Abstract

We experimentally demonstrated Fano resonance in metamaterials composed of asymmetric double bars (ADBs) in the optical region. ADB metamaterials were fabricated by a lift-off method, and the optical spectra were measured. Around a wavelength of 1100 nm, measured optical spectra clearly showed sharp Fano resonance due to weak asymmetry of the ADB structures. The highest-quality factor (Q-factor) of the Fano resonance was 7.34. Calculated spectra showed the same tendency as the experimental spectra. Moreover, in a Fano resonant condition, out of phase of induced current flowing along each bar was revealed by electromagnetic field calculations. These antiphase currents decreased radiative loss of the Fano mode, resulting in a high Q-factor of the Fano resonance in ADB metamaterials. As the degree of asymmetry became small, the Q-factor decreased, and the Fano resonance disappeared because the effect of Joule loss became significant.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2014 (1)

N. E. J. Omaghali, V. Tkachenko, A. Andreone, and G. Abbate, Sensors 14, 272 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, Nat. Mater. 11, 69 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Niakan, M. Askari, and A. Zakery, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 2329 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

2010 (3)

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 10, 1103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, E. Plum, J. Y. Ou, T. Uchino, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 227403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z.-G. Dong, H. Liu, M.-X. Xu, T. Li, S.-M. Wang, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, Opt. Express 18, 18229 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, Science 339, 6125 (2009).

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kastel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, Nat. Mater. 8, 758 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Melik, E. Unal, N. K. Perkgoz, C. Puttlitz, and H. V. Demir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 011106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Papasimakis and N. I. Zheludev, Opt. Photon. News 20, 22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, Nat. Photonics 2, 351 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

V. M. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 41 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 224 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

K. S. Yee, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 14, 302 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

Abbate, G.

N. E. J. Omaghali, V. Tkachenko, A. Andreone, and G. Abbate, Sensors 14, 272 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Adato, R.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, Nat. Mater. 11, 69 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Al-Naib, I. A. I.

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, M. Koch, and W. Zhang, Opt. Express 19, 6321 (2011).

Altug, H.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, Nat. Mater. 11, 69 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Andreone, A.

N. E. J. Omaghali, V. Tkachenko, A. Andreone, and G. Abbate, Sensors 14, 272 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Arju, N.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, Nat. Mater. 11, 69 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Askari, M.

Boltasseva, A.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, Science 339, 6125 (2009).

Cai, W.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 224 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, H. S.

Chettiar, U. K.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 224 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Demir, H. V.

R. Melik, E. Unal, N. K. Perkgoz, C. Puttlitz, and H. V. Demir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 011106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Z.-G.

Eigenthaler, U.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 10, 1103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fedotov, V. A.

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, Nat. Photonics 2, 351 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fleischhauer, M.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kastel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, Nat. Mater. 8, 758 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 10, 1103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kastel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, Nat. Mater. 8, 758 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hirscher, M.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 10, 1103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jang, W. H.

Jin, X.-R.

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kastel, J.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kastel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, Nat. Mater. 8, 758 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Khanikaev, A. B.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, Nat. Mater. 11, 69 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, Science 339, 6125 (2009).

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 224 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. W.

Koch, M.

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, M. Koch, and W. Zhang, Opt. Express 19, 6321 (2011).

Langguth, L.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 10, 1103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kastel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, Nat. Mater. 8, 758 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

Lee, Y.

Li, T.

Liu, H.

Liu, N.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 10, 1103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kastel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, Nat. Mater. 8, 758 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Malitson, H.

Melik, R.

R. Melik, E. Unal, N. K. Perkgoz, C. Puttlitz, and H. V. Demir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 011106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mesch, M.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 10, 1103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Niakan, N.

Omaghali, N. E. J.

N. E. J. Omaghali, V. Tkachenko, A. Andreone, and G. Abbate, Sensors 14, 272 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Ou, J. Y.

K. Tanaka, E. Plum, J. Y. Ou, T. Uchino, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 227403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Papasimakis, N.

N. Papasimakis and N. I. Zheludev, Opt. Photon. News 20, 22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, Nat. Photonics 2, 351 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

Pendry, J. B.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Perkgoz, N. K.

R. Melik, E. Unal, N. K. Perkgoz, C. Puttlitz, and H. V. Demir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 011106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pfau, T.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kastel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, Nat. Mater. 8, 758 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Plum, E.

K. Tanaka, E. Plum, J. Y. Ou, T. Uchino, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 227403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Prosvirnin, S. L.

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, Nat. Photonics 2, 351 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Puttlitz, C.

R. Melik, E. Unal, N. K. Perkgoz, C. Puttlitz, and H. V. Demir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 011106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rhee, J. Y.

Rose, M.

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schurig, D.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, Science 339, 6125 (2009).

V. M. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 41 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 224 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shvets, G.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, Nat. Mater. 11, 69 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Singh, R.

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, M. Koch, and W. Zhang, Opt. Express 19, 6321 (2011).

Smith, D. R.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sönnichsen, C.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 10, 1103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka, E. Plum, J. Y. Ou, T. Uchino, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 227403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tkachenko, V.

N. E. J. Omaghali, V. Tkachenko, A. Andreone, and G. Abbate, Sensors 14, 272 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Uchino, T.

K. Tanaka, E. Plum, J. Y. Ou, T. Uchino, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 227403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Unal, E.

R. Melik, E. Unal, N. K. Perkgoz, C. Puttlitz, and H. V. Demir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 011106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.-M.

Weiss, T.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 10, 1103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kastel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, Nat. Mater. 8, 758 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, Nat. Mater. 11, 69 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M.-X.

Yanik, A. A.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, Nat. Mater. 11, 69 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yee, K. S.

K. S. Yee, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 14, 302 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Zakery, A.

Zhang, W.

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, M. Koch, and W. Zhang, Opt. Express 19, 6321 (2011).

Zhang, X.

Zheludev, N. I.

K. Tanaka, E. Plum, J. Y. Ou, T. Uchino, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 227403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Papasimakis and N. I. Zheludev, Opt. Photon. News 20, 22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, Nat. Photonics 2, 351 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, H.

Zhu, S.-N.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Melik, E. Unal, N. K. Perkgoz, C. Puttlitz, and H. V. Demir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 011106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

K. S. Yee, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 14, 302 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nano Lett. (1)

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 10, 1103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (2)

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, Nat. Mater. 11, 69 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kastel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, Nat. Mater. 8, 758 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (3)

V. M. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 41 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 224 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, Nat. Photonics 2, 351 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

N. Papasimakis and N. I. Zheludev, Opt. Photon. News 20, 22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, E. Plum, J. Y. Ou, T. Uchino, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 227403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, Science 339, 6125 (2009).

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sensors (1)

N. E. J. Omaghali, V. Tkachenko, A. Andreone, and G. Abbate, Sensors 14, 272 (2014).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematics of the (a) periodic structure and (b) unit cell of the ADB metamaterial.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fabrication process.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEM images of fabricated metamaterials.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured (left) and calculated (right) optical spectra of the ADB metamaterials. Each SEM image is the unit cell for each case of l2. The red, orange, green, blue, and purple lines correspond to results for l2=300, 290, 270, 240, and 200 nm, respectively. The gray lines in the calculated spectra are the results for a symmetric structure with l1=l2=270nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Estimated Q-factors extracted from measured and calculated spectra as a function of l2. (b) Contrast of Fano resonance for the calculations and experiments as a function of l2. Red and blue lines correspond to the results for calculations and experiments, respectively.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Snapshots of the z components of magnetic fields Hz located at half-height of the ADB metamaterials. (a) and (b) Real parts of Hz in the case of l2=270nm at the dipole resonance [(a) λ=950nm] and the Fano resonance [(b) λ=1260nm]. Arrows indicate the direction of the induced currents along the bars. (c)–(e) Amplitude of Hz in the case of l2=270nm at the (c) dipole resonance and the (d) Fano resonance. (e) Amplitude of Hz in the case of l2=280nm at the Fano resonance (λ=1280nm).

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