Abstract

Quasi-cw pumping is used to investigate the high-power characteristics of cw beam conversion in diamond Raman lasers (DRLs). We show that thermal gradients establish in DRLs at approximately 50 μs for a 100 μm pump beam diameter, and thus that the steady state for cw operation can be reached within the 100–300 μs pulse duration of conventional quasi-cw pump laser technology. Using this approach, a steady-state on-time output power of 108 W was obtained from an external-cavity DRL during 250 μs pulses with 34% conversion efficiency. No thermal lens in the diamond was evident, showing excellent prospects for further power scaling.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014

2013

A. McKay, H. Liu, O. Kitzler, and R. P. Mildren, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 105801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Savitski, S. Reilly, and A. J. Kemp, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

V. G. Savitski, I. Friel, J. E. Hastie, M. D. Dawson, D. Burns, and A. J. Kemp, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 328 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Chulkov, V. Lisinetskii, O. Lux, H. Rhee, S. Schrader, H. J. Eichler, and V. Orlovich, Appl. Phys. B 106, 867 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Haarlammert, O. de Vries, A. Liem, A. Kliner, T. Peschel, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, Opt. Express 20, 13274 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. Kitzler, A. McKay, and R. P. Mildren, Opt. Lett. 37, 2790 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

2009

2005

M. Frede, R. Wilhelm, D. Kracht, and C. Fallnich, Opt. Express 13, 7516 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

1999

Y. F. Chen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1989

A. T. Georges, Phys. Rev. A 39, 1876 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Beil, K.

Bohn, M. J.

Bonner, G. M.

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2008), Chap. 4, pp. 207–252.

Brasseur, J. K.

Burns, D.

V. G. Savitski, I. Friel, J. E. Hastie, M. D. Dawson, D. Burns, and A. J. Kemp, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 328 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Lubeigt, G. M. Bonner, J. E. Hastie, M. D. Dawson, D. Burns, and A. J. Kemp, Opt. Express 18, 16765 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

Y. F. Chen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chulkov, R.

R. Chulkov, V. Lisinetskii, O. Lux, H. Rhee, S. Schrader, H. J. Eichler, and V. Orlovich, Appl. Phys. B 106, 867 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, M. D.

de Vries, O.

Eberhardt, R.

Eichler, H. J.

R. Chulkov, V. Lisinetskii, O. Lux, H. Rhee, S. Schrader, H. J. Eichler, and V. Orlovich, Appl. Phys. B 106, 867 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Rhee, O. Lux, S. Meister, U. Woggon, A. A. Kaminskii, and H. J. Eichler, Opt. Lett. 36, 1644 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fallnich, C.

Fang, A.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feve, J.-P. M.

Frede, M.

Fredrich-Thornton, S. T.

Friel, I.

V. G. Savitski, I. Friel, J. E. Hastie, M. D. Dawson, D. Burns, and A. J. Kemp, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 328 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Georges, A. T.

A. T. Georges, Phys. Rev. A 39, 1876 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Grabtchikov, A. S.

Granados, E.

Haarlammert, N.

Hak, D.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hastie, J. E.

Huber, G.

Jones, R.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kaminskii, A. A.

Kemp, A. J.

V. G. Savitski, S. Reilly, and A. J. Kemp, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Savitski, I. Friel, J. E. Hastie, M. D. Dawson, D. Burns, and A. J. Kemp, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 328 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Parrotta, A. J. Kemp, M. D. Dawson, and J. E. Hastie, Opt. Express 19, 24165 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Lubeigt, G. M. Bonner, J. E. Hastie, M. D. Dawson, D. Burns, and A. J. Kemp, Opt. Express 18, 16765 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, W.

Kitzler, O.

A. McKay, O. Kitzler, and R. P. Mildren, Opt. Express 22, 6707 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. McKay, O. Kitzler, and R. P. Mildren, Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L37 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. McKay, H. Liu, O. Kitzler, and R. P. Mildren, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 105801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. Kitzler, A. McKay, and R. P. Mildren, Opt. Lett. 37, 2790 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. Kitzler, A. McKay, and R. P. Mildren, in European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CD_P_37.

R. P. Mildren, A. Sabella, O. Kitzler, D. J. Spence, and A. M. McKay, in Optical Engineering of Diamond (Wiley-VCH Verlag, 2013), Chap. 8, pp. 239–276.

Kliner, A.

Kracht, D.

Kränkel, C.

Liem, A.

Lisinetskii, V.

R. Chulkov, V. Lisinetskii, O. Lux, H. Rhee, S. Schrader, H. J. Eichler, and V. Orlovich, Appl. Phys. B 106, 867 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lisinetskii, V. A.

Liu, A.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

A. McKay, H. Liu, O. Kitzler, and R. P. Mildren, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 105801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lubeigt, W.

Lux, O.

R. Chulkov, V. Lisinetskii, O. Lux, H. Rhee, S. Schrader, H. J. Eichler, and V. Orlovich, Appl. Phys. B 106, 867 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Rhee, O. Lux, S. Meister, U. Woggon, A. A. Kaminskii, and H. J. Eichler, Opt. Lett. 36, 1644 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Maksimenka, R.

McKay, A.

A. McKay, O. Kitzler, and R. P. Mildren, Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L37 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. McKay, O. Kitzler, and R. P. Mildren, Opt. Express 22, 6707 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. McKay, H. Liu, O. Kitzler, and R. P. Mildren, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 105801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. Kitzler, A. McKay, and R. P. Mildren, Opt. Lett. 37, 2790 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. Kitzler, A. McKay, and R. P. Mildren, in European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CD_P_37.

McKay, A. M.

R. P. Mildren, A. Sabella, O. Kitzler, D. J. Spence, and A. M. McKay, in Optical Engineering of Diamond (Wiley-VCH Verlag, 2013), Chap. 8, pp. 239–276.

Meister, S.

Mildren, R. P.

A. Sabella, J. A. Piper, and R. P. Mildren, Opt. Lett. 39, 4037 (2014).

A. McKay, O. Kitzler, and R. P. Mildren, Opt. Express 22, 6707 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. McKay, O. Kitzler, and R. P. Mildren, Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L37 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. McKay, H. Liu, O. Kitzler, and R. P. Mildren, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 105801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. Kitzler, A. McKay, and R. P. Mildren, Opt. Lett. 37, 2790 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Granados, D. J. Spence, and R. P. Mildren, Opt. Express 19, 10857 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Sabella, J. A. Piper, and R. P. Mildren, Opt. Lett. 35, 3874 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Mildren and A. Sabella, Opt. Lett. 34, 2811 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Mildren, A. Sabella, O. Kitzler, D. J. Spence, and A. M. McKay, in Optical Engineering of Diamond (Wiley-VCH Verlag, 2013), Chap. 8, pp. 239–276.

R. P. Mildren, in Optical Engineering of Diamond (Wiley-VCH Verlag, 2013), Chap. 1, pp. 1–34.

O. Kitzler, A. McKay, and R. P. Mildren, in European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CD_P_37.

Orlovich, V.

R. Chulkov, V. Lisinetskii, O. Lux, H. Rhee, S. Schrader, H. J. Eichler, and V. Orlovich, Appl. Phys. B 106, 867 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Orlovich, V. A.

Paniccia, M.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Parrotta, D. C.

Peschel, T.

Petermann, K.

Peters, R.

Piper, J. A.

Reilly, S.

V. G. Savitski, S. Reilly, and A. J. Kemp, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rhee, H.

R. Chulkov, V. Lisinetskii, O. Lux, H. Rhee, S. Schrader, H. J. Eichler, and V. Orlovich, Appl. Phys. B 106, 867 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Rhee, O. Lux, S. Meister, U. Woggon, A. A. Kaminskii, and H. J. Eichler, Opt. Lett. 36, 1644 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rong, H.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sabella, A.

A. Sabella, J. A. Piper, and R. P. Mildren, Opt. Lett. 39, 4037 (2014).

A. Sabella, J. A. Piper, and R. P. Mildren, Opt. Lett. 35, 3874 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Mildren and A. Sabella, Opt. Lett. 34, 2811 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Mildren, A. Sabella, O. Kitzler, D. J. Spence, and A. M. McKay, in Optical Engineering of Diamond (Wiley-VCH Verlag, 2013), Chap. 8, pp. 239–276.

Savitski, V. G.

V. G. Savitski, S. Reilly, and A. J. Kemp, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Savitski, I. Friel, J. E. Hastie, M. D. Dawson, D. Burns, and A. J. Kemp, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 328 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, M.

Schrader, S.

R. Chulkov, V. Lisinetskii, O. Lux, H. Rhee, S. Schrader, H. J. Eichler, and V. Orlovich, Appl. Phys. B 106, 867 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, T.

Shortoff, K. E.

Spence, D. J.

E. Granados, D. J. Spence, and R. P. Mildren, Opt. Express 19, 10857 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Mildren, A. Sabella, O. Kitzler, D. J. Spence, and A. M. McKay, in Optical Engineering of Diamond (Wiley-VCH Verlag, 2013), Chap. 8, pp. 239–276.

Tellkamp, F.

Tünnermann, A.

Wilhelm, R.

Woggon, U.

Appl. Phys. B

R. Chulkov, V. Lisinetskii, O. Lux, H. Rhee, S. Schrader, H. J. Eichler, and V. Orlovich, Appl. Phys. B 106, 867 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

V. G. Savitski, S. Reilly, and A. J. Kemp, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Savitski, I. Friel, J. E. Hastie, M. D. Dawson, D. Burns, and A. J. Kemp, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 328 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev.

A. McKay, O. Kitzler, and R. P. Mildren, Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L37 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett.

A. McKay, H. Liu, O. Kitzler, and R. P. Mildren, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 105801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nature

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

A. T. Georges, Phys. Rev. A 39, 1876 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. P. Mildren, A. Sabella, O. Kitzler, D. J. Spence, and A. M. McKay, in Optical Engineering of Diamond (Wiley-VCH Verlag, 2013), Chap. 8, pp. 239–276.

O. Kitzler, A. McKay, and R. P. Mildren, in European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CD_P_37.

R. P. Mildren, in Optical Engineering of Diamond (Wiley-VCH Verlag, 2013), Chap. 1, pp. 1–34.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2008), Chap. 4, pp. 207–252.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Temporal evolution of maximum thermal gradients in diamond and KGW lasers under pumping with a 50 μm radius cw beam. The ordinate axis is normalized to the steady-state value in each case. The dashed lines mark the time to reach 99% of the steady-state value.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Illustration of the DRL and the pump laser. Shown in the bottom-left corner are the far-field profiles of the pump (left) and Stokes beams (right). OC, output-coupler; HR, high-reflector; HT, highly transmissive.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Output power and conversion efficiency of the DRL.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Power-calibrated oscilloscope trace showing a pump pulse (grey dotted curve) and corresponding Raman pulse (red solid curve) at 108 W Stokes output power, and a moving average of the conversion efficiency (2.5 μs period, blue solid curve). The inset shows the leading edge of these pulses on an expanded time-scale.

Equations (1)

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τ=w2ρCpκ

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