Abstract

In fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT), many artifacts exist in the reconstructed images because of the inherently ill-posed nature of the FMT inverse problem, especially with limited measurements. A new method based on iterative reweighted L1 (IRL1) regularization is proposed for reducing artifacts with limited measurements. Phantom experiments demonstrate that the reconstructed images have fewer artifacts even with very limited measurements. This indicates that FMT based on IRL1 can obtain high-quality images and thus has the potential to observe dynamic changes in fluorescence-targeted molecules.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Methods 7, 603 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Jin, B. Yazici, A. Ale, and V. Ntziachristos, Opt. Lett. 37, 4326 (2012).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2014 (2)

L. Zhao, H. Yang, W. Cong, G. Wang, and X. Intes, Proc. SPIE 8937, 89370V (2014).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhu and C. Li, Phys. Med. Biol 59, 2901 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (2)

M. Chang, L. Li, Z. Chen, Y. Xiao, L. Zhang, and G. Wang, J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 21, 161 (2013).

J. Shi, B. Zhang, F. Liu, J. Luo, and J. Bai, Opt. Lett. 38, 3696 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

A. Jin, B. Yazici, A. Ale, and V. Ntziachristos, Opt. Lett. 37, 4326 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Dutta, S. Ahn, C. Li, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 1459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

J. F. P. J. Abascal, J. Chamorro-Servent, J. Aguirre, S. Arridge, T. Correia, J. Ripoll, J. J. Vaquero, and M. Desco, Med. Phys. 38, 6275 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (6)

D. Wipf and S. Nagarajan, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Process. 4, 317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Baritaux, K. Hassler, and M. Unser, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29, 1075 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Han, J. Tian, K. Liu, J. Feng, B. Zhang, X. Ma, and C. Qin, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57, 2564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, G. Hui, G. Quan, Y. Deng, and Q. Luo, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 054304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Methods 7, 603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Han, J. Tian, S. Zhu, J. Feng, C. Qin, B. Zhang, and X. Yang, Opt. Express 18, 8630 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

E. J. Candes, M. B. Wakin, and S. P. Boyd, J. Fourier Anal. Appl. 14, 877 (2008).

2005 (1)

A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 1377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Abascal, J. F. P. J.

J. F. P. J. Abascal, J. Chamorro-Servent, J. Aguirre, S. Arridge, T. Correia, J. Ripoll, J. J. Vaquero, and M. Desco, Med. Phys. 38, 6275 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aguirre, J.

J. F. P. J. Abascal, J. Chamorro-Servent, J. Aguirre, S. Arridge, T. Correia, J. Ripoll, J. J. Vaquero, and M. Desco, Med. Phys. 38, 6275 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, S.

J. Dutta, S. Ahn, C. Li, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 1459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ale, A.

Arridge, S.

J. F. P. J. Abascal, J. Chamorro-Servent, J. Aguirre, S. Arridge, T. Correia, J. Ripoll, J. J. Vaquero, and M. Desco, Med. Phys. 38, 6275 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bai, J.

Baritaux, J. C.

J. C. Baritaux, K. Hassler, and M. Unser, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29, 1075 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, S. P.

E. J. Candes, M. B. Wakin, and S. P. Boyd, J. Fourier Anal. Appl. 14, 877 (2008).

Candes, E. J.

E. J. Candes, M. B. Wakin, and S. P. Boyd, J. Fourier Anal. Appl. 14, 877 (2008).

Chamorro-Servent, J.

J. F. P. J. Abascal, J. Chamorro-Servent, J. Aguirre, S. Arridge, T. Correia, J. Ripoll, J. J. Vaquero, and M. Desco, Med. Phys. 38, 6275 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, M.

M. Chang, L. Li, Z. Chen, Y. Xiao, L. Zhang, and G. Wang, J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 21, 161 (2013).

Chen, Z.

M. Chang, L. Li, Z. Chen, Y. Xiao, L. Zhang, and G. Wang, J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 21, 161 (2013).

Cherry, S. R.

J. Dutta, S. Ahn, C. Li, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 1459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cong, W.

L. Zhao, H. Yang, W. Cong, G. Wang, and X. Intes, Proc. SPIE 8937, 89370V (2014).
[CrossRef]

Correia, T.

J. F. P. J. Abascal, J. Chamorro-Servent, J. Aguirre, S. Arridge, T. Correia, J. Ripoll, J. J. Vaquero, and M. Desco, Med. Phys. 38, 6275 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Deng, Y.

X. Yang, G. Hui, G. Quan, Y. Deng, and Q. Luo, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 054304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Desco, M.

J. F. P. J. Abascal, J. Chamorro-Servent, J. Aguirre, S. Arridge, T. Correia, J. Ripoll, J. J. Vaquero, and M. Desco, Med. Phys. 38, 6275 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, J.

J. Dutta, S. Ahn, C. Li, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 1459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Feng, J.

D. Han, J. Tian, K. Liu, J. Feng, B. Zhang, X. Ma, and C. Qin, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57, 2564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Han, J. Tian, S. Zhu, J. Feng, C. Qin, B. Zhang, and X. Yang, Opt. Express 18, 8630 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Han, D.

D. Han, J. Tian, S. Zhu, J. Feng, C. Qin, B. Zhang, and X. Yang, Opt. Express 18, 8630 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Han, J. Tian, K. Liu, J. Feng, B. Zhang, X. Ma, and C. Qin, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57, 2564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hassler, K.

J. C. Baritaux, K. Hassler, and M. Unser, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29, 1075 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hui, G.

X. Yang, G. Hui, G. Quan, Y. Deng, and Q. Luo, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 054304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Intes, X.

L. Zhao, H. Yang, W. Cong, G. Wang, and X. Intes, Proc. SPIE 8937, 89370V (2014).
[CrossRef]

Jin, A.

Leahy, R. M.

J. Dutta, S. Ahn, C. Li, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 1459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

D. Zhu and C. Li, Phys. Med. Biol 59, 2901 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Dutta, S. Ahn, C. Li, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 1459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

M. Chang, L. Li, Z. Chen, Y. Xiao, L. Zhang, and G. Wang, J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 21, 161 (2013).

Liu, F.

Liu, K.

D. Han, J. Tian, K. Liu, J. Feng, B. Zhang, X. Ma, and C. Qin, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57, 2564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

Luo, Q.

X. Yang, G. Hui, G. Quan, Y. Deng, and Q. Luo, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 054304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X.

D. Han, J. Tian, K. Liu, J. Feng, B. Zhang, X. Ma, and C. Qin, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57, 2564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nagarajan, S.

D. Wipf and S. Nagarajan, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Process. 4, 317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ntziachristos, V.

A. Jin, B. Yazici, A. Ale, and V. Ntziachristos, Opt. Lett. 37, 4326 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Methods 7, 603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 1377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qin, C.

D. Han, J. Tian, S. Zhu, J. Feng, C. Qin, B. Zhang, and X. Yang, Opt. Express 18, 8630 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Han, J. Tian, K. Liu, J. Feng, B. Zhang, X. Ma, and C. Qin, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57, 2564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Quan, G.

X. Yang, G. Hui, G. Quan, Y. Deng, and Q. Luo, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 054304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ripoll, J.

J. F. P. J. Abascal, J. Chamorro-Servent, J. Aguirre, S. Arridge, T. Correia, J. Ripoll, J. J. Vaquero, and M. Desco, Med. Phys. 38, 6275 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 1377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shi, J.

Soubret, A.

A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 1377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tian, J.

D. Han, J. Tian, K. Liu, J. Feng, B. Zhang, X. Ma, and C. Qin, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57, 2564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Han, J. Tian, S. Zhu, J. Feng, C. Qin, B. Zhang, and X. Yang, Opt. Express 18, 8630 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Unser, M.

J. C. Baritaux, K. Hassler, and M. Unser, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29, 1075 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vaquero, J. J.

J. F. P. J. Abascal, J. Chamorro-Servent, J. Aguirre, S. Arridge, T. Correia, J. Ripoll, J. J. Vaquero, and M. Desco, Med. Phys. 38, 6275 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wakin, M. B.

E. J. Candes, M. B. Wakin, and S. P. Boyd, J. Fourier Anal. Appl. 14, 877 (2008).

Wang, G.

L. Zhao, H. Yang, W. Cong, G. Wang, and X. Intes, Proc. SPIE 8937, 89370V (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. Chang, L. Li, Z. Chen, Y. Xiao, L. Zhang, and G. Wang, J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 21, 161 (2013).

Wipf, D.

D. Wipf and S. Nagarajan, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Process. 4, 317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, Y.

M. Chang, L. Li, Z. Chen, Y. Xiao, L. Zhang, and G. Wang, J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 21, 161 (2013).

Yang, H.

L. Zhao, H. Yang, W. Cong, G. Wang, and X. Intes, Proc. SPIE 8937, 89370V (2014).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

D. Han, J. Tian, S. Zhu, J. Feng, C. Qin, B. Zhang, and X. Yang, Opt. Express 18, 8630 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, G. Hui, G. Quan, Y. Deng, and Q. Luo, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 054304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yazici, B.

Zhang, B.

Zhang, L.

M. Chang, L. Li, Z. Chen, Y. Xiao, L. Zhang, and G. Wang, J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 21, 161 (2013).

Zhao, L.

L. Zhao, H. Yang, W. Cong, G. Wang, and X. Intes, Proc. SPIE 8937, 89370V (2014).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, D.

D. Zhu and C. Li, Phys. Med. Biol 59, 2901 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Process. (1)

D. Wipf and S. Nagarajan, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Process. 4, 317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

D. Han, J. Tian, K. Liu, J. Feng, B. Zhang, X. Ma, and C. Qin, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57, 2564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (2)

J. C. Baritaux, K. Hassler, and M. Unser, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29, 1075 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 1377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Fourier Anal. Appl. (1)

E. J. Candes, M. B. Wakin, and S. P. Boyd, J. Fourier Anal. Appl. 14, 877 (2008).

J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. (1)

M. Chang, L. Li, Z. Chen, Y. Xiao, L. Zhang, and G. Wang, J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 21, 161 (2013).

Med. Phys. (1)

J. F. P. J. Abascal, J. Chamorro-Servent, J. Aguirre, S. Arridge, T. Correia, J. Ripoll, J. J. Vaquero, and M. Desco, Med. Phys. 38, 6275 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Methods (1)

V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Methods 7, 603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Med. Biol (1)

D. Zhu and C. Li, Phys. Med. Biol 59, 2901 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

J. Dutta, S. Ahn, C. Li, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 1459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

L. Zhao, H. Yang, W. Cong, G. Wang, and X. Intes, Proc. SPIE 8937, 89370V (2014).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

X. Yang, G. Hui, G. Quan, Y. Deng, and Q. Luo, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 054304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Sketch of FMT system under 360° rotation geometry.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) 3D view and (e) slice of true fluorescent objects inside the phantom (b) True cross section in the Z=2cm plane denoted by black circle in (a). Stereo (b) and slice (f) were reconstructed using IRL2 regularization. Stereo (c) and slice (g) are the reconstructed results obtained by common L1 regularization. Stereo (d) and slice (h) correspond to those obtained by IRL1. All images were normalized by a maximum of reconstruction results.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Reconstruction results shown on slice in Z=2cm plane. (a)–(d) were reconstructed using common L1 regularization technique with 18, 12, 6, and 4 scanning azimuths, respectively. (e)–(h) were reconstructed using IRL1 with the same numbers of excitations. All images were normalized by a maximum of reconstruction results.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ΦnB(rd,rs)=α0Ue(rd,rs)Uf(rd,r)x(r)DfGe(r,rs)d3r.
ΦmeanB=Ax,
xrec=argminE(x)x0=12AxΦmeanB22+λWx1,
wi=1|x0,i|,
wik+1=1|xik|+α,
xk+1=argx0min12AxΦmeanB22+λWkx1.
(xk+1,dk+1)=minx,dλd1+12AxΦmeanB22+μ2dWkxbk22,
bk+1=bk+(Wxk+1dk+1),
Step1:xk+1=minx12AxΦmeanB22+μ2dkWkxbk22,
Step2:dk+1=mindλd1+μ2dWkxk+1bk22.
dk+1=Tλ/μ(Wkxk+1+bk),

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