Abstract

We describe an approach for producing robust multimaterial chalcogenide glass fibers for mid-wave and long-wave mid-infrared transmission. By combining the traditional rod-in-tube process with multimaterial coextrusion, we prepare a hybrid glass–polymer preform that is drawn continuously into a robust step-index fiber with a built-in, thermally compatible polymer jacket. Using tellurium-based chalcogenides, the fibers have a transparency window covering the 3–12 μm spectral range, making them particularly attractive for delivering quantum cascade laser light and in space applications.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

2013 (2)

2012 (5)

2011 (1)

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).

2010 (3)

2009 (5)

G. Tao, H. Guo, L. Feng, M. Lu, W. Wei, and B. Peng, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92, 2226 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Hénault, Opt. Lett. 34, 1096 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, N. K. Hon, B. Jalali, and R. Rice, Opt. Express 17, 8029 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, and M. F. Churbanov, Inorg. Mater. 45, 1439 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Harris, Proc. SPIE 7425, 74250P (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, Nat. Mater. 6, 336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Churbanov, V. S. Shiryaev, A. I. Suchkov, A. A. Pushkin, V. V. Gerasimenko, R. M. Shaposhnikov, E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, Y. N. Pyrkov, J. Lucas, and J.-L. Adam, Inorg. Mater. 43, 441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Houizot, C. Boussard-Plédel, A. J. Faber, L. K. Cheng, B. Bureau, P. A. V. Nijnatten, W. L. M. Gielesen, J. P. do Carmo, and J. Lucas, Opt. Express 15, 12529 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Wilhelm, C. Boussard-Plédel, Q. Coulombier, J. Lucas, B. Bureau, and P. Lucas, Adv. Mater. 19, 3796 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Danto, P. Houizot, C. Boussard-Pledel, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, and J. Lucas, Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 1847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

L. Kaltenegger and M. Fridlund, Adv. Space Res. 36, 1114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S. Cherukulappurath, M. Guignard, C. Marchand, F. Smektala, and G. Boudebs, Opt. Commun. 242, 313 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. L. Coq, C. Boussard-Plédel, G. Fonteneau, T. Pain, B. Bureau, and J.-L. Adam, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 451 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, F. H. Kung, R. Miklos, and I. D. Aggarwal, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 737 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. Nishii, S. Morimoto, I. Inagawa, R. Iizuka, T. Yamashita, and T. Yamagishi, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 199 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

1986 (2)

M. Wehr and C. L. Sergent, Proc. SPIE 0618, 130 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. Katsuyama and H. Matsumura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 22 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Abouraddy, A. F.

Adam, J.-L.

M. F. Churbanov, V. S. Shiryaev, A. I. Suchkov, A. A. Pushkin, V. V. Gerasimenko, R. M. Shaposhnikov, E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, Y. N. Pyrkov, J. Lucas, and J.-L. Adam, Inorg. Mater. 43, 441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Coq, C. Boussard-Plédel, G. Fonteneau, T. Pain, B. Bureau, and J.-L. Adam, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 451 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I. D.

J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, F. H. Kung, R. Miklos, and I. D. Aggarwal, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 737 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Andreeta, M. R. B.

M. R. B. Andreeta and A. C. Hernandes, in Springer Handbook of Crystal Growth, G. Dhanaraj, K. Byrappa, V. Prasad, and M. Dudley, eds. (Springer, 2010), pp. 393–432.

Ballato, J.

Banaei, E.-H.

Bastien, J.-C.

Bayindir, M.

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, Nat. Mater. 6, 336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Benoit, G.

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, Nat. Mater. 6, 336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boudebs, G.

S. Cherukulappurath, M. Guignard, C. Marchand, F. Smektala, and G. Boudebs, Opt. Commun. 242, 313 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boussard, C.

X. Wang, Q. Nie, G. Wang, J. Sun, B. Song, S. Dai, X. Zhang, B. Bureau, C. Boussard, C. Conseil, and H. Ma, Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 86, 586 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Boussard-Pledel, C.

S. Danto, P. Houizot, C. Boussard-Pledel, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, and J. Lucas, Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 1847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boussard-Plédel, C.

Bureau, B.

X. Wang, Q. Nie, G. Wang, J. Sun, B. Song, S. Dai, X. Zhang, B. Bureau, C. Boussard, C. Conseil, and H. Ma, Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 86, 586 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Conseil, J.-C. Bastien, C. Boussard-Plédel, X.-H. Zhang, P. Lucas, S. Dai, J. Lucas, and B. Bureau, Opt. Mater. Express 2, 1470 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Maurugeon, C. Boussard-Plédel, J. Troles, A. J. Faber, P. Lucas, X. H. Zhang, J. Lucas, and B. Bureau, J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 3358 (2010).

A. A. Wilhelm, C. Boussard-Plédel, Q. Coulombier, J. Lucas, B. Bureau, and P. Lucas, Adv. Mater. 19, 3796 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Houizot, C. Boussard-Plédel, A. J. Faber, L. K. Cheng, B. Bureau, P. A. V. Nijnatten, W. L. M. Gielesen, J. P. do Carmo, and J. Lucas, Opt. Express 15, 12529 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Coq, C. Boussard-Plédel, G. Fonteneau, T. Pain, B. Bureau, and J.-L. Adam, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 451 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

F. Capasso, Opt. Eng. 49, 111102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, L. K.

Cherukulappurath, S.

S. Cherukulappurath, M. Guignard, C. Marchand, F. Smektala, and G. Boudebs, Opt. Commun. 242, 313 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Churbanov, M. F.

G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, and M. F. Churbanov, Inorg. Mater. 45, 1439 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Churbanov, V. S. Shiryaev, A. I. Suchkov, A. A. Pushkin, V. V. Gerasimenko, R. M. Shaposhnikov, E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, Y. N. Pyrkov, J. Lucas, and J.-L. Adam, Inorg. Mater. 43, 441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Conseil, C.

X. Wang, Q. Nie, G. Wang, J. Sun, B. Song, S. Dai, X. Zhang, B. Bureau, C. Boussard, C. Conseil, and H. Ma, Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 86, 586 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Conseil, J.-C. Bastien, C. Boussard-Plédel, X.-H. Zhang, P. Lucas, S. Dai, J. Lucas, and B. Bureau, Opt. Mater. Express 2, 1470 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Coq, D. L.

D. L. Coq, C. Boussard-Plédel, G. Fonteneau, T. Pain, B. Bureau, and J.-L. Adam, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 451 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Coulombier, Q.

A. A. Wilhelm, C. Boussard-Plédel, Q. Coulombier, J. Lucas, B. Bureau, and P. Lucas, Adv. Mater. 19, 3796 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dai, S.

C. Conseil, J.-C. Bastien, C. Boussard-Plédel, X.-H. Zhang, P. Lucas, S. Dai, J. Lucas, and B. Bureau, Opt. Mater. Express 2, 1470 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, Q. Nie, G. Wang, J. Sun, B. Song, S. Dai, X. Zhang, B. Bureau, C. Boussard, C. Conseil, and H. Ma, Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 86, 586 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Danto, S.

S. Danto, P. Houizot, C. Boussard-Pledel, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, and J. Lucas, Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 1847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Delfyett, P. J.

Dianov, E. M.

G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, and M. F. Churbanov, Inorg. Mater. 45, 1439 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Churbanov, V. S. Shiryaev, A. I. Suchkov, A. A. Pushkin, V. V. Gerasimenko, R. M. Shaposhnikov, E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, Y. N. Pyrkov, J. Lucas, and J.-L. Adam, Inorg. Mater. 43, 441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

do Carmo, J. P.

Dragic, P.

J. Ballato and P. Dragic, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96, 2675 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).

Ensley, T. R.

Faber, A. J.

Feng, L.

G. Tao, H. Guo, L. Feng, M. Lu, W. Wei, and B. Peng, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92, 2226 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fink, Y.

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, Nat. Mater. 6, 336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fonteneau, G.

D. L. Coq, C. Boussard-Plédel, G. Fonteneau, T. Pain, B. Bureau, and J.-L. Adam, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 451 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Foy, P.

Fridlund, M.

L. Kaltenegger and M. Fridlund, Adv. Space Res. 36, 1114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Geng, J.

Gerasimenko, V. V.

M. F. Churbanov, V. S. Shiryaev, A. I. Suchkov, A. A. Pushkin, V. V. Gerasimenko, R. M. Shaposhnikov, E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, Y. N. Pyrkov, J. Lucas, and J.-L. Adam, Inorg. Mater. 43, 441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gielesen, W. L. M.

Guignard, M.

S. Cherukulappurath, M. Guignard, C. Marchand, F. Smektala, and G. Boudebs, Opt. Commun. 242, 313 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guo, H.

G. Tao, H. Guo, L. Feng, M. Lu, W. Wei, and B. Peng, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92, 2226 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Harrington, J. A.

Harris, D. C.

D. C. Harris, Proc. SPIE 7425, 74250P (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hart, S. D.

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, Nat. Mater. 6, 336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hawkins, T.

Hénault, F.

Hernandes, A. C.

M. R. B. Andreeta and A. C. Hernandes, in Springer Handbook of Crystal Growth, G. Dhanaraj, K. Byrappa, V. Prasad, and M. Dudley, eds. (Springer, 2010), pp. 393–432.

Hon, N. K.

Houizot, P.

Hu, H.

Iizuka, R.

J. Nishii, S. Morimoto, I. Inagawa, R. Iizuka, T. Yamashita, and T. Yamagishi, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 199 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Inagawa, I.

J. Nishii, S. Morimoto, I. Inagawa, R. Iizuka, T. Yamashita, and T. Yamagishi, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 199 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

Jiang, S.

Kaltenegger, L.

L. Kaltenegger and M. Fridlund, Adv. Space Res. 36, 1114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Katsuyama, T.

T. Katsuyama and H. Matsumura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 22 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, J. J.

Koltashev, V. V.

M. F. Churbanov, V. S. Shiryaev, A. I. Suchkov, A. A. Pushkin, V. V. Gerasimenko, R. M. Shaposhnikov, E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, Y. N. Pyrkov, J. Lucas, and J.-L. Adam, Inorg. Mater. 43, 441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kung, F. H.

J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, F. H. Kung, R. Miklos, and I. D. Aggarwal, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 737 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kuriki, K.

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, Nat. Mater. 6, 336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M.

G. Tao, H. Guo, L. Feng, M. Lu, W. Wei, and B. Peng, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92, 2226 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, J.

C. Conseil, J.-C. Bastien, C. Boussard-Plédel, X.-H. Zhang, P. Lucas, S. Dai, J. Lucas, and B. Bureau, Opt. Mater. Express 2, 1470 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Maurugeon, C. Boussard-Plédel, J. Troles, A. J. Faber, P. Lucas, X. H. Zhang, J. Lucas, and B. Bureau, J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 3358 (2010).

M. F. Churbanov, V. S. Shiryaev, A. I. Suchkov, A. A. Pushkin, V. V. Gerasimenko, R. M. Shaposhnikov, E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, Y. N. Pyrkov, J. Lucas, and J.-L. Adam, Inorg. Mater. 43, 441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Wilhelm, C. Boussard-Plédel, Q. Coulombier, J. Lucas, B. Bureau, and P. Lucas, Adv. Mater. 19, 3796 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Houizot, C. Boussard-Plédel, A. J. Faber, L. K. Cheng, B. Bureau, P. A. V. Nijnatten, W. L. M. Gielesen, J. P. do Carmo, and J. Lucas, Opt. Express 15, 12529 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Danto, P. Houizot, C. Boussard-Pledel, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, and J. Lucas, Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 1847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, P.

Luo, T.

Luther-Davies, B.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).

Ma, H.

X. Wang, Q. Nie, G. Wang, J. Sun, B. Song, S. Dai, X. Zhang, B. Bureau, C. Boussard, C. Conseil, and H. Ma, Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 86, 586 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Marchand, C.

S. Cherukulappurath, M. Guignard, C. Marchand, F. Smektala, and G. Boudebs, Opt. Commun. 242, 313 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marquez, M. P.

Matsumura, H.

T. Katsuyama and H. Matsumura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 22 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Maurugeon, S.

McMillen, C.

Miklos, R.

J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, F. H. Kung, R. Miklos, and I. D. Aggarwal, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 737 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morimoto, S.

J. Nishii, S. Morimoto, I. Inagawa, R. Iizuka, T. Yamashita, and T. Yamagishi, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 199 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, D.

Nguyen, V. Q.

J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, F. H. Kung, R. Miklos, and I. D. Aggarwal, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 737 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nie, Q.

X. Wang, Q. Nie, G. Wang, J. Sun, B. Song, S. Dai, X. Zhang, B. Bureau, C. Boussard, C. Conseil, and H. Ma, Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 86, 586 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nijnatten, P. A. V.

Nishii, J.

J. Nishii, S. Morimoto, I. Inagawa, R. Iizuka, T. Yamashita, and T. Yamagishi, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 199 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Nishii, T. Yamashita, and T. Yamagishi, Appl. Opt. 28, 5122 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nubling, R. K.

Orf, N.

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, Nat. Mater. 6, 336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pain, T.

D. L. Coq, C. Boussard-Plédel, G. Fonteneau, T. Pain, B. Bureau, and J.-L. Adam, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 451 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peng, B.

G. Tao, H. Guo, L. Feng, M. Lu, W. Wei, and B. Peng, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92, 2226 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Piracha, M. U.

Plotnichenko, V. G.

G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, and M. F. Churbanov, Inorg. Mater. 45, 1439 (2009).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).

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X. Wang, Q. Nie, G. Wang, J. Sun, B. Song, S. Dai, X. Zhang, B. Bureau, C. Boussard, C. Conseil, and H. Ma, Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 86, 586 (2012).
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Other (1)

M. R. B. Andreeta and A. C. Hernandes, in Springer Handbook of Crystal Growth, G. Dhanaraj, K. Byrappa, V. Prasad, and M. Dudley, eds. (Springer, 2010), pp. 393–432.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

FTIR transmission spectrum for bulk Te-ChG samples used as core (G1) and cladding (G2) in our fiber. Transmission through a 2-mm-thick disk sectioned from an extruded preform is also shown. The insets show photographs of the samples. The left inset shows a bulk disk of G1 sectioned from a rod produced by melt-quenching [Fig. 2(b)]. The right inset shows a preform disk that was sectioned from the full extruded preform shown in Fig. 2(c).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fabrication of a robust multimaterial Te-ChG fiber. (a) Schematic of the fabrication steps to produce the extrusion billet via a modified rod-in-tube process. G1 (rod) and G2 (tube) are the core and cladding Te-ChGs, respectively, and P is the polymer jacket. (b) Photographs of the structures corresponding to the schematics in (a), culminating in a hybrid ChG–polymer billet. All scale bars are 10 mm. (c) Extruding the billet into a rod (middle panel) and subsequent preparation of a preform (right panel). (d) Thermal drawing of the preform into an extended robust fiber. The middle panel is a transmission optical micrograph of the cross section. The right panel is a reflection optical micrograph of the Te-ChG core–cladding. The core–cladding interface is not visible due to the small index contrast.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Transmission spectrum obtained via FTIR for a 3-cm-long fiber sample. The inset shows the three configurations used to measure the transmission of three sources; from bottom to top: (i) FTIR; (ii) QCL (at 6.1 and 9.4 μm); and (iii) a He–Ne laser (at 3.39 μm). To the left of the fiber, we show the coupling system for each source and to the right, we show the corresponding detector. The numbers refer to the focal length of each lens. Here “D” is a DLaTGS detector and “Cam” is an IR camera. (b) White light transmission image through a fiber sample. (c) and (d) IR field distribution through 3- and 20-cm-long fibers. The white-dashed circles are guides for the eye and correspond to the core–cladding and cladding–jacket interfaces. (e) Photograph of a multimaterial Te-ChG fiber tapered by a factor of 3, demonstrating its mechanical robustness. The black Te-ChG core and cladding are visible inside the transparent polymer jacket.

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