In this Letter, we report Ge p-i-n avalanche photodetectors (APD) with low dark current (sub 1 μA below ), low operating voltage (avalanche breakdown ), and high multiplication gain (440–680) by exploiting a point defect healing method (between 600°C and 650°C) and optimizing the doping concentration of the intrinsic region (p-type ). In addition, Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical capacitance voltage analyses were performed to investigate the junction interfaces in more detail. This successful demonstration of Ge p-i-n APD with low dark current, low operating voltage, and high gain is promising for low-power and high-sensitivity Ge PD applications.
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