect healing method (between 600°C and 650°C) and optimizing the doping concentration of the intrinsic region (p-type 1017cm3). In addition, Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical capacitance voltage analyses were performed to investigate the junction interfaces in more detail. This successful demonstration of Ge p-i-n APD with low dark current, low operating voltage, and high gain is promising for low-power and high-sensitivity Ge PD applications.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

J. Shim, J.-H. Shin, I.-Y. Lee, D. Choi, J. W. Baek, J. Heo, W. Park, J. W. Leem, J. S. Yu, W.-S. Jung, K. Saraswat, and J.-H. Park, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 114, 094515 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

S. Koffel, R. J. Kaiser, A. J. Bauer, B. Amon, P. Pichler, J. Lorenz, L. Frey, P. Scheiblin, V. Mazzocchi, J.-P. Barnes, and A. Claverie, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 458 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, Nature 464, 80 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

M. S. Carrol, K. Childs, R. Jarecki, T. Bauer, and K. Saiz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mclntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, Nat. Photonics 3, 59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

T. Nishimura, K. Kita, and A. Toriumi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 123123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Y. S. Suh, M. S. Carroll, R. A. Levy, A. Sahiner, and C. A. King, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 809, B8.11.1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Amon, B.

S. Koffel, R. J. Kaiser, A. J. Bauer, B. Amon, P. Pichler, J. Lorenz, L. Frey, P. Scheiblin, V. Mazzocchi, J.-P. Barnes, and A. Claverie, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 458 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Assefa, S.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, Nature 464, 80 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J. W.

J. Shim, J.-H. Shin, I.-Y. Lee, D. Choi, J. W. Baek, J. Heo, W. Park, J. W. Leem, J. S. Yu, W.-S. Jung, K. Saraswat, and J.-H. Park, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 114, 094515 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, J.-P.

S. Koffel, R. J. Kaiser, A. J. Bauer, B. Amon, P. Pichler, J. Lorenz, L. Frey, P. Scheiblin, V. Mazzocchi, J.-P. Barnes, and A. Claverie, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 458 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, A. J.

S. Koffel, R. J. Kaiser, A. J. Bauer, B. Amon, P. Pichler, J. Lorenz, L. Frey, P. Scheiblin, V. Mazzocchi, J.-P. Barnes, and A. Claverie, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 458 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, T.

M. S. Carrol, K. Childs, R. Jarecki, T. Bauer, and K. Saiz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beling, A.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mclntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, Nat. Photonics 3, 59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mclntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, Nat. Photonics 3, 59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. C.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mclntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, Nat. Photonics 3, 59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carrol, M. S.

M. S. Carrol, K. Childs, R. Jarecki, T. Bauer, and K. Saiz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carroll, M. S.

Y. S. Suh, M. S. Carroll, R. A. Levy, A. Sahiner, and C. A. King, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 809, B8.11.1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-W.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mclntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, Nat. Photonics 3, 59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Childs, K.

M. S. Carrol, K. Childs, R. Jarecki, T. Bauer, and K. Saiz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, D.

J. Shim, J.-H. Shin, I.-Y. Lee, D. Choi, J. W. Baek, J. Heo, W. Park, J. W. Leem, J. S. Yu, W.-S. Jung, K. Saraswat, and J.-H. Park, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 114, 094515 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Claverie, A.

S. Koffel, R. J. Kaiser, A. J. Bauer, B. Amon, P. Pichler, J. Lorenz, L. Frey, P. Scheiblin, V. Mazzocchi, J.-P. Barnes, and A. Claverie, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 458 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ding, L.

Duan, N.

Frey, L.

S. Koffel, R. J. Kaiser, A. J. Bauer, B. Amon, P. Pichler, J. Lorenz, L. Frey, P. Scheiblin, V. Mazzocchi, J.-P. Barnes, and A. Claverie, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 458 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Heo, J.

J. Shim, J.-H. Shin, I.-Y. Lee, D. Choi, J. W. Baek, J. Heo, W. Park, J. W. Leem, J. S. Yu, W.-S. Jung, K. Saraswat, and J.-H. Park, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 114, 094515 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jarecki, R.

M. S. Carrol, K. Childs, R. Jarecki, T. Bauer, and K. Saiz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jung, W.-S.

J. Shim, J.-H. Shin, I.-Y. Lee, D. Choi, J. W. Baek, J. Heo, W. Park, J. W. Leem, J. S. Yu, W.-S. Jung, K. Saraswat, and J.-H. Park, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 114, 094515 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, R. J.

S. Koffel, R. J. Kaiser, A. J. Bauer, B. Amon, P. Pichler, J. Lorenz, L. Frey, P. Scheiblin, V. Mazzocchi, J.-P. Barnes, and A. Claverie, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 458 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kang, Y.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mclntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, Nat. Photonics 3, 59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

King, C. A.

Y. S. Suh, M. S. Carroll, R. A. Levy, A. Sahiner, and C. A. King, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 809, B8.11.1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kita, K.

T. Nishimura, K. Kita, and A. Toriumi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 123123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koffel, S.

S. Koffel, R. J. Kaiser, A. J. Bauer, B. Amon, P. Pichler, J. Lorenz, L. Frey, P. Scheiblin, V. Mazzocchi, J.-P. Barnes, and A. Claverie, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 458 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y.-H.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mclntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, Nat. Photonics 3, 59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, I.-Y.

J. Shim, J.-H. Shin, I.-Y. Lee, D. Choi, J. W. Baek, J. Heo, W. Park, J. W. Leem, J. S. Yu, W.-S. Jung, K. Saraswat, and J.-H. Park, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 114, 094515 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Leem, J. W.

J. Shim, J.-H. Shin, I.-Y. Lee, D. Choi, J. W. Baek, J. Heo, W. Park, J. W. Leem, J. S. Yu, W.-S. Jung, K. Saraswat, and J.-H. Park, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 114, 094515 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Levy, R. A.

Y. S. Suh, M. S. Carroll, R. A. Levy, A. Sahiner, and C. A. King, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 809, B8.11.1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lim, A. E.-J.

Liow, T.-Y.

Litski, S.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mclntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, Nat. Photonics 3, 59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.-D.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mclntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, Nat. Photonics 3, 59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G. Q.

Lorenz, J.

S. Koffel, R. J. Kaiser, A. J. Bauer, B. Amon, P. Pichler, J. Lorenz, L. Frey, P. Scheiblin, V. Mazzocchi, J.-P. Barnes, and A. Claverie, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 458 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mazzocchi, V.

S. Koffel, R. J. Kaiser, A. J. Bauer, B. Amon, P. Pichler, J. Lorenz, L. Frey, P. Scheiblin, V. Mazzocchi, J.-P. Barnes, and A. Claverie, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 458 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mclntosh, D. C.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mclntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, Nat. Photonics 3, 59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morse, M.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mclntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, Nat. Photonics 3, 59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, T.

T. Nishimura, K. Kita, and A. Toriumi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 123123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M. J.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mclntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, Nat. Photonics 3, 59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.-H.

J. Shim, J.-H. Shin, I.-Y. Lee, D. Choi, J. W. Baek, J. Heo, W. Park, J. W. Leem, J. S. Yu, W.-S. Jung, K. Saraswat, and J.-H. Park, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 114, 094515 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Park, W.

J. Shim, J.-H. Shin, I.-Y. Lee, D. Choi, J. W. Baek, J. Heo, W. Park, J. W. Leem, J. S. Yu, W.-S. Jung, K. Saraswat, and J.-H. Park, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 114, 094515 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pauchard, A.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mclntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, Nat. Photonics 3, 59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pichler, P.

S. Koffel, R. J. Kaiser, A. J. Bauer, B. Amon, P. Pichler, J. Lorenz, L. Frey, P. Scheiblin, V. Mazzocchi, J.-P. Barnes, and A. Claverie, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 458 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pierret, R. F.

R. F. Pierret, Semiconductor Device Fundamentals (Addison-Wesley, 1996).

Sahiner, A.

Y. S. Suh, M. S. Carroll, R. A. Levy, A. Sahiner, and C. A. King, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 809, B8.11.1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saiz, K.

M. S. Carrol, K. Childs, R. Jarecki, T. Bauer, and K. Saiz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Saraswat, K.

J. Shim, J.-H. Shin, I.-Y. Lee, D. Choi, J. W. Baek, J. Heo, W. Park, J. W. Leem, J. S. Yu, W.-S. Jung, K. Saraswat, and J.-H. Park, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 114, 094515 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sarid, G.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mclntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, Nat. Photonics 3, 59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Scheiblin, P.

S. Koffel, R. J. Kaiser, A. J. Bauer, B. Amon, P. Pichler, J. Lorenz, L. Frey, P. Scheiblin, V. Mazzocchi, J.-P. Barnes, and A. Claverie, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 458 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shim, J.

J. Shim, J.-H. Shin, I.-Y. Lee, D. Choi, J. W. Baek, J. Heo, W. Park, J. W. Leem, J. S. Yu, W.-S. Jung, K. Saraswat, and J.-H. Park, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 114, 094515 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J.-H.

J. Shim, J.-H. Shin, I.-Y. Lee, D. Choi, J. W. Baek, J. Heo, W. Park, J. W. Leem, J. S. Yu, W.-S. Jung, K. Saraswat, and J.-H. Park, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 114, 094515 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Suh, Y. S.

Y. S. Suh, M. S. Carroll, R. A. Levy, A. Sahiner, and C. A. King, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 809, B8.11.1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Toriumi, A.

T. Nishimura, K. Kita, and A. Toriumi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 123123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, Nature 464, 80 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, Nature 464, 80 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. S.

J. Shim, J.-H. Shin, I.-Y. Lee, D. Choi, J. W. Baek, J. Heo, W. Park, J. W. Leem, J. S. Yu, W.-S. Jung, K. Saraswat, and J.-H. Park, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 114, 094515 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zadka, M.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mclntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, Nat. Photonics 3, 59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zaoui, W. S.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mclntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, Nat. Photonics 3, 59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mclntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, Nat. Photonics 3, 59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. S. Carrol, K. Childs, R. Jarecki, T. Bauer, and K. Saiz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Nishimura, K. Kita, and A. Toriumi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 123123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Shim, J.-H. Shin, I.-Y. Lee, D. Choi, J. W. Baek, J. Heo, W. Park, J. W. Leem, J. S. Yu, W.-S. Jung, K. Saraswat, and J.-H. Park, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 114, 094515 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1)

Y. S. Suh, M. S. Carroll, R. A. Levy, A. Sahiner, and C. A. King, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 809, B8.11.1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

S. Koffel, R. J. Kaiser, A. J. Bauer, B. Amon, P. Pichler, J. Lorenz, L. Frey, P. Scheiblin, V. Mazzocchi, J.-P. Barnes, and A. Claverie, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 458 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mclntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, Nat. Photonics 3, 59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, Nature 464, 80 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Other (1)

R. F. Pierret, Semiconductor Device Fundamentals (Addison-Wesley, 1996).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram presenting Ge p-i-n APD structure and its energy-band diagram under operation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Dark I-V characteristics of (a) n+/p/p+ and (b) p+/n/n+ junctions, which were annealed at 550°C, 600°C, and 650°C.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Raman intensity of Ge peaks extracted in the n+/p and p+/n samples, which were nonannealed and annealed at 550°C, 600°C, and 650°C.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Avalanche breakdown voltages (VABR) and (b) dark currents at VR=1V of n+/p/p+ junctions, which were fabricated on three different p-wells (1016cm3, 1017cm3, and 1018cm3) and annealed at 550°C, 600°C, and 650°C.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(ECV analysis) Doping concentrations as a function of junction depth in the n+/p junctions, which were fabricated on three different p-wells (1016cm3, 1017cm3, and 1018cm3) and also annealed at 550°C, 600°C, and 650°C.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Photo and dark I-V characteristics including multiplication gain curve of the n+/p/p+ APD fabricated on 1017cm3 p-type well and annealed at 600°C. (b) Multiplication gain as a function of annealing temperature in the n+/p/p+ APD devices, which were fabricated on three different p-wells (1016cm3, 1017cm3, and 1018cm3).

Metrics