Abstract

In this Letter, we describe the realization of a tracked line-of-sight optical wireless communication system for indoor data distribution. We built a laser-based transmitter with adaptive focus and ray steering by a microelectromechanical systems mirror. To execute the alignment procedure, we used a CMOS image sensor at the transmitter side and developed an algorithm for image recognition to localize the receiver’s position. The receiver is based on a self-developed optoelectronic integrated chip with low requirements on the receiver optics to make the system economically attractive. With this system, we were able to set up the communication link automatically without any back channel and to perform error-free (bit error rate <109) data transmission over a distance of 3.5 m with a data rate of 3 Gbit/s.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Kahn and J. Barry, Proc. IEEE 85, 265 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, O. Bouchet, M. Wolf, L. Grobe, and L. Jianhui, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1598 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. R. Wisely, “A 1 Gbit/s optical wireless tracked architecture for ATM delivery,” in IEE Colloquium on Optical Free Space Communication Links, London, UK, February19, 1996, pp. 14\1–14\7.
  4. K. Wang, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, and E. Skafidas, Opt. Lett. 37, 1514 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. R. Kolev, K. Wakamori, M. Matsumoto, T. Kubo, T. Yamada, and N. Yoshimoto, “Gigabit indoor laser communication system for a mobile user with MEMS mirrors and image sensors,” in International Workshop on Optical Wireless Communications (IWOW), Pisa, October22, 2012, pp. 1–3.
  6. P. Brandl, S. Schidl, A. Polzer, W. Gaberl, and H. Zimmermann, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1428 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Brandl and H. Zimmermann, Electron. Lett. 49, 552 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  8. OpenCV, http://opencv.org .
  9. H. Bay, A. Ess, T. Tuytelaars, and L. Van Gool, Comput. Vis. Image Underst. 110, 346 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2013

P. Brandl, S. Schidl, A. Polzer, W. Gaberl, and H. Zimmermann, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1428 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Brandl and H. Zimmermann, Electron. Lett. 49, 552 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

2010

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, O. Bouchet, M. Wolf, L. Grobe, and L. Jianhui, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

H. Bay, A. Ess, T. Tuytelaars, and L. Van Gool, Comput. Vis. Image Underst. 110, 346 (2008).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. Kahn and J. Barry, Proc. IEEE 85, 265 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barry, J.

J. Kahn and J. Barry, Proc. IEEE 85, 265 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bay, H.

H. Bay, A. Ess, T. Tuytelaars, and L. Van Gool, Comput. Vis. Image Underst. 110, 346 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bouchet, O.

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, O. Bouchet, M. Wolf, L. Grobe, and L. Jianhui, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brandl, P.

P. Brandl and H. Zimmermann, Electron. Lett. 49, 552 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Brandl, S. Schidl, A. Polzer, W. Gaberl, and H. Zimmermann, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1428 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ess, A.

H. Bay, A. Ess, T. Tuytelaars, and L. Van Gool, Comput. Vis. Image Underst. 110, 346 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Faulkner, G.

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, O. Bouchet, M. Wolf, L. Grobe, and L. Jianhui, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gaberl, W.

P. Brandl, S. Schidl, A. Polzer, W. Gaberl, and H. Zimmermann, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1428 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Grobe, L.

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, O. Bouchet, M. Wolf, L. Grobe, and L. Jianhui, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jianhui, L.

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, O. Bouchet, M. Wolf, L. Grobe, and L. Jianhui, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, J.

J. Kahn and J. Barry, Proc. IEEE 85, 265 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kolev, D. R.

D. R. Kolev, K. Wakamori, M. Matsumoto, T. Kubo, T. Yamada, and N. Yoshimoto, “Gigabit indoor laser communication system for a mobile user with MEMS mirrors and image sensors,” in International Workshop on Optical Wireless Communications (IWOW), Pisa, October22, 2012, pp. 1–3.

Kubo, T.

D. R. Kolev, K. Wakamori, M. Matsumoto, T. Kubo, T. Yamada, and N. Yoshimoto, “Gigabit indoor laser communication system for a mobile user with MEMS mirrors and image sensors,” in International Workshop on Optical Wireless Communications (IWOW), Pisa, October22, 2012, pp. 1–3.

Le Minh, H.

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, O. Bouchet, M. Wolf, L. Grobe, and L. Jianhui, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lim, C.

Matsumoto, M.

D. R. Kolev, K. Wakamori, M. Matsumoto, T. Kubo, T. Yamada, and N. Yoshimoto, “Gigabit indoor laser communication system for a mobile user with MEMS mirrors and image sensors,” in International Workshop on Optical Wireless Communications (IWOW), Pisa, October22, 2012, pp. 1–3.

Nirmalathas, A.

O’Brien, D.

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, O. Bouchet, M. Wolf, L. Grobe, and L. Jianhui, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Polzer, A.

P. Brandl, S. Schidl, A. Polzer, W. Gaberl, and H. Zimmermann, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1428 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schidl, S.

P. Brandl, S. Schidl, A. Polzer, W. Gaberl, and H. Zimmermann, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1428 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Skafidas, E.

Tuytelaars, T.

H. Bay, A. Ess, T. Tuytelaars, and L. Van Gool, Comput. Vis. Image Underst. 110, 346 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Van Gool, L.

H. Bay, A. Ess, T. Tuytelaars, and L. Van Gool, Comput. Vis. Image Underst. 110, 346 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wakamori, K.

D. R. Kolev, K. Wakamori, M. Matsumoto, T. Kubo, T. Yamada, and N. Yoshimoto, “Gigabit indoor laser communication system for a mobile user with MEMS mirrors and image sensors,” in International Workshop on Optical Wireless Communications (IWOW), Pisa, October22, 2012, pp. 1–3.

Wang, K.

Wisely, D. R.

D. R. Wisely, “A 1 Gbit/s optical wireless tracked architecture for ATM delivery,” in IEE Colloquium on Optical Free Space Communication Links, London, UK, February19, 1996, pp. 14\1–14\7.

Wolf, M.

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, O. Bouchet, M. Wolf, L. Grobe, and L. Jianhui, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

D. R. Kolev, K. Wakamori, M. Matsumoto, T. Kubo, T. Yamada, and N. Yoshimoto, “Gigabit indoor laser communication system for a mobile user with MEMS mirrors and image sensors,” in International Workshop on Optical Wireless Communications (IWOW), Pisa, October22, 2012, pp. 1–3.

Yoshimoto, N.

D. R. Kolev, K. Wakamori, M. Matsumoto, T. Kubo, T. Yamada, and N. Yoshimoto, “Gigabit indoor laser communication system for a mobile user with MEMS mirrors and image sensors,” in International Workshop on Optical Wireless Communications (IWOW), Pisa, October22, 2012, pp. 1–3.

Zimmermann, H.

P. Brandl and H. Zimmermann, Electron. Lett. 49, 552 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Brandl, S. Schidl, A. Polzer, W. Gaberl, and H. Zimmermann, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1428 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Vis. Image Underst.

H. Bay, A. Ess, T. Tuytelaars, and L. Van Gool, Comput. Vis. Image Underst. 110, 346 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

P. Brandl and H. Zimmermann, Electron. Lett. 49, 552 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, O. Bouchet, M. Wolf, L. Grobe, and L. Jianhui, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Brandl, S. Schidl, A. Polzer, W. Gaberl, and H. Zimmermann, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1428 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. IEEE

J. Kahn and J. Barry, Proc. IEEE 85, 265 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. R. Wisely, “A 1 Gbit/s optical wireless tracked architecture for ATM delivery,” in IEE Colloquium on Optical Free Space Communication Links, London, UK, February19, 1996, pp. 14\1–14\7.

D. R. Kolev, K. Wakamori, M. Matsumoto, T. Kubo, T. Yamada, and N. Yoshimoto, “Gigabit indoor laser communication system for a mobile user with MEMS mirrors and image sensors,” in International Workshop on Optical Wireless Communications (IWOW), Pisa, October22, 2012, pp. 1–3.

OpenCV, http://opencv.org .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Different configurations for optical wireless links.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Principle of tracked OWC system (not to scale).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Flowchart of developed control program.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Image taken with the CMOS image sensor with overlaid calculated positions of receiver and laser spot. The green cross marks the center of the detected receiver; the green star marks the laser point. The green rectangle surrounds the coverage area of the MEMS mirror and camera system.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured eye diagram at 3 Gbit/s (PRBS 2311) over a distance of 3.5 m, 50  mV/div, and 50 ps/div.

Equations (1)

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Distance=xn·x·f+2·f.

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