Abstract

We propose a new type of laser resonator based on imaginary energy-level splitting (imaginary coupling or quality factor Q-splitting) in a pair of coupled microcavities. A particularly advantageous arrangement involves two microring cavities with different free-spectral ranges in a configuration wherein they are coupled by far-field interference in a shared radiation channel. A novel Vernier-like effect for laser resonators is designed in which only one longitudinal resonant mode has a lower loss than the small-signal gain and can achieve lasing while all other modes are suppressed. This configuration enables ultrawidely tunable single-frequency lasers based on either homogeneously or inhomogeneously broadened gain media. The concept is an alternative to the common external cavity configurations for achieving tunable single-mode operation in a laser. The proposed laser concept builds on a high-Q “dark state,” which is established by radiative interference coupling and bears a direct analogy to parity-time symmetric Hamiltonians in optical systems. Variants of this concept should be extendable to parametric-gain-based oscillators, enabling widely tunable single-frequency light sources.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (2)

Y. Liu and M. A. Popović, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 201102 (2014).

Y. Liu, J. Shainline, X. Zeng, and M. A. Popović, Opt. Lett. 39, 335 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

2011 (3)

2010 (1)

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, Nat. Photonics 4, 182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

A. Guo, G. J. Salamo, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, M. Volatier-Ravat, V. Aimez, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

Y. H. Ding, X. B. Zhang, X. L. Zhang, and D. X. Huang, Opt. Commun. 281, 5315 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. Ruschhaupt, F. Delgado, and J. G. Muga, J. Phys. A 38, L171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

W. D. Heiss, J. Phys. A 37, 2455 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1511 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

C. Bender and S. Boettcher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5243 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

V. Jayaraman, Z.-M. Chuang, and L. A. Coldren, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1824 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

H. A. Haus and W.-P. Huang, Proc. IEEE 79, 1505 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Oda, N. Takato, and H. Toba, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 728 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

K. Liu and M. G. Littman, Opt. Lett. 6, 117 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Fleming and A. Mooradian, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 44 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

Aimez, V.

A. Guo, G. J. Salamo, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, M. Volatier-Ravat, V. Aimez, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, Nat. Photonics 4, 182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bender, C.

C. Bender and S. Boettcher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5243 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Benyoucef, M.

Boettcher, S.

C. Bender and S. Boettcher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5243 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Christodoulides, D. N.

A. Guo, G. J. Salamo, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, M. Volatier-Ravat, V. Aimez, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

H. A. Haus, M. A. Popović, M. R. Watts, C. Manolatou, B. E. Little, and S. T. Chu, in Optical Microcavities, K. Vahala, ed. (World Scientific, 2004), pp. 1–37.

Chuang, Z.-M.

V. Jayaraman, Z.-M. Chuang, and L. A. Coldren, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1824 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

V. Jayaraman, Z.-M. Chuang, and L. A. Coldren, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1824 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dahlem, M. S.

M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and M. A. Popović, in Proceedings of Integrated Photonics Research, July, 2010, paper IMC4.

Darmawan, S.

de Vries, T.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, Nat. Photonics 4, 182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Delgado, F.

A. Ruschhaupt, F. Delgado, and J. G. Muga, J. Phys. A 38, L171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y. H.

Y. H. Ding, X. B. Zhang, X. L. Zhang, and D. X. Huang, Opt. Commun. 281, 5315 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duchesne, D.

A. Guo, G. J. Salamo, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, M. Volatier-Ravat, V. Aimez, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1511 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, M. W.

M. W. Fleming and A. Mooradian, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 44 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Geluk, E.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, Nat. Photonics 4, 182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guo, A.

A. Guo, G. J. Salamo, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, M. Volatier-Ravat, V. Aimez, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus and W.-P. Huang, Proc. IEEE 79, 1505 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, M. A. Popović, M. R. Watts, C. Manolatou, B. E. Little, and S. T. Chu, in Optical Microcavities, K. Vahala, ed. (World Scientific, 2004), pp. 1–37.

Heiss, W. D.

W. D. Heiss, J. Phys. A 37, 2455 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, C. W.

M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and M. A. Popović, in Proceedings of Integrated Photonics Research, July, 2010, paper IMC4.

Huang, D.

Huang, D. X.

Y. H. Ding, X. B. Zhang, X. L. Zhang, and D. X. Huang, Opt. Commun. 281, 5315 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.-P.

H. A. Haus and W.-P. Huang, Proc. IEEE 79, 1505 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Huybrechts, K.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, Nat. Photonics 4, 182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and M. A. Popović, in Proceedings of Integrated Photonics Research, July, 2010, paper IMC4.

Jayaraman, V.

V. Jayaraman, Z.-M. Chuang, and L. A. Coldren, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1824 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, R.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, Nat. Photonics 4, 182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Q.

Lipson, M.

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

H. A. Haus, M. A. Popović, M. R. Watts, C. Manolatou, B. E. Little, and S. T. Chu, in Optical Microcavities, K. Vahala, ed. (World Scientific, 2004), pp. 1–37.

Littman, M. G.

Liu, K.

Liu, L.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, Nat. Photonics 4, 182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu and M. A. Popović, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 201102 (2014).

Y. Liu, J. Shainline, X. Zeng, and M. A. Popović, Opt. Lett. 39, 335 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Manolatou, C.

H. A. Haus, M. A. Popović, M. R. Watts, C. Manolatou, B. E. Little, and S. T. Chu, in Optical Microcavities, K. Vahala, ed. (World Scientific, 2004), pp. 1–37.

Matsko, A. B.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meade, R.

Mei, T.

Mooradian, A.

M. W. Fleming and A. Mooradian, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 44 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Morandotti, R.

A. Guo, G. J. Salamo, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, M. Volatier-Ravat, V. Aimez, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morthier, G.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, Nat. Photonics 4, 182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Muga, J. G.

A. Ruschhaupt, F. Delgado, and J. G. Muga, J. Phys. A 38, L171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nammari, K.

Oda, K.

K. Oda, N. Takato, and H. Toba, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 728 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Orcutt, J.

Painter, O. J.

Popovic, M. A.

Y. Liu and M. A. Popović, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 201102 (2014).

Y. Liu, J. Shainline, X. Zeng, and M. A. Popović, Opt. Lett. 39, 335 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Shainline, J. Orcutt, M. Wade, K. Nammari, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, R. Meade, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanović, and M. A. Popović, Opt. Lett. 38, 2729 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and M. A. Popović, in Proceedings of Integrated Photonics Research, July, 2010, paper IMC4.

H. A. Haus, M. A. Popović, M. R. Watts, C. Manolatou, B. E. Little, and S. T. Chu, in Optical Microcavities, K. Vahala, ed. (World Scientific, 2004), pp. 1–37.

Povinelli, M. L.

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ram, R. J.

Regreny, P.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, Nat. Photonics 4, 182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, Nat. Photonics 4, 182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ruschhaupt, A.

A. Ruschhaupt, F. Delgado, and J. G. Muga, J. Phys. A 38, L171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Salamo, G. J.

A. Guo, G. J. Salamo, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, M. Volatier-Ravat, V. Aimez, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sandhu, S.

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Savchenkov, A. A.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, O. G.

Schomerus, H.

G. Yoo, H.-S. Sim, and H. Schomerus, Phys. Rev. A 84, 063833 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shainline, J.

Shainline, J. M.

Shakya, J.

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shim, J.-B.

Sim, H.-S.

G. Yoo, H.-S. Sim, and H. Schomerus, Phys. Rev. A 84, 063833 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Siviloglou, G. A.

A. Guo, G. J. Salamo, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, M. Volatier-Ravat, V. Aimez, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. I.

M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and M. A. Popović, in Proceedings of Integrated Photonics Research, July, 2010, paper IMC4.

Spuesens, T.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, Nat. Photonics 4, 182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sternberg, Z.

Stojanovic, V.

Strekalov, D.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Suh, W.

W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1511 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takato, N.

K. Oda, N. Takato, and H. Toba, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 728 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tehar-Zahav, O.

Toba, H.

K. Oda, N. Takato, and H. Toba, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 728 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tobing, L. Y. M.

Van Thourhout, D.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, Nat. Photonics 4, 182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Verdeyn, J. T.

J. T. Verdeyn, Laser Electronics (Prentice-Hall, 1995).

Volatier-Ravat, M.

A. Guo, G. J. Salamo, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, M. Volatier-Ravat, V. Aimez, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wade, M.

Wang, Z.

W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1511 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M. R.

H. A. Haus, M. A. Popović, M. R. Watts, C. Manolatou, B. E. Little, and S. T. Chu, in Optical Microcavities, K. Vahala, ed. (World Scientific, 2004), pp. 1–37.

Wiersig, J.

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, G.

G. Yoo, H.-S. Sim, and H. Schomerus, Phys. Rev. A 84, 063833 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, X.

Zhang, D.

Zhang, D. H.

Zhang, X.

Zhang, X. B.

Y. H. Ding, X. B. Zhang, X. L. Zhang, and D. X. Huang, Opt. Commun. 281, 5315 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. L.

Y. H. Ding, X. B. Zhang, X. L. Zhang, and D. X. Huang, Opt. Commun. 281, 5315 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Liu and M. A. Popović, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 201102 (2014).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1511 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Fleming and A. Mooradian, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 44 (1981).
[CrossRef]

V. Jayaraman, Z.-M. Chuang, and L. A. Coldren, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1824 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

K. Oda, N. Takato, and H. Toba, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 728 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. A (2)

W. D. Heiss, J. Phys. A 37, 2455 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ruschhaupt, F. Delgado, and J. G. Muga, J. Phys. A 38, L171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, Nat. Photonics 4, 182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. H. Ding, X. B. Zhang, X. L. Zhang, and D. X. Huang, Opt. Commun. 281, 5315 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

G. Yoo, H.-S. Sim, and H. Schomerus, Phys. Rev. A 84, 063833 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

A. Guo, G. J. Salamo, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, M. Volatier-Ravat, V. Aimez, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Bender and S. Boettcher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5243 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

H. A. Haus and W.-P. Huang, Proc. IEEE 79, 1505 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and M. A. Popović, in Proceedings of Integrated Photonics Research, July, 2010, paper IMC4.

J. T. Verdeyn, Laser Electronics (Prentice-Hall, 1995).

H. A. Haus, M. A. Popović, M. R. Watts, C. Manolatou, B. E. Little, and S. T. Chu, in Optical Microcavities, K. Vahala, ed. (World Scientific, 2004), pp. 1–37.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Proposed laser resonator geometry enabling far-field interference at the output coupler resulting in (b) a low-Q (bright) state and high-Q (dark) state with (c) eigenfrequency imaginary splitting at matched resonances to create (d) a broad Vernier-like FSR for ultrawide tuning.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Visualization of supermodes with detuning on a Poincaré (Bloch) sphere. For detuning less than the single-ring external coupling (δωo<re), the energy is equally distributed across both rings. At greater detuning, the supermodes approach the modes of the individual uncoupled rings.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Phase difference between mode fields of each ring and resulting external coupling of dark state with detuning. (b) Dependence of tuning on output power for fixed re. (c) Threshold/slope efficiency curves as a function of small-signal gain (pumping), with the operating region of dark-state-only lasing shaded.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Illustration of quasi-continuous tuning of the dark state laser. First (a) both rings are tuned across an FSR of the smaller ring (larger FSR). Then the laser can be turned off and reset to the start position [Fig. 1(d)]. (b) An offset then can be introduced to shift the Q-splitting to the previous location where both rings then can be continuously tuned across another FSR. The process then can be repeated across the gain bandwidth.

Equations (9)

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ddta⃗=jω¯¯·a⃗jμ¯¯·a⃗jM¯¯is+,
s_=jM¯¯o·a⃗+s+.
a⃗=(a1a2)μ¯¯=j(rererere)M¯¯i=2re(11)M¯¯o=M¯¯iTω¯¯=(ωo+δωo+j(rorg)00ωoδωo+j(rorg)).
ω±=ωo+j(ro+rerg±re2δωo2),
(a1a2)±=1C(1±1(δωore)2+jδωore),
rDS,e=rere2δωo2.
rg=rssg1+|aDS|2|asat|2.
rDS,e(max)=rssgroro.
Pout|asat|2={0,rssg<rDS,e+ro2rDS,ero+rDS,e(rssgrDS,ero),rssgrDS,e+ro.

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