Abstract

We propose a hybrid optical-digital imaging system that can provide high-resolution retinal images without wavefront sensing or correction of the spatial and dynamic variations of eye aberrations. A methodology based on wavefront coding is implemented in a fundus camera in order to obtain a high-quality image of retinal detail. Wavefront-coded systems rely simply on the use of a cubic-phase plate in the pupil of the optical system. The phase element is intended to blur images in such a way that invariance to optical aberrations is achieved. The blur is then removed by image postprocessing. Thus, the system can provide high-resolution retinal images, avoiding all the optics needed to sense and correct ocular aberration, i.e., wavefront sensors and deformable mirrors.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2011

J. Arines, Opt. Commun. 284, 1548 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Stoebenau, R. Kleindienst, M. Hofmann, and S. Sinzinger, Proc. SPIE 8126, 812614 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

2006

2005

V. Nourrit, B. Vohnsen, and P. Artal, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 585 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

2000

1998

1997

1995

Acosta, E.

Arines, J.

J. Arines, Opt. Commun. 284, 1548 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Artal, P.

V. Nourrit, B. Vohnsen, and P. Artal, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 585 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Fernandez, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, Opt. Lett. 26, 746 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bara, S.

Blendowske, R.

Bradburn, S.

Cathey, W. T.

Catlin, D.

Chamadoira, S.

Dainty, C.

Dowski, E. R.

Dowski, J. R.

J. R. Dowski, “Mechanically-adjustable optical phase filters for modifying depth of field, aberration-tolerance, anti-aliasing in optical systems,” U.S. patent7,180,673 B2 (February20, 2007).

Fernandez, E. J.

Gonzalez, R. C.

R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Wood, Digital Image Processing (Pearson Education, 2008).

Guerrero-Colon, J. A.

J. A. Guerrero-Colon and J. Portilla, “Two-level adaptive denoising using Gaussian scale mixtures in overcomplete oriented pyramids,” in 12th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 2005.

Hofmann, M.

S. Stoebenau, R. Kleindienst, M. Hofmann, and S. Sinzinger, Proc. SPIE 8126, 812614 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Iglesias, I.

Kleindienst, R.

S. Stoebenau, R. Kleindienst, M. Hofmann, and S. Sinzinger, Proc. SPIE 8126, 812614 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moreno-Barriuso, E.

Navarro, R.

Nourrit, V.

V. Nourrit, B. Vohnsen, and P. Artal, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 585 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Portilla, J.

J. A. Guerrero-Colon and J. Portilla, “Two-level adaptive denoising using Gaussian scale mixtures in overcomplete oriented pyramids,” in 12th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 2005.

Rombach, M. C.

Samokhin, A. B.

Simonov, A. N.

Sinzinger, S.

S. Stoebenau, R. Kleindienst, M. Hofmann, and S. Sinzinger, Proc. SPIE 8126, 812614 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stoebenau, S.

S. Stoebenau, R. Kleindienst, M. Hofmann, and S. Sinzinger, Proc. SPIE 8126, 812614 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vohnsen, B.

V. Nourrit, B. Vohnsen, and P. Artal, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 585 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wach, H. B.

Wood, R. E.

R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Wood, Digital Image Processing (Pearson Education, 2008).

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt.

V. Nourrit, B. Vohnsen, and P. Artal, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 585 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Commun.

J. Arines, Opt. Commun. 284, 1548 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

S. Stoebenau, R. Kleindienst, M. Hofmann, and S. Sinzinger, Proc. SPIE 8126, 812614 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Wood, Digital Image Processing (Pearson Education, 2008).

http://www.lia.org/publications/ansi/Z136-3 .

J. A. Guerrero-Colon and J. Portilla, “Two-level adaptive denoising using Gaussian scale mixtures in overcomplete oriented pyramids,” in 12th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 2005.

J. R. Dowski, “Mechanically-adjustable optical phase filters for modifying depth of field, aberration-tolerance, anti-aliasing in optical systems,” U.S. patent7,180,673 B2 (February20, 2007).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Trefoil phase plate, (b) phase fringes provided by point diffraction interferometry, (c) retrieved phase, and (d) simulated PSF.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Aberrations of the fabricated phase plate for different pupil radii: (a) trefoil aberration and (b) other significant aberrations.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Interferogram of the phase plate used to generate JA eye aberrations within a pupil of 7 mm diameter. Spherical power was compensated with a spherical carrier wave in the PDI.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimental PSFs: (a) AE aberrations, (b) WFC phase plate, and (c)  AE + WFC aberrations.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Image blurred by AE aberrations and (b) wavefront-coded image.

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