Abstract

We have investigated experimentally the flexible production and amplification of gray pulses for the first time to our knowledge. Switchable wavelengths, tunable pulse-widths, and adjustable contrasts have all been obtained in a fiber laser. Amplification of gray pulses was also experimentally investigated in detail. The contrast of the pulses could also be increased in an amplifier. The robust stability that results from the interactions between adjacent harmonic mode locking counterparts of gray pulses was found to last for up to ten hours. To the best of our knowledge, the gray pulses trains we have generated are the most stable achieved to date in an all-fiber laser system. This finding can be used as a guide for the establishment of robust gray pulses as laser sources.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014

2013

C. Lecaplain, P. Grelu, and S. Wabnitz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 211 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, S. Zhang, Y. Meng, and Y. Hao, Opt. Express 21, 8409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Turitsyna, S. V. Smirnov, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, X. Shu, S. A. Babin, E. V. Podivilov, D. V. Churkin, G. Falkovich, and S. K. Turitsyn, Nat. Photonics 7, 783 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Ablowitz, S. D. Nixon, T. P. Horikis, and D. J. Frantzeskakis, J. Phys. A 46, 095201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Gao, M. Liao, H. Kawashima, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 546 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

Z. Luo, W. Cao, Z. Lin, Z. Cai, A. Luo, and W. Xu, Opt. Lett. 37, 4777 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Ning, S. Wang, A. Luo, Z. Lin, Z. Luo, and W. Xu, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1647 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

M. J. Ablowitz, T. P. Horikis, S. D. Nixon, and D. J. Frantzeskakis, Opt. Lett. 36, 793 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto, T. R. Marchant, A. A. Minzoni, and N. F. Smyth, Phys. Rev. E 84, 066602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

S. F. Hanim, J. Ali, and P. P. Yupapin, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 52, 881 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Feng, K. L. Silverman, R. P. Mirin, and S. T. Cundiff, Opt. Express 18, 13385 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

Y. Deng, C. Chien, B. G. Fidric, and J. D. Kafka, Opt. Lett. 34, 3469 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, Phys. Rev. A 80, 045803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

C. Becker, S. Stellmer, P. Soltan-Panahi, S. Dörscher, M. Baumert, E. Richter, J. Kronjäger, K. Bongs, and K. Sengstock, Nat. Phys. 4, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. Zimmermann, S. T. Cundiff, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, M. Arzberger, G. Böhm, M. C. Amann, and G. Abstreiter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

W. Cao, S. Li, and K. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 510 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. Nakazawa and K. Suzuki, Electron. Lett. 31, 1084 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Okhotnikov and F. M. Araújo, Electron. Lett. 31, 2197 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

1991

1989

1988

D. Krökel, N. J. Halas, G. Giuliani, and D. Grischkowsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 29 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, and W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, and E. M. Kirschner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1563 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

A. M. Weiner and J. P. Heritage, Rev. Phys. Appl. 22, 1619 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. Emplit, J. P. Hamaide, F. Reynaud, C. Froehly, and A. Barthelemy, Opt. Commun. 62, 374 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985

1973

A. Hasegawa and F. Tappert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 171 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Ablowitz, M. J.

M. J. Ablowitz, S. D. Nixon, T. P. Horikis, and D. J. Frantzeskakis, J. Phys. A 46, 095201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Ablowitz, T. P. Horikis, S. D. Nixon, and D. J. Frantzeskakis, Opt. Lett. 36, 793 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Abstreiter, G.

J. Zimmermann, S. T. Cundiff, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, M. Arzberger, G. Böhm, M. C. Amann, and G. Abstreiter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Applications of Nonlinear Fiber Optics. (Academic, 2010).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic, 2007).

Ali, J.

S. F. Hanim, J. Ali, and P. P. Yupapin, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 52, 881 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Amann, M. C.

J. Zimmermann, S. T. Cundiff, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, M. Arzberger, G. Böhm, M. C. Amann, and G. Abstreiter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Araújo, F. M.

O. G. Okhotnikov and F. M. Araújo, Electron. Lett. 31, 2197 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Arzberger, M.

J. Zimmermann, S. T. Cundiff, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, M. Arzberger, G. Böhm, M. C. Amann, and G. Abstreiter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

G. Assanto, T. R. Marchant, A. A. Minzoni, and N. F. Smyth, Phys. Rev. E 84, 066602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Babin, S. A.

E. G. Turitsyna, S. V. Smirnov, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, X. Shu, S. A. Babin, E. V. Podivilov, D. V. Churkin, G. Falkovich, and S. K. Turitsyn, Nat. Photonics 7, 783 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Barthelemy, A.

P. Emplit, J. P. Hamaide, F. Reynaud, C. Froehly, and A. Barthelemy, Opt. Commun. 62, 374 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Baumert, M.

C. Becker, S. Stellmer, P. Soltan-Panahi, S. Dörscher, M. Baumert, E. Richter, J. Kronjäger, K. Bongs, and K. Sengstock, Nat. Phys. 4, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Becker, C.

C. Becker, S. Stellmer, P. Soltan-Panahi, S. Dörscher, M. Baumert, E. Richter, J. Kronjäger, K. Bongs, and K. Sengstock, Nat. Phys. 4, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bekki, N.

N. Bekki and K. Nozaki, Phys. Lett. 110A, 133 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Böhm, G.

J. Zimmermann, S. T. Cundiff, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, M. Arzberger, G. Böhm, M. C. Amann, and G. Abstreiter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bongs, K.

C. Becker, S. Stellmer, P. Soltan-Panahi, S. Dörscher, M. Baumert, E. Richter, J. Kronjäger, K. Bongs, and K. Sengstock, Nat. Phys. 4, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bourkoff, E.

Cai, Z.

Cao, W.

Chan, K.

W. Cao, S. Li, and K. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 510 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

Chien, C.

Churkin, D. V.

E. G. Turitsyna, S. V. Smirnov, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, X. Shu, S. A. Babin, E. V. Podivilov, D. V. Churkin, G. Falkovich, and S. K. Turitsyn, Nat. Photonics 7, 783 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S. T.

M. Feng, K. L. Silverman, R. P. Mirin, and S. T. Cundiff, Opt. Express 18, 13385 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zimmermann, S. T. Cundiff, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, M. Arzberger, G. Böhm, M. C. Amann, and G. Abstreiter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Deng, Y.

Dörscher, S.

C. Becker, S. Stellmer, P. Soltan-Panahi, S. Dörscher, M. Baumert, E. Richter, J. Kronjäger, K. Bongs, and K. Sengstock, Nat. Phys. 4, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Emplit, P.

P. Emplit, J. P. Hamaide, F. Reynaud, C. Froehly, and A. Barthelemy, Opt. Commun. 62, 374 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Falkovich, G.

E. G. Turitsyna, S. V. Smirnov, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, X. Shu, S. A. Babin, E. V. Podivilov, D. V. Churkin, G. Falkovich, and S. K. Turitsyn, Nat. Photonics 7, 783 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

J. Zimmermann, S. T. Cundiff, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, M. Arzberger, G. Böhm, M. C. Amann, and G. Abstreiter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Feng, M.

Fidric, B. G.

Frantzeskakis, D. J.

M. J. Ablowitz, S. D. Nixon, T. P. Horikis, and D. J. Frantzeskakis, J. Phys. A 46, 095201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Ablowitz, T. P. Horikis, S. D. Nixon, and D. J. Frantzeskakis, Opt. Lett. 36, 793 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Froehly, C.

P. Emplit, J. P. Hamaide, F. Reynaud, C. Froehly, and A. Barthelemy, Opt. Commun. 62, 374 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gao, W.

W. Gao, M. Liao, H. Kawashima, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 546 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Giuliani, G.

D. Krökel, N. J. Halas, G. Giuliani, and D. Grischkowsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 29 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Grelu, P.

Grischkowsky, D.

D. Krökel, N. J. Halas, G. Giuliani, and D. Grischkowsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 29 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N. J.

D. Krökel, N. J. Halas, G. Giuliani, and D. Grischkowsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 29 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hamaide, J. P.

P. Emplit, J. P. Hamaide, F. Reynaud, C. Froehly, and A. Barthelemy, Opt. Commun. 62, 374 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hanim, S. F.

S. F. Hanim, J. Ali, and P. P. Yupapin, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 52, 881 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hao, Y.

Hasegawa, A.

A. Hasegawa and F. Tappert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 171 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hawkins, R. J.

Heritage, J. P.

Horikis, T. P.

M. J. Ablowitz, S. D. Nixon, T. P. Horikis, and D. J. Frantzeskakis, J. Phys. A 46, 095201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Ablowitz, T. P. Horikis, S. D. Nixon, and D. J. Frantzeskakis, Opt. Lett. 36, 793 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kafka, J. D.

Kawashima, H.

W. Gao, M. Liao, H. Kawashima, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 546 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kirschner, E. M.

Kong, Q.

Krökel, D.

D. Krökel, N. J. Halas, G. Giuliani, and D. Grischkowsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 29 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Krolikowski, W.

Kronjäger, J.

C. Becker, S. Stellmer, P. Soltan-Panahi, S. Dörscher, M. Baumert, E. Richter, J. Kronjäger, K. Bongs, and K. Sengstock, Nat. Phys. 4, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leaird, D. E.

A. M. Weiner, R. N. Thurston, W. J. Tomlinson, J. P. Heritage, D. E. Leaird, E. M. Kirschner, and R. J. Hawkins, Opt. Lett. 14, 868 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, and W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lecaplain, C.

Li, S.

W. Cao, S. Li, and K. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 510 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Liao, M.

W. Gao, M. Liao, H. Kawashima, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 546 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Z.

Z. Luo, W. Cao, Z. Lin, Z. Cai, A. Luo, and W. Xu, Opt. Lett. 37, 4777 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Ning, S. Wang, A. Luo, Z. Lin, Z. Luo, and W. Xu, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1647 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Luo, A.

Q. Ning, S. Wang, A. Luo, Z. Lin, Z. Luo, and W. Xu, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1647 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Luo, W. Cao, Z. Lin, Z. Cai, A. Luo, and W. Xu, Opt. Lett. 37, 4777 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Z.

Z. Luo, W. Cao, Z. Lin, Z. Cai, A. Luo, and W. Xu, Opt. Lett. 37, 4777 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Ning, S. Wang, A. Luo, Z. Lin, Z. Luo, and W. Xu, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1647 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Marchant, T. R.

G. Assanto, T. R. Marchant, A. A. Minzoni, and N. F. Smyth, Phys. Rev. E 84, 066602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Meng, Y.

Minzoni, A. A.

G. Assanto, T. R. Marchant, A. A. Minzoni, and N. F. Smyth, Phys. Rev. E 84, 066602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mirin, R. P.

Nakazawa, M.

M. Nakazawa and K. Suzuki, Electron. Lett. 31, 1084 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ning, Q.

Q. Ning, S. Wang, A. Luo, Z. Lin, Z. Luo, and W. Xu, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1647 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nixon, S. D.

M. J. Ablowitz, S. D. Nixon, T. P. Horikis, and D. J. Frantzeskakis, J. Phys. A 46, 095201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Ablowitz, T. P. Horikis, S. D. Nixon, and D. J. Frantzeskakis, Opt. Lett. 36, 793 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nozaki, K.

N. Bekki and K. Nozaki, Phys. Lett. 110A, 133 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ohishi, Y.

W. Gao, M. Liao, H. Kawashima, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 546 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Okhotnikov, O. G.

O. G. Okhotnikov and F. M. Araújo, Electron. Lett. 31, 2197 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Podivilov, E. V.

E. G. Turitsyna, S. V. Smirnov, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, X. Shu, S. A. Babin, E. V. Podivilov, D. V. Churkin, G. Falkovich, and S. K. Turitsyn, Nat. Photonics 7, 783 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Reynaud, F.

P. Emplit, J. P. Hamaide, F. Reynaud, C. Froehly, and A. Barthelemy, Opt. Commun. 62, 374 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Richter, E.

C. Becker, S. Stellmer, P. Soltan-Panahi, S. Dörscher, M. Baumert, E. Richter, J. Kronjäger, K. Bongs, and K. Sengstock, Nat. Phys. 4, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sengstock, K.

C. Becker, S. Stellmer, P. Soltan-Panahi, S. Dörscher, M. Baumert, E. Richter, J. Kronjäger, K. Bongs, and K. Sengstock, Nat. Phys. 4, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shen, M.

Shi, J.

Shu, X.

E. G. Turitsyna, S. V. Smirnov, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, X. Shu, S. A. Babin, E. V. Podivilov, D. V. Churkin, G. Falkovich, and S. K. Turitsyn, Nat. Photonics 7, 783 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Silverman, K. L.

Smirnov, S. V.

E. G. Turitsyna, S. V. Smirnov, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, X. Shu, S. A. Babin, E. V. Podivilov, D. V. Churkin, G. Falkovich, and S. K. Turitsyn, Nat. Photonics 7, 783 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Smyth, N. F.

G. Assanto, T. R. Marchant, A. A. Minzoni, and N. F. Smyth, Phys. Rev. E 84, 066602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Soltan-Panahi, P.

C. Becker, S. Stellmer, P. Soltan-Panahi, S. Dörscher, M. Baumert, E. Richter, J. Kronjäger, K. Bongs, and K. Sengstock, Nat. Phys. 4, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stellmer, S.

C. Becker, S. Stellmer, P. Soltan-Panahi, S. Dörscher, M. Baumert, E. Richter, J. Kronjäger, K. Bongs, and K. Sengstock, Nat. Phys. 4, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sugavanam, S.

E. G. Turitsyna, S. V. Smirnov, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, X. Shu, S. A. Babin, E. V. Podivilov, D. V. Churkin, G. Falkovich, and S. K. Turitsyn, Nat. Photonics 7, 783 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

M. Nakazawa and K. Suzuki, Electron. Lett. 31, 1084 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

W. Gao, M. Liao, H. Kawashima, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 546 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D. Y.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, Phys. Rev. A 80, 045803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tappert, F.

A. Hasegawa and F. Tappert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 171 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Tarasov, N.

E. G. Turitsyna, S. V. Smirnov, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, X. Shu, S. A. Babin, E. V. Podivilov, D. V. Churkin, G. Falkovich, and S. K. Turitsyn, Nat. Photonics 7, 783 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Thurston, R. N.

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Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MP4 (30625 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the laser system, WDM: wavelength-division multiplexer; YDF: Yb-doped fiber; PC: polarization controller; SMF: single-mode fiber; PI-ISO: polarization-independent isolator; OC1 and OC2: 10% output couplers; 3 W multimode pump diode: 3 W 976 nm multimode pump.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Single gray pulses (inset) with switchable central wavelength (a). Variation of pulse width and contrast with fixed polarization state and several pump powers (b), (c), and (d).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison between initial and amplified spectra of gray pulses at the fundamental repetition rate (a). Pulse width and contrast versus pump power of amplifier (b).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Oscilloscope traces of gray pulse of the basic repetition rate (a) and 7th order HML counterparts (b) (see Media 1).

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