Abstract

This Letter deals with a feasibility analysis for the development of radiation-tolerant fiber-optic humidity sensors based on long-period grating (LPG) technology to be applied in high-energy physics (HEP) experiments currently running at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). In particular, here we propose a high-sensitivity LPG sensor coated with a finely tuned titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin layer (100nm thick) through the solgel deposition method. Relative humidity (RH) monitoring in the range 0%–75% and at four different temperatures (in the range 10°C25°C) was carried out to assess sensor performance in real operative conditions required in typical experiments running at CERN. Experimental results demonstrate the very high RH sensitivities of the proposed device (up to 1.4 nm/% RH in correspondence to very low humidity levels), which turned out to be from one to three orders of magnitude higher than those exhibited by fiber Bragg grating sensors coated with micrometer-thin polyimide overlays. The radiation tolerance capability of the TiO2-coated LPG sensor is also investigated by comparing the sensing performance before and after its exposure to a 1 Mrad dose of γ-ionizing radiation. Overall, the results collected demonstrate the strong potential of the proposed technology with regard to its future exploitation in HEP applications as a robust and valid alternative to the commercial (polymer-based) hygrometers currently used.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

A. Makovec, G. Berruti, M. Consales, M. Giordano, P. Petagna, S. Buontempo, G. Breglio, Z. Szillasi, N. Beni, and A. Cusano, J. Instrum. 9, C03040 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (3)

G. Berruti, M. Consales, M. Giordano, L. Sansone, P. Petagna, S. Buontempo, G. Breglio, and A. Cusano, Sens. Actuators B 177, 94 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Kher, S. Chaubey, S. M. Oak, and A. Gusarov, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 2070 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Gusarovand and S. K. Hoeffgen, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60, 3 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

S. Kher, S. Chaubey, R. Kashyap, and S. M. Oak, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 742 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

D. Viegas, J. Goicoechea, J. M. Corres, J. L. Santos, L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araújo, and I. R. Matias, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 034002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Davies, R. Viitala, M. Salomäki, S. Areva, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 015501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

T. Venugopalan, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, Sens. Actuators A 148, 57 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Venugopalan, T. L. Yeo, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1093 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Yeo, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, Sens. Actuators A 144, 280 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

Y. Liu, L. Wang, M. Zhang, D. Tu, X. Mao, and Y. Liao, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 880 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Yadav, N. K. Pandey, A. K. Srivastava, and P. Sharma, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 260 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2005 (4)

I. Del Villar, I. Matías, F. Arregui, and P. Lalanne, Opt. Express 13, 56 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, and M. Achaerandio, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Tan, C. M. Tay, S. C. Tjin, C. C. Chan, and H. Rahardjo, Sens. Actuators B 110, 335 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Yeo, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, D. Parry, R. Lade, and B. D. Powell, Sens. Actuators B 110, 148 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1997 (1)

Y. J. Rao, Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 355 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

G. Montesperelli, A. Pumo, E. Traversa, G. Gusmano, A. Bearzotti, A. Montenero, and G. Gnappi, Sens. Actuators B 25, 705 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Achaerandio, M.

Albert, J.

A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, and J. Albert, Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors: Recent Advancements, Industrial Applications and Market Exploitation (Bentham Science, 2011), Chap. 12, pp. 218–237.

Araújo, F. M.

D. Viegas, J. Goicoechea, J. M. Corres, J. L. Santos, L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araújo, and I. R. Matias, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 034002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Areva, S.

E. Davies, R. Viitala, M. Salomäki, S. Areva, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 015501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Arregui, F.

Arregui, F. J.

Bearzotti, A.

G. Montesperelli, A. Pumo, E. Traversa, G. Gusmano, A. Bearzotti, A. Montenero, and G. Gnappi, Sens. Actuators B 25, 705 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Beni, N.

A. Makovec, G. Berruti, M. Consales, M. Giordano, P. Petagna, S. Buontempo, G. Breglio, Z. Szillasi, N. Beni, and A. Cusano, J. Instrum. 9, C03040 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

E. Davies, R. Viitala, M. Salomäki, S. Areva, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 015501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berruti, G.

A. Makovec, G. Berruti, M. Consales, M. Giordano, P. Petagna, S. Buontempo, G. Breglio, Z. Szillasi, N. Beni, and A. Cusano, J. Instrum. 9, C03040 (2014).
[CrossRef]

G. Berruti, M. Consales, M. Giordano, L. Sansone, P. Petagna, S. Buontempo, G. Breglio, and A. Cusano, Sens. Actuators B 177, 94 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Breglio, G.

A. Makovec, G. Berruti, M. Consales, M. Giordano, P. Petagna, S. Buontempo, G. Breglio, Z. Szillasi, N. Beni, and A. Cusano, J. Instrum. 9, C03040 (2014).
[CrossRef]

G. Berruti, M. Consales, M. Giordano, L. Sansone, P. Petagna, S. Buontempo, G. Breglio, and A. Cusano, Sens. Actuators B 177, 94 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Buontempo, S.

A. Makovec, G. Berruti, M. Consales, M. Giordano, P. Petagna, S. Buontempo, G. Breglio, Z. Szillasi, N. Beni, and A. Cusano, J. Instrum. 9, C03040 (2014).
[CrossRef]

G. Berruti, M. Consales, M. Giordano, L. Sansone, P. Petagna, S. Buontempo, G. Breglio, and A. Cusano, Sens. Actuators B 177, 94 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Campopiano, S.

Chan, C. C.

K. M. Tan, C. M. Tay, S. C. Tjin, C. C. Chan, and H. Rahardjo, Sens. Actuators B 110, 335 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chaubey, S.

S. Kher, S. Chaubey, S. M. Oak, and A. Gusarov, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 2070 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Kher, S. Chaubey, R. Kashyap, and S. M. Oak, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 742 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Consales, M.

A. Makovec, G. Berruti, M. Consales, M. Giordano, P. Petagna, S. Buontempo, G. Breglio, Z. Szillasi, N. Beni, and A. Cusano, J. Instrum. 9, C03040 (2014).
[CrossRef]

G. Berruti, M. Consales, M. Giordano, L. Sansone, P. Petagna, S. Buontempo, G. Breglio, and A. Cusano, Sens. Actuators B 177, 94 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Contessa, L.

Corres, J. M.

D. Viegas, J. Goicoechea, J. M. Corres, J. L. Santos, L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araújo, and I. R. Matias, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 034002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cusano, A.

A. Makovec, G. Berruti, M. Consales, M. Giordano, P. Petagna, S. Buontempo, G. Breglio, Z. Szillasi, N. Beni, and A. Cusano, J. Instrum. 9, C03040 (2014).
[CrossRef]

G. Berruti, M. Consales, M. Giordano, L. Sansone, P. Petagna, S. Buontempo, G. Breglio, and A. Cusano, Sens. Actuators B 177, 94 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, Opt. Express 14, 19 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, and J. Albert, Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors: Recent Advancements, Industrial Applications and Market Exploitation (Bentham Science, 2011), Chap. 12, pp. 218–237.

Cutolo, A.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, Opt. Express 14, 19 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, and J. Albert, Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors: Recent Advancements, Industrial Applications and Market Exploitation (Bentham Science, 2011), Chap. 12, pp. 218–237.

Davies, E.

E. Davies, R. Viitala, M. Salomäki, S. Areva, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 015501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Del Villar, I.

Ferreira, L. A.

D. Viegas, J. Goicoechea, J. M. Corres, J. L. Santos, L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araújo, and I. R. Matias, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 034002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fossa, M.

M. Fossa and P. Petagna, “Use and calibration of capacitive RH sensors for hygrometric control of the CMS tracker,” (2003).

Giaccari, P.

Giordano, M.

A. Makovec, G. Berruti, M. Consales, M. Giordano, P. Petagna, S. Buontempo, G. Breglio, Z. Szillasi, N. Beni, and A. Cusano, J. Instrum. 9, C03040 (2014).
[CrossRef]

G. Berruti, M. Consales, M. Giordano, L. Sansone, P. Petagna, S. Buontempo, G. Breglio, and A. Cusano, Sens. Actuators B 177, 94 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, Opt. Express 14, 19 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gnappi, G.

G. Montesperelli, A. Pumo, E. Traversa, G. Gusmano, A. Bearzotti, A. Montenero, and G. Gnappi, Sens. Actuators B 25, 705 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Goicoechea, J.

D. Viegas, J. Goicoechea, J. M. Corres, J. L. Santos, L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araújo, and I. R. Matias, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 034002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grattan, K. T. V.

T. Venugopalan, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, Sens. Actuators A 148, 57 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Venugopalan, T. L. Yeo, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1093 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Yeo, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, Sens. Actuators A 144, 280 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Yeo, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, D. Parry, R. Lade, and B. D. Powell, Sens. Actuators B 110, 148 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gusarov, A.

S. Kher, S. Chaubey, S. M. Oak, and A. Gusarov, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 2070 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gusarovand, A.

A. Gusarovand and S. K. Hoeffgen, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60, 3 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gusmano, G.

G. Montesperelli, A. Pumo, E. Traversa, G. Gusmano, A. Bearzotti, A. Montenero, and G. Gnappi, Sens. Actuators B 25, 705 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hoeffgen, S. K.

A. Gusarovand and S. K. Hoeffgen, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60, 3 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Iadicicco, A.

Kashyap, R.

S. Kher, S. Chaubey, R. Kashyap, and S. M. Oak, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 742 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kher, S.

S. Kher, S. Chaubey, S. M. Oak, and A. Gusarov, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 2070 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Kher, S. Chaubey, R. Kashyap, and S. M. Oak, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 742 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Konstantaki, M.

Kronenberg, P.

Lade, R.

T. L. Yeo, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, D. Parry, R. Lade, and B. D. Powell, Sens. Actuators B 110, 148 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

Liao, Y.

Y. Liu, L. Wang, M. Zhang, D. Tu, X. Mao, and Y. Liao, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 880 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Limberger, H. G.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, L. Wang, M. Zhang, D. Tu, X. Mao, and Y. Liao, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 880 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Madamopoulos, N.

Makovec, A.

A. Makovec, G. Berruti, M. Consales, M. Giordano, P. Petagna, S. Buontempo, G. Breglio, Z. Szillasi, N. Beni, and A. Cusano, J. Instrum. 9, C03040 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Mao, X.

Y. Liu, L. Wang, M. Zhang, D. Tu, X. Mao, and Y. Liao, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 880 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matias, I. R.

D. Viegas, J. Goicoechea, J. M. Corres, J. L. Santos, L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araújo, and I. R. Matias, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 034002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, and M. Achaerandio, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matías, I.

Montenero, A.

G. Montesperelli, A. Pumo, E. Traversa, G. Gusmano, A. Bearzotti, A. Montenero, and G. Gnappi, Sens. Actuators B 25, 705 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Montesperelli, G.

G. Montesperelli, A. Pumo, E. Traversa, G. Gusmano, A. Bearzotti, A. Montenero, and G. Gnappi, Sens. Actuators B 25, 705 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Oak, S. M.

S. Kher, S. Chaubey, S. M. Oak, and A. Gusarov, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 2070 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Kher, S. Chaubey, R. Kashyap, and S. M. Oak, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 742 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pandey, N. K.

B. C. Yadav, N. K. Pandey, A. K. Srivastava, and P. Sharma, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 260 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Parry, D.

T. L. Yeo, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, D. Parry, R. Lade, and B. D. Powell, Sens. Actuators B 110, 148 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Petagna, P.

A. Makovec, G. Berruti, M. Consales, M. Giordano, P. Petagna, S. Buontempo, G. Breglio, Z. Szillasi, N. Beni, and A. Cusano, J. Instrum. 9, C03040 (2014).
[CrossRef]

G. Berruti, M. Consales, M. Giordano, L. Sansone, P. Petagna, S. Buontempo, G. Breglio, and A. Cusano, Sens. Actuators B 177, 94 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Fossa and P. Petagna, “Use and calibration of capacitive RH sensors for hygrometric control of the CMS tracker,” (2003).

Pilla, P.

Pispas, S.

Pissadakis, S.

Powell, B. D.

T. L. Yeo, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, D. Parry, R. Lade, and B. D. Powell, Sens. Actuators B 110, 148 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pumo, A.

G. Montesperelli, A. Pumo, E. Traversa, G. Gusmano, A. Bearzotti, A. Montenero, and G. Gnappi, Sens. Actuators B 25, 705 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rahardjo, H.

K. M. Tan, C. M. Tay, S. C. Tjin, C. C. Chan, and H. Rahardjo, Sens. Actuators B 110, 335 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rao, Y. J.

Y. J. Rao, Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 355 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rastogi, P. K.

Salomäki, M.

E. Davies, R. Viitala, M. Salomäki, S. Areva, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 015501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sansone, L.

G. Berruti, M. Consales, M. Giordano, L. Sansone, P. Petagna, S. Buontempo, G. Breglio, and A. Cusano, Sens. Actuators B 177, 94 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Santos, J. L.

D. Viegas, J. Goicoechea, J. M. Corres, J. L. Santos, L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araújo, and I. R. Matias, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 034002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, P.

B. C. Yadav, N. K. Pandey, A. K. Srivastava, and P. Sharma, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 260 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, A. K.

B. C. Yadav, N. K. Pandey, A. K. Srivastava, and P. Sharma, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 260 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, T.

T. L. Yeo, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, Sens. Actuators A 144, 280 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Venugopalan, T. L. Yeo, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1093 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Venugopalan, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, Sens. Actuators A 148, 57 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Yeo, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, D. Parry, R. Lade, and B. D. Powell, Sens. Actuators B 110, 148 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Szillasi, Z.

A. Makovec, G. Berruti, M. Consales, M. Giordano, P. Petagna, S. Buontempo, G. Breglio, Z. Szillasi, N. Beni, and A. Cusano, J. Instrum. 9, C03040 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Tan, K. M.

K. M. Tan, C. M. Tay, S. C. Tjin, C. C. Chan, and H. Rahardjo, Sens. Actuators B 110, 335 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tay, C. M.

K. M. Tan, C. M. Tay, S. C. Tjin, C. C. Chan, and H. Rahardjo, Sens. Actuators B 110, 335 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tjin, S. C.

K. M. Tan, C. M. Tay, S. C. Tjin, C. C. Chan, and H. Rahardjo, Sens. Actuators B 110, 335 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Traversa, E.

G. Montesperelli, A. Pumo, E. Traversa, G. Gusmano, A. Bearzotti, A. Montenero, and G. Gnappi, Sens. Actuators B 25, 705 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tu, D.

Y. Liu, L. Wang, M. Zhang, D. Tu, X. Mao, and Y. Liao, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 880 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vainos, N. A.

Venugopalan, T.

T. Venugopalan, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, Sens. Actuators A 148, 57 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Venugopalan, T. L. Yeo, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1093 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Viegas, D.

D. Viegas, J. Goicoechea, J. M. Corres, J. L. Santos, L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araújo, and I. R. Matias, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 034002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Viitala, R.

E. Davies, R. Viitala, M. Salomäki, S. Areva, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 015501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

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Appl. Opt. (1)

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Opt. Express (2)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Typical microscope image of a TiO2-coated LPG and (b) transmitted spectra of the bare and coated LPG.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Transmittance spectra of LPG1 acquired at different RH values and (b) typical LPG response (blue curve) during a RH characterization at 25°C. The response provided by the reference device is also reported (black curve).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) LPG1 characteristic curves obtained at different temperatures (the straight lines represent the best fits of the points collected during the experimental tests) and (b) RH sensitivity of LPG1 as a function of RH at different temperatures.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

LPG1 (Δλres,05, RH) points at 25°C before (black points) and after (red points) the 1 Mrad radiation exposure. Inset: (λres,05, RH) points referring to the same tests.

Equations (1)

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λres,0i=(neff,coneff,cl0i)Λ,

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