Abstract

We report a pulsed mid-infrared diamond Raman laser with output tuned from 3.38 to 3.80 μm through varying the optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pump wavelength. To our knowledge this is the longest reported wavelength from a solid-state Raman laser. We generated up to 80 μJ with good beam quality and 22% quantum conversion efficiency. Whilst the conversion process itself is efficient, approximately 40% of the generated Stokes light is lost to multiphonon absorption. By introducing a secondary pump beam at the anti-Stokes wavelength to initiate a seed at the Stokes wavelength through Raman resonant four-wave mixing, the laser threshold was reduced by approximately half, and the maximum output increased by 44% to 115 μJ.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. M. Pask, Prog. Quantum Electron. 27, 3 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 5th ed. (Academic, 2013), pp. 295–352.
  3. T. T. Basiev, M. N. Basieva, M. E. Doroshenko, V. V. Fedorov, V. V. Osiko, and S. B. Mirov, Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 17 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Zhao, X. Zhang, X. Guo, X. Bao, L. Li, and J. Cui, Opt. Lett. 38, 1206 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Bernier, V. Fortin, M. El-Amraoui, Y. Messaddeq, and R. Vallée, Opt. Lett. 39, 2052 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, R. Shori, S. Fathpour, D. Dimitropoulos, and O. Stafsudd, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1618 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Ma and S. Fathpour, Opt. Express 20, 17962 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. Raghunathan, D. Borlaug, R. R. Rice, and B. Jalali, Opt. Express 15, 14355 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 1054 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. P. Mildren, Optical Engineering of Diamond (Wiley-VCH, 2013), pp. 1–34.
  11. V. G. Savitski, S. Reilly, and A. J. Kemp, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 218 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Sabella, J. A. Piper, and R. P. Mildren, Proc. SPIE 8959, 89590B (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. P. Mildren, A. Sabella, O. Kitzler, D. J. Spence, and A. M. McKay, in Optical Engineering of Diamond (Wiley-VCH, 2013), pp. 239–276.
  14. M. Jelínek, O. Kitzler, H. Jelínková, J. Šulc, and M. Němec, Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 35 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. S. Hobbs, Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421Z (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Sabella, J. A. Piper, and R. P. Mildren, Opt. Lett. 35, 3874 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. V. Hahn, M. E. Thomas, D. W. Blodgett, and S. G. Kaplan, Proc. SPIE 5078, 148 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. L. Losev, J. Song, J. F. Xia, D. Strickland, and V. V. Brukhanov, Opt. Lett. 27, 2100 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. T. Basiev, S. N. Smetanin, A. S. Shurygin, and A. V. Fedin, Phys. Uspekhi 53, 611 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. V. S. Butylkin, G. V. Venkin, L. L. Kulyuk, D. I. Maleev, Y. G. Khronopulo, and M. F. Shalyaev, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 867 (1977).
    [CrossRef]

2014 (2)

M. Bernier, V. Fortin, M. El-Amraoui, Y. Messaddeq, and R. Vallée, Opt. Lett. 39, 2052 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. Sabella, J. A. Piper, and R. P. Mildren, Proc. SPIE 8959, 89590B (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (3)

J. Zhao, X. Zhang, X. Guo, X. Bao, L. Li, and J. Cui, Opt. Lett. 38, 1206 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 1054 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Savitski, S. Reilly, and A. J. Kemp, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

J. Ma and S. Fathpour, Opt. Express 20, 17962 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Jelínek, O. Kitzler, H. Jelínková, J. Šulc, and M. Němec, Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 35 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

D. S. Hobbs, Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421Z (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Sabella, J. A. Piper, and R. P. Mildren, Opt. Lett. 35, 3874 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Basiev, S. N. Smetanin, A. S. Shurygin, and A. V. Fedin, Phys. Uspekhi 53, 611 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, R. Shori, S. Fathpour, D. Dimitropoulos, and O. Stafsudd, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1618 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Basiev, M. N. Basieva, M. E. Doroshenko, V. V. Fedorov, V. V. Osiko, and S. B. Mirov, Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 17 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

H. M. Pask, Prog. Quantum Electron. 27, 3 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Hahn, M. E. Thomas, D. W. Blodgett, and S. G. Kaplan, Proc. SPIE 5078, 148 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1977 (1)

V. S. Butylkin, G. V. Venkin, L. L. Kulyuk, D. I. Maleev, Y. G. Khronopulo, and M. F. Shalyaev, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 867 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G.

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 5th ed. (Academic, 2013), pp. 295–352.

Baets, R.

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 1054 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bao, X.

Basiev, T. T.

T. T. Basiev, S. N. Smetanin, A. S. Shurygin, and A. V. Fedin, Phys. Uspekhi 53, 611 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Basiev, M. N. Basieva, M. E. Doroshenko, V. V. Fedorov, V. V. Osiko, and S. B. Mirov, Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 17 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Basieva, M. N.

T. T. Basiev, M. N. Basieva, M. E. Doroshenko, V. V. Fedorov, V. V. Osiko, and S. B. Mirov, Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 17 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bernier, M.

Blodgett, D. W.

D. V. Hahn, M. E. Thomas, D. W. Blodgett, and S. G. Kaplan, Proc. SPIE 5078, 148 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Borlaug, D.

Brukhanov, V. V.

Butylkin, V. S.

V. S. Butylkin, G. V. Venkin, L. L. Kulyuk, D. I. Maleev, Y. G. Khronopulo, and M. F. Shalyaev, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 867 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Cui, J.

Dimitropoulos, D.

B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, R. Shori, S. Fathpour, D. Dimitropoulos, and O. Stafsudd, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1618 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Doroshenko, M. E.

T. T. Basiev, M. N. Basieva, M. E. Doroshenko, V. V. Fedorov, V. V. Osiko, and S. B. Mirov, Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 17 (2006).
[CrossRef]

El-Amraoui, M.

Fathpour, S.

J. Ma and S. Fathpour, Opt. Express 20, 17962 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, R. Shori, S. Fathpour, D. Dimitropoulos, and O. Stafsudd, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1618 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fedin, A. V.

T. T. Basiev, S. N. Smetanin, A. S. Shurygin, and A. V. Fedin, Phys. Uspekhi 53, 611 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fedorov, V. V.

T. T. Basiev, M. N. Basieva, M. E. Doroshenko, V. V. Fedorov, V. V. Osiko, and S. B. Mirov, Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 17 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fortin, V.

Gai, X.

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 1054 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X.

Hahn, D. V.

D. V. Hahn, M. E. Thomas, D. W. Blodgett, and S. G. Kaplan, Proc. SPIE 5078, 148 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hobbs, D. S.

D. S. Hobbs, Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421Z (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

V. Raghunathan, D. Borlaug, R. R. Rice, and B. Jalali, Opt. Express 15, 14355 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, R. Shori, S. Fathpour, D. Dimitropoulos, and O. Stafsudd, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1618 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jelínek, M.

M. Jelínek, O. Kitzler, H. Jelínková, J. Šulc, and M. Němec, Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 35 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jelínková, H.

M. Jelínek, O. Kitzler, H. Jelínková, J. Šulc, and M. Němec, Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 35 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, S. G.

D. V. Hahn, M. E. Thomas, D. W. Blodgett, and S. G. Kaplan, Proc. SPIE 5078, 148 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kemp, A. J.

V. G. Savitski, S. Reilly, and A. J. Kemp, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Khronopulo, Y. G.

V. S. Butylkin, G. V. Venkin, L. L. Kulyuk, D. I. Maleev, Y. G. Khronopulo, and M. F. Shalyaev, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 867 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kitzler, O.

M. Jelínek, O. Kitzler, H. Jelínková, J. Šulc, and M. Němec, Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 35 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Mildren, A. Sabella, O. Kitzler, D. J. Spence, and A. M. McKay, in Optical Engineering of Diamond (Wiley-VCH, 2013), pp. 239–276.

Kulyuk, L. L.

V. S. Butylkin, G. V. Venkin, L. L. Kulyuk, D. I. Maleev, Y. G. Khronopulo, and M. F. Shalyaev, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 867 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kuyken, B.

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 1054 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

Losev, L. L.

Luther-Davies, B.

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 1054 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ma, J.

Ma, P.

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 1054 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Madden, S. J.

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 1054 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Maleev, D. I.

V. S. Butylkin, G. V. Venkin, L. L. Kulyuk, D. I. Maleev, Y. G. Khronopulo, and M. F. Shalyaev, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 867 (1977).
[CrossRef]

McKay, A. M.

R. P. Mildren, A. Sabella, O. Kitzler, D. J. Spence, and A. M. McKay, in Optical Engineering of Diamond (Wiley-VCH, 2013), pp. 239–276.

Messaddeq, Y.

Mildren, R. P.

A. Sabella, J. A. Piper, and R. P. Mildren, Proc. SPIE 8959, 89590B (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. Sabella, J. A. Piper, and R. P. Mildren, Opt. Lett. 35, 3874 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Mildren, A. Sabella, O. Kitzler, D. J. Spence, and A. M. McKay, in Optical Engineering of Diamond (Wiley-VCH, 2013), pp. 239–276.

R. P. Mildren, Optical Engineering of Diamond (Wiley-VCH, 2013), pp. 1–34.

Mirov, S. B.

T. T. Basiev, M. N. Basieva, M. E. Doroshenko, V. V. Fedorov, V. V. Osiko, and S. B. Mirov, Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 17 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nemec, M.

M. Jelínek, O. Kitzler, H. Jelínková, J. Šulc, and M. Němec, Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 35 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Osiko, V. V.

T. T. Basiev, M. N. Basieva, M. E. Doroshenko, V. V. Fedorov, V. V. Osiko, and S. B. Mirov, Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 17 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pask, H. M.

H. M. Pask, Prog. Quantum Electron. 27, 3 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Piper, J. A.

A. Sabella, J. A. Piper, and R. P. Mildren, Proc. SPIE 8959, 89590B (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. Sabella, J. A. Piper, and R. P. Mildren, Opt. Lett. 35, 3874 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Raghunathan, V.

V. Raghunathan, D. Borlaug, R. R. Rice, and B. Jalali, Opt. Express 15, 14355 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, R. Shori, S. Fathpour, D. Dimitropoulos, and O. Stafsudd, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1618 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reilly, S.

V. G. Savitski, S. Reilly, and A. J. Kemp, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rice, R. R.

Roelkens, G.

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 1054 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sabella, A.

A. Sabella, J. A. Piper, and R. P. Mildren, Proc. SPIE 8959, 89590B (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. Sabella, J. A. Piper, and R. P. Mildren, Opt. Lett. 35, 3874 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Mildren, A. Sabella, O. Kitzler, D. J. Spence, and A. M. McKay, in Optical Engineering of Diamond (Wiley-VCH, 2013), pp. 239–276.

Savitski, V. G.

V. G. Savitski, S. Reilly, and A. J. Kemp, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shalyaev, M. F.

V. S. Butylkin, G. V. Venkin, L. L. Kulyuk, D. I. Maleev, Y. G. Khronopulo, and M. F. Shalyaev, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 867 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Shori, R.

B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, R. Shori, S. Fathpour, D. Dimitropoulos, and O. Stafsudd, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1618 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shurygin, A. S.

T. T. Basiev, S. N. Smetanin, A. S. Shurygin, and A. V. Fedin, Phys. Uspekhi 53, 611 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smetanin, S. N.

T. T. Basiev, S. N. Smetanin, A. S. Shurygin, and A. V. Fedin, Phys. Uspekhi 53, 611 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.

Spence, D. J.

R. P. Mildren, A. Sabella, O. Kitzler, D. J. Spence, and A. M. McKay, in Optical Engineering of Diamond (Wiley-VCH, 2013), pp. 239–276.

Stafsudd, O.

B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, R. Shori, S. Fathpour, D. Dimitropoulos, and O. Stafsudd, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1618 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Strickland, D.

Šulc, J.

M. Jelínek, O. Kitzler, H. Jelínková, J. Šulc, and M. Němec, Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 35 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, M. E.

D. V. Hahn, M. E. Thomas, D. W. Blodgett, and S. G. Kaplan, Proc. SPIE 5078, 148 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vallée, R.

Van Campenhout, J.

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 1054 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Venkin, G. V.

V. S. Butylkin, G. V. Venkin, L. L. Kulyuk, D. I. Maleev, Y. G. Khronopulo, and M. F. Shalyaev, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 867 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Verheyen, P.

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 1054 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xia, J. F.

Yu, Y.

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 1054 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Zhao, J.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. G. Savitski, S. Reilly, and A. J. Kemp, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, R. Shori, S. Fathpour, D. Dimitropoulos, and O. Stafsudd, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1618 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 1054 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett. (2)

T. T. Basiev, M. N. Basieva, M. E. Doroshenko, V. V. Fedorov, V. V. Osiko, and S. B. Mirov, Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 17 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Jelínek, O. Kitzler, H. Jelínková, J. Šulc, and M. Němec, Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 35 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Uspekhi (1)

T. T. Basiev, S. N. Smetanin, A. S. Shurygin, and A. V. Fedin, Phys. Uspekhi 53, 611 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

D. V. Hahn, M. E. Thomas, D. W. Blodgett, and S. G. Kaplan, Proc. SPIE 5078, 148 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Hobbs, Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421Z (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Sabella, J. A. Piper, and R. P. Mildren, Proc. SPIE 8959, 89590B (2014).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. M. Pask, Prog. Quantum Electron. 27, 3 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. S. Butylkin, G. V. Venkin, L. L. Kulyuk, D. I. Maleev, Y. G. Khronopulo, and M. F. Shalyaev, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 867 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

R. P. Mildren, A. Sabella, O. Kitzler, D. J. Spence, and A. M. McKay, in Optical Engineering of Diamond (Wiley-VCH, 2013), pp. 239–276.

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 5th ed. (Academic, 2013), pp. 295–352.

R. P. Mildren, Optical Engineering of Diamond (Wiley-VCH, 2013), pp. 1–34.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Layout of the diamond Raman laser. The ROC 50 mm input coupler and the Stokes splitter were coated to transmit both pump wavelengths and reflect the Stokes wavelength. The 1.864 μm input was only utilized for the specific case involving seeding through four-wave mixing.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Output stokes energy at 3.705 μm and unconverted pump energy at 2.480 μm with (diamonds) and without (triangles) the secondary 1.864 μm pump beam.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Data points are the average Stokes energies as the output wavelength is tuned from 3.38 to 3.80 μm with a constant 535 μJ average pump energy (primary pump only) entering the crystal. The solid and short dashed curves, respectively, are the diamond absorption and input coupler transmission as measured with a FTIR spectrometer. The long dashed line represents the maximum crystal absorption that can be tolerated with the current design.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Temporal pulse profiles for 535 μJ pump input at 2.480 μm and the subsequent double passed residual pump and Stokes output.

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