Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate the use of high contrast, CMOS-compatible integrated photonic waveguides for Raman spectroscopy. We also derive the dependence of collected Raman power with the waveguide parameters and experimentally verify the derived relations. Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) is evanescently excited and detected using single-mode silicon-nitride strip waveguides. We analyze the measured signal strength of pure IPA corresponding to an 819cm1 Raman peak due to in-phase C-C-O stretch vibration for several waveguide lengths and deduce a pump power to Raman signal conversion efficiency on the waveguide to be at least 1011percm.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. A. Long, The Raman Effect: A Unified Treatment of the Theory of Raman Scattering by Molecules (Wiley, 2002).
  2. M. P. Buric, K. P. Chen, J. Falk, and S. D. Woodruff, Appl. Opt. 47, 4255 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. S. W. Mak, S. Rutledge, R. M. Abu-Ghazalah, F. Eftekhari, J. Irizar, N. C. M. Tam, G. Zheng, and A. S. Helmy, Prog. Quantum Electron. 37, 1 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2202809 (2013).
  5. D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. E. Bowers, Light Sci. Appl. 1, 1 (2012).
  6. M. Pollnau, N. Ismail, B. I. Akca, K. Wörhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, Proc. SPIE 8266, 826602 (2012).
  7. A. Dhakal, A. Z. Subramanian, N. Le Thomas, and R. Baets, “The role of index contrast in the efficiency of absorption and emission of a luminescent particle near a slab waveguide,” presented at the 16th European Conference on Integrated Optics, Spain (2012).
  8. A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Z. Subramanian, N. Le Thomas, and R. G. F. Baets, in Advanced Photonics, K. Ewing and M. Ferreira, eds., OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper ST2B.5.
  9. F. Peyskens, A. Z. Subramanian, A. Dhakal, N. Le Thomas, and R. Baets, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Degest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CM2F.5.
  10. Y. C. Jun, R. M. Briggs, H. A. Atwater, and M. L. Brongersma, Opt. Express 17, 7479 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).
  12. M. J. Colles and J. E. Griffiths, J. Chem. Phys. 7, 56 (2003).
  13. D. Lin-Vien, N. B. Colthup, W. G. Fateley, and J. G. Grasselli, The Handbook of Infrared and Raman Characteristic Frequencies of Organic Molecules (Academic, 1991).
  14. V. Mazet, C. Carteret, D. Brie, J. Idier, and B. Humbert, Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. 76, 2 (2005).
  15. http://www.oceanoptics.com/images/spectra-isopropanol.jpg .

2013 (2)

J. S. W. Mak, S. Rutledge, R. M. Abu-Ghazalah, F. Eftekhari, J. Irizar, N. C. M. Tam, G. Zheng, and A. S. Helmy, Prog. Quantum Electron. 37, 1 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2202809 (2013).

2012 (2)

D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. E. Bowers, Light Sci. Appl. 1, 1 (2012).

M. Pollnau, N. Ismail, B. I. Akca, K. Wörhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, Proc. SPIE 8266, 826602 (2012).

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2005 (1)

V. Mazet, C. Carteret, D. Brie, J. Idier, and B. Humbert, Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. 76, 2 (2005).

2003 (1)

M. J. Colles and J. E. Griffiths, J. Chem. Phys. 7, 56 (2003).

Abu-Ghazalah, R. M.

J. S. W. Mak, S. Rutledge, R. M. Abu-Ghazalah, F. Eftekhari, J. Irizar, N. C. M. Tam, G. Zheng, and A. S. Helmy, Prog. Quantum Electron. 37, 1 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Akca, B. I.

M. Pollnau, N. Ismail, B. I. Akca, K. Wörhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, Proc. SPIE 8266, 826602 (2012).

Atwater, H. A.

Baets, R.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2202809 (2013).

F. Peyskens, A. Z. Subramanian, A. Dhakal, N. Le Thomas, and R. Baets, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Degest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CM2F.5.

A. Dhakal, A. Z. Subramanian, N. Le Thomas, and R. Baets, “The role of index contrast in the efficiency of absorption and emission of a luminescent particle near a slab waveguide,” presented at the 16th European Conference on Integrated Optics, Spain (2012).

Baets, R. G. F.

A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Z. Subramanian, N. Le Thomas, and R. G. F. Baets, in Advanced Photonics, K. Ewing and M. Ferreira, eds., OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper ST2B.5.

Bauters, J.

D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. E. Bowers, Light Sci. Appl. 1, 1 (2012).

Bowers, J. E.

D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. E. Bowers, Light Sci. Appl. 1, 1 (2012).

Brie, D.

V. Mazet, C. Carteret, D. Brie, J. Idier, and B. Humbert, Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. 76, 2 (2005).

Briggs, R. M.

Brongersma, M. L.

Buric, M. P.

Carteret, C.

V. Mazet, C. Carteret, D. Brie, J. Idier, and B. Humbert, Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. 76, 2 (2005).

Chen, K. P.

Claes, T.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2202809 (2013).

Colles, M. J.

M. J. Colles and J. E. Griffiths, J. Chem. Phys. 7, 56 (2003).

Colthup, N. B.

D. Lin-Vien, N. B. Colthup, W. G. Fateley, and J. G. Grasselli, The Handbook of Infrared and Raman Characteristic Frequencies of Organic Molecules (Academic, 1991).

Dai, D.

D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. E. Bowers, Light Sci. Appl. 1, 1 (2012).

de Ridder, R. M.

M. Pollnau, N. Ismail, B. I. Akca, K. Wörhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, Proc. SPIE 8266, 826602 (2012).

Deshpande, P.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2202809 (2013).

Dhakal, A.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2202809 (2013).

A. Dhakal, A. Z. Subramanian, N. Le Thomas, and R. Baets, “The role of index contrast in the efficiency of absorption and emission of a luminescent particle near a slab waveguide,” presented at the 16th European Conference on Integrated Optics, Spain (2012).

A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Z. Subramanian, N. Le Thomas, and R. G. F. Baets, in Advanced Photonics, K. Ewing and M. Ferreira, eds., OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper ST2B.5.

F. Peyskens, A. Z. Subramanian, A. Dhakal, N. Le Thomas, and R. Baets, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Degest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CM2F.5.

Du Bois, B.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2202809 (2013).

Eftekhari, F.

J. S. W. Mak, S. Rutledge, R. M. Abu-Ghazalah, F. Eftekhari, J. Irizar, N. C. M. Tam, G. Zheng, and A. S. Helmy, Prog. Quantum Electron. 37, 1 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Falk, J.

Fateley, W. G.

D. Lin-Vien, N. B. Colthup, W. G. Fateley, and J. G. Grasselli, The Handbook of Infrared and Raman Characteristic Frequencies of Organic Molecules (Academic, 1991).

Grasselli, J. G.

D. Lin-Vien, N. B. Colthup, W. G. Fateley, and J. G. Grasselli, The Handbook of Infrared and Raman Characteristic Frequencies of Organic Molecules (Academic, 1991).

Griffiths, J. E.

M. J. Colles and J. E. Griffiths, J. Chem. Phys. 7, 56 (2003).

Helin, P.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2202809 (2013).

Helmy, A. S.

J. S. W. Mak, S. Rutledge, R. M. Abu-Ghazalah, F. Eftekhari, J. Irizar, N. C. M. Tam, G. Zheng, and A. S. Helmy, Prog. Quantum Electron. 37, 1 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Humbert, B.

V. Mazet, C. Carteret, D. Brie, J. Idier, and B. Humbert, Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. 76, 2 (2005).

Idier, J.

V. Mazet, C. Carteret, D. Brie, J. Idier, and B. Humbert, Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. 76, 2 (2005).

Irizar, J.

J. S. W. Mak, S. Rutledge, R. M. Abu-Ghazalah, F. Eftekhari, J. Irizar, N. C. M. Tam, G. Zheng, and A. S. Helmy, Prog. Quantum Electron. 37, 1 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ismail, N.

M. Pollnau, N. Ismail, B. I. Akca, K. Wörhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, Proc. SPIE 8266, 826602 (2012).

Jansen, R.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2202809 (2013).

Jun, Y. C.

Le Thomas, N.

F. Peyskens, A. Z. Subramanian, A. Dhakal, N. Le Thomas, and R. Baets, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Degest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CM2F.5.

A. Dhakal, A. Z. Subramanian, N. Le Thomas, and R. Baets, “The role of index contrast in the efficiency of absorption and emission of a luminescent particle near a slab waveguide,” presented at the 16th European Conference on Integrated Optics, Spain (2012).

A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Z. Subramanian, N. Le Thomas, and R. G. F. Baets, in Advanced Photonics, K. Ewing and M. Ferreira, eds., OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper ST2B.5.

Leyssens, K.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2202809 (2013).

Lin-Vien, D.

D. Lin-Vien, N. B. Colthup, W. G. Fateley, and J. G. Grasselli, The Handbook of Infrared and Raman Characteristic Frequencies of Organic Molecules (Academic, 1991).

Long, D. A.

D. A. Long, The Raman Effect: A Unified Treatment of the Theory of Raman Scattering by Molecules (Wiley, 2002).

Love, J. D.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).

Mak, J. S. W.

J. S. W. Mak, S. Rutledge, R. M. Abu-Ghazalah, F. Eftekhari, J. Irizar, N. C. M. Tam, G. Zheng, and A. S. Helmy, Prog. Quantum Electron. 37, 1 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mazet, V.

V. Mazet, C. Carteret, D. Brie, J. Idier, and B. Humbert, Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. 76, 2 (2005).

Neutens, P.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2202809 (2013).

Peyskens, F.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2202809 (2013).

A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Z. Subramanian, N. Le Thomas, and R. G. F. Baets, in Advanced Photonics, K. Ewing and M. Ferreira, eds., OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper ST2B.5.

F. Peyskens, A. Z. Subramanian, A. Dhakal, N. Le Thomas, and R. Baets, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Degest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CM2F.5.

Pollnau, M.

M. Pollnau, N. Ismail, B. I. Akca, K. Wörhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, Proc. SPIE 8266, 826602 (2012).

Rottenberg, X.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2202809 (2013).

Rutledge, S.

J. S. W. Mak, S. Rutledge, R. M. Abu-Ghazalah, F. Eftekhari, J. Irizar, N. C. M. Tam, G. Zheng, and A. S. Helmy, Prog. Quantum Electron. 37, 1 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Selvaraja, S.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2202809 (2013).

Severi, S.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2202809 (2013).

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).

Subramanian, A. Z.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2202809 (2013).

F. Peyskens, A. Z. Subramanian, A. Dhakal, N. Le Thomas, and R. Baets, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Degest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CM2F.5.

A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Z. Subramanian, N. Le Thomas, and R. G. F. Baets, in Advanced Photonics, K. Ewing and M. Ferreira, eds., OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper ST2B.5.

A. Dhakal, A. Z. Subramanian, N. Le Thomas, and R. Baets, “The role of index contrast in the efficiency of absorption and emission of a luminescent particle near a slab waveguide,” presented at the 16th European Conference on Integrated Optics, Spain (2012).

Tam, N. C. M.

J. S. W. Mak, S. Rutledge, R. M. Abu-Ghazalah, F. Eftekhari, J. Irizar, N. C. M. Tam, G. Zheng, and A. S. Helmy, Prog. Quantum Electron. 37, 1 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Van Dorpe, P.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2202809 (2013).

Woodruff, S. D.

Wörhoff, K.

M. Pollnau, N. Ismail, B. I. Akca, K. Wörhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, Proc. SPIE 8266, 826602 (2012).

Zheng, G.

J. S. W. Mak, S. Rutledge, R. M. Abu-Ghazalah, F. Eftekhari, J. Irizar, N. C. M. Tam, G. Zheng, and A. S. Helmy, Prog. Quantum Electron. 37, 1 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. (1)

V. Mazet, C. Carteret, D. Brie, J. Idier, and B. Humbert, Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. 76, 2 (2005).

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2202809 (2013).

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. J. Colles and J. E. Griffiths, J. Chem. Phys. 7, 56 (2003).

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. E. Bowers, Light Sci. Appl. 1, 1 (2012).

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Pollnau, N. Ismail, B. I. Akca, K. Wörhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, Proc. SPIE 8266, 826602 (2012).

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. S. W. Mak, S. Rutledge, R. M. Abu-Ghazalah, F. Eftekhari, J. Irizar, N. C. M. Tam, G. Zheng, and A. S. Helmy, Prog. Quantum Electron. 37, 1 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).

A. Dhakal, A. Z. Subramanian, N. Le Thomas, and R. Baets, “The role of index contrast in the efficiency of absorption and emission of a luminescent particle near a slab waveguide,” presented at the 16th European Conference on Integrated Optics, Spain (2012).

A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Z. Subramanian, N. Le Thomas, and R. G. F. Baets, in Advanced Photonics, K. Ewing and M. Ferreira, eds., OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper ST2B.5.

F. Peyskens, A. Z. Subramanian, A. Dhakal, N. Le Thomas, and R. Baets, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Degest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CM2F.5.

D. Lin-Vien, N. B. Colthup, W. G. Fateley, and J. G. Grasselli, The Handbook of Infrared and Raman Characteristic Frequencies of Organic Molecules (Academic, 1991).

http://www.oceanoptics.com/images/spectra-isopropanol.jpg .

D. A. Long, The Raman Effect: A Unified Treatment of the Theory of Raman Scattering by Molecules (Wiley, 2002).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of our analysis applied to the strip waveguide geometry. The particles are assumed to be embedded with a uniform density on the upper cladding. Symbols are explained in the text.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of experimental setup. H, half-waveplate; BF, Band-pass filter; L1, Aspheric lens; L2, Objective; EF, Long pass edge filter; PM, parabolic mirror; SMF, single-mode fiber.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Raw spectrum measured from a 1.6 cm waveguide without IPA (blue) and with IPA (red). The spectra are shifted vertically for clarity with respective zeros at 3500cm1. (b) The spectrum of IPA extracted from the spectra in (a). The spectrum measured independently using a commercial spectrometer is also shown in the inset (from [15]).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) ξ(L) and (b) ζ(L) for 819cm1 peak due to IPA measured using photonic waveguides of several lengths. Red diamond markers: actual measured data. Blue solid square with error bars: mean and standard deviation. Black dashed line: theoretical fit, to respective equations as a guide for the eye.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Pwg(r⃗0)P0=34πngn(λ0n)2ε(r⃗0)|d^0·E⃗(r⃗0)|2ε0ε(r⃗)|E⃗(r⃗)|2dr⃗,
|d0|2=α2|E(r⃗0)|2ngPpumpcε0ε(r⃗)|E(r⃗)|2dr⃗;
Pwg(r0)Ppump=π2n(|E(r⃗0)|2ε0ε(r⃗)|E(r⃗)|2dr⃗αngλ0)2η(r0)σ,
dPwgPpump=dzρσcladη(r⃗)dr⃗=dzρση0,
Pcol(L)Pinξ(L)=ρση0γinγout0Leαpzeαs(Lz)dz=ρση0γinγouteαpL[eΔαL1Δα],
ζ(L)Pcol(L)Ptx(L)=ρση0[eΔαL1Δα].

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