Abstract

We propose a new type of laser resonator based on imaginary energy-level splitting (imaginary coupling or quality factor Q-splitting) in a pair of coupled microcavities. A particularly advantageous arrangement involves two microring cavities with different free-spectral ranges in a configuration wherein they are coupled by far-field interference in a shared radiation channel. A novel Vernier-like effect for laser resonators is designed in which only one longitudinal resonant mode has a lower loss than the small-signal gain and can achieve lasing while all other modes are suppressed. This configuration enables ultrawidely tunable single-frequency lasers based on either homogeneously or inhomogeneously broadened gain media. The concept is an alternative to the common external cavity configurations for achieving tunable single-mode operation in a laser. The proposed laser concept builds on a high-Q “dark state,” which is established by radiative interference coupling and bears a direct analogy to parity-time symmetric Hamiltonians in optical systems. Variants of this concept should be extendable to parametric-gain-based oscillators, enabling widely tunable single-frequency light sources.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (2)

Y. Liu and M. A. Popović, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 201102 (2014).

Y. Liu, J. Shainline, X. Zeng, and M. A. Popović, Opt. Lett. 39, 335 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

2011 (3)

2010 (1)

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, Nat. Photonics 4, 182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

A. Guo, G. J. Salamo, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, M. Volatier-Ravat, V. Aimez, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

Y. H. Ding, X. B. Zhang, X. L. Zhang, and D. X. Huang, Opt. Commun. 281, 5315 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. Ruschhaupt, F. Delgado, and J. G. Muga, J. Phys. A 38, L171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

W. D. Heiss, J. Phys. A 37, 2455 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1511 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

C. Bender and S. Boettcher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5243 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

V. Jayaraman, Z.-M. Chuang, and L. A. Coldren, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1824 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

K. Oda, N. Takato, and H. Toba, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 728 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus and W.-P. Huang, Proc. IEEE 79, 1505 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

M. W. Fleming and A. Mooradian, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 44 (1981).
[CrossRef]

K. Liu and M. G. Littman, Opt. Lett. 6, 117 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

Aimez, V.

A. Guo, G. J. Salamo, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, M. Volatier-Ravat, V. Aimez, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, Nat. Photonics 4, 182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bender, C.

C. Bender and S. Boettcher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5243 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Benyoucef, M.

Boettcher, S.

C. Bender and S. Boettcher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5243 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Christodoulides, D. N.

A. Guo, G. J. Salamo, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, M. Volatier-Ravat, V. Aimez, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

H. A. Haus, M. A. Popović, M. R. Watts, C. Manolatou, B. E. Little, and S. T. Chu, in Optical Microcavities, K. Vahala, ed. (World Scientific, 2004), pp. 1–37.

Chuang, Z.-M.

V. Jayaraman, Z.-M. Chuang, and L. A. Coldren, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1824 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

V. Jayaraman, Z.-M. Chuang, and L. A. Coldren, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1824 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dahlem, M. S.

M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and M. A. Popović, in Proceedings of Integrated Photonics Research, July, 2010, paper IMC4.

Darmawan, S.

de Vries, T.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, Nat. Photonics 4, 182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Delgado, F.

A. Ruschhaupt, F. Delgado, and J. G. Muga, J. Phys. A 38, L171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y. H.

Y. H. Ding, X. B. Zhang, X. L. Zhang, and D. X. Huang, Opt. Commun. 281, 5315 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duchesne, D.

A. Guo, G. J. Salamo, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, M. Volatier-Ravat, V. Aimez, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1511 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, M. W.

M. W. Fleming and A. Mooradian, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 44 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Geluk, E.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, Nat. Photonics 4, 182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guo, A.

A. Guo, G. J. Salamo, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, M. Volatier-Ravat, V. Aimez, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus and W.-P. Huang, Proc. IEEE 79, 1505 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, M. A. Popović, M. R. Watts, C. Manolatou, B. E. Little, and S. T. Chu, in Optical Microcavities, K. Vahala, ed. (World Scientific, 2004), pp. 1–37.

Heiss, W. D.

W. D. Heiss, J. Phys. A 37, 2455 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, C. W.

M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and M. A. Popović, in Proceedings of Integrated Photonics Research, July, 2010, paper IMC4.

Huang, D.

Huang, D. X.

Y. H. Ding, X. B. Zhang, X. L. Zhang, and D. X. Huang, Opt. Commun. 281, 5315 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.-P.

H. A. Haus and W.-P. Huang, Proc. IEEE 79, 1505 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Huybrechts, K.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, Nat. Photonics 4, 182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and M. A. Popović, in Proceedings of Integrated Photonics Research, July, 2010, paper IMC4.

Jayaraman, V.

V. Jayaraman, Z.-M. Chuang, and L. A. Coldren, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1824 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, R.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, Nat. Photonics 4, 182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Q.

Lipson, M.

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

H. A. Haus, M. A. Popović, M. R. Watts, C. Manolatou, B. E. Little, and S. T. Chu, in Optical Microcavities, K. Vahala, ed. (World Scientific, 2004), pp. 1–37.

Littman, M. G.

Liu, K.

Liu, L.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, Nat. Photonics 4, 182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu and M. A. Popović, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 201102 (2014).

Y. Liu, J. Shainline, X. Zeng, and M. A. Popović, Opt. Lett. 39, 335 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Manolatou, C.

H. A. Haus, M. A. Popović, M. R. Watts, C. Manolatou, B. E. Little, and S. T. Chu, in Optical Microcavities, K. Vahala, ed. (World Scientific, 2004), pp. 1–37.

Matsko, A. B.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meade, R.

Mei, T.

Mooradian, A.

M. W. Fleming and A. Mooradian, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 44 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Morandotti, R.

A. Guo, G. J. Salamo, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, M. Volatier-Ravat, V. Aimez, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morthier, G.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, Nat. Photonics 4, 182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Muga, J. G.

A. Ruschhaupt, F. Delgado, and J. G. Muga, J. Phys. A 38, L171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nammari, K.

Oda, K.

K. Oda, N. Takato, and H. Toba, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 728 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Orcutt, J.

Painter, O. J.

Popovic, M. A.

Y. Liu, J. Shainline, X. Zeng, and M. A. Popović, Opt. Lett. 39, 335 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu and M. A. Popović, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 201102 (2014).

J. M. Shainline, J. Orcutt, M. Wade, K. Nammari, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, R. Meade, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanović, and M. A. Popović, Opt. Lett. 38, 2729 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, M. A. Popović, M. R. Watts, C. Manolatou, B. E. Little, and S. T. Chu, in Optical Microcavities, K. Vahala, ed. (World Scientific, 2004), pp. 1–37.

M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and M. A. Popović, in Proceedings of Integrated Photonics Research, July, 2010, paper IMC4.

Povinelli, M. L.

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ram, R. J.

Regreny, P.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, Nat. Photonics 4, 182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, Nat. Photonics 4, 182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ruschhaupt, A.

A. Ruschhaupt, F. Delgado, and J. G. Muga, J. Phys. A 38, L171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Salamo, G. J.

A. Guo, G. J. Salamo, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, M. Volatier-Ravat, V. Aimez, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sandhu, S.

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Savchenkov, A. A.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, O. G.

Schomerus, H.

G. Yoo, H.-S. Sim, and H. Schomerus, Phys. Rev. A 84, 063833 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shainline, J.

Shainline, J. M.

Shakya, J.

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shim, J.-B.

Sim, H.-S.

G. Yoo, H.-S. Sim, and H. Schomerus, Phys. Rev. A 84, 063833 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Siviloglou, G. A.

A. Guo, G. J. Salamo, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, M. Volatier-Ravat, V. Aimez, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. I.

M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and M. A. Popović, in Proceedings of Integrated Photonics Research, July, 2010, paper IMC4.

Spuesens, T.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, Nat. Photonics 4, 182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sternberg, Z.

Stojanovic, V.

Strekalov, D.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Suh, W.

W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1511 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takato, N.

K. Oda, N. Takato, and H. Toba, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 728 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tehar-Zahav, O.

Toba, H.

K. Oda, N. Takato, and H. Toba, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 728 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tobing, L. Y. M.

Van Thourhout, D.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, Nat. Photonics 4, 182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Verdeyn, J. T.

J. T. Verdeyn, Laser Electronics (Prentice-Hall, 1995).

Volatier-Ravat, M.

A. Guo, G. J. Salamo, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, M. Volatier-Ravat, V. Aimez, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wade, M.

Wang, Z.

W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1511 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M. R.

H. A. Haus, M. A. Popović, M. R. Watts, C. Manolatou, B. E. Little, and S. T. Chu, in Optical Microcavities, K. Vahala, ed. (World Scientific, 2004), pp. 1–37.

Wiersig, J.

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, G.

G. Yoo, H.-S. Sim, and H. Schomerus, Phys. Rev. A 84, 063833 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, X.

Zhang, D.

Zhang, D. H.

Zhang, X.

Zhang, X. B.

Y. H. Ding, X. B. Zhang, X. L. Zhang, and D. X. Huang, Opt. Commun. 281, 5315 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. L.

Y. H. Ding, X. B. Zhang, X. L. Zhang, and D. X. Huang, Opt. Commun. 281, 5315 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Liu and M. A. Popović, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 201102 (2014).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1511 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Jayaraman, Z.-M. Chuang, and L. A. Coldren, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1824 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Fleming and A. Mooradian, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 44 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

K. Oda, N. Takato, and H. Toba, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 728 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. A (2)

W. D. Heiss, J. Phys. A 37, 2455 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ruschhaupt, F. Delgado, and J. G. Muga, J. Phys. A 38, L171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, Nat. Photonics 4, 182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. H. Ding, X. B. Zhang, X. L. Zhang, and D. X. Huang, Opt. Commun. 281, 5315 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

G. Yoo, H.-S. Sim, and H. Schomerus, Phys. Rev. A 84, 063833 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

A. Guo, G. J. Salamo, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, M. Volatier-Ravat, V. Aimez, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Bender and S. Boettcher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5243 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

H. A. Haus and W.-P. Huang, Proc. IEEE 79, 1505 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and M. A. Popović, in Proceedings of Integrated Photonics Research, July, 2010, paper IMC4.

H. A. Haus, M. A. Popović, M. R. Watts, C. Manolatou, B. E. Little, and S. T. Chu, in Optical Microcavities, K. Vahala, ed. (World Scientific, 2004), pp. 1–37.

J. T. Verdeyn, Laser Electronics (Prentice-Hall, 1995).

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