Abstract

We report a record group delay of 19.5 ns (an equivalent group index of 292) measured in a strongly apodized, 2 cm long, femtosecond fiber Bragg grating (FBG). This significant (4-fold) improvement over the previous record results from the presence of a Fabry–Perot arising from the apodization. The measured group-index spectrum is well explained by a model that accounts for the apodized profiles of the index modulation, propagation loss, and birefringence of the grating. The peak power loss inferred from this model is only 0.12m1, which is one of the lowest values reported for an FBG.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

H. Wen, G. Skolianos, S. Fan, and M. Digonnet, Proc. SPIE 7949, 79490E (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, Science 330, 1081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

H. G. Winful, New J. Phys. 8, 101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mok, C. de Sterke, and B. Eggleton, Opt. Express 14, 11987 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mok, M. Sterke, I. Littler, and B. Eggleton, Nat. Phys. 2, 775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2001 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

T. Erdogan, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

V. Mizrahi and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1513 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Avino, S.

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, Science 330, 1081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barwood, G. P.

H. S. Margolis, C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, and P. Gill, in 15th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 229–230.

Becker, M.

Bernier, M.

Brinkmeyer, E.

D. Johlen, F. Knappe, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 1999, and the International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication, Technical Digest, February21–26, 1999, Vol. 3.

Bruckner, S.

Chow, J.

De Natale, P.

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, Science 330, 1081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

de Sterke, C.

Desrosiers, C.

Digonnet, M.

H. Wen, M. Terrel, S. Fan, and M. Digonnet, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 156 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Wen, G. Skolianos, S. Fan, and M. Digonnet, Proc. SPIE 7949, 79490E (2011).
[CrossRef]

Digonnet, M. J. F.

Edwards, C. S.

H. S. Margolis, C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, and P. Gill, in 15th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 229–230.

Eggleton, B.

J. Mok, C. de Sterke, and B. Eggleton, Opt. Express 14, 11987 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mok, M. Sterke, I. Littler, and B. Eggleton, Nat. Phys. 2, 775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

H. Wen, G. Skolianos, S. Fan, M. Bernier, R. Vallée, and M. J. F. Digonnet, J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 1804 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Wen, M. Terrel, S. Fan, and M. Digonnet, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 156 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Wen, G. Skolianos, S. Fan, and M. Digonnet, Proc. SPIE 7949, 79490E (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ferraro, P.

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, Science 330, 1081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gagliardi, G.

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, Science 330, 1081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gill, P.

H. S. Margolis, C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, and P. Gill, in 15th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 229–230.

Gorodetsky, M.

Granpayeh, N.

A. Tameh, M. Isfahani, M. Javan, and N. Granpayeh, in IEEE/LEOS Winter Topicals Meeting Series, January2009, pp. 26–27.

Gray, M.

Grobnic, D.

Ilchenko, V.

Isfahani, M.

A. Tameh, M. Isfahani, M. Javan, and N. Granpayeh, in IEEE/LEOS Winter Topicals Meeting Series, January2009, pp. 26–27.

Javan, M.

A. Tameh, M. Isfahani, M. Javan, and N. Granpayeh, in IEEE/LEOS Winter Topicals Meeting Series, January2009, pp. 26–27.

Johlen, D.

D. Johlen, F. Knappe, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 1999, and the International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication, Technical Digest, February21–26, 1999, Vol. 3.

Kimble, H.

Knappe, F.

D. Johlen, F. Knappe, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 1999, and the International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication, Technical Digest, February21–26, 1999, Vol. 3.

Littler, I.

J. Mok, M. Sterke, I. Littler, and B. Eggleton, Nat. Phys. 2, 775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Chow, D. McClelland, M. Gray, and I. Littler, Opt. Lett. 30, 1923 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mabuchi, H.

Margolis, H. S.

H. S. Margolis, C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, and P. Gill, in 15th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 229–230.

McClelland, D.

Mihailov, S. J.

Mizrahi, V.

V. Mizrahi and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1513 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mok, J.

J. Mok, M. Sterke, I. Littler, and B. Eggleton, Nat. Phys. 2, 775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mok, C. de Sterke, and B. Eggleton, Opt. Express 14, 11987 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morasse, B.

Poladian, L.

Rauschenbeutel, A.

Renner, H.

H. Renner, Opt. Express 9, 546 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Johlen, F. Knappe, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 1999, and the International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication, Technical Digest, February21–26, 1999, Vol. 3.

Rothhardt, M.

Saliminia, A.

Salza, M.

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, Science 330, 1081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Savchenkov, A.

Sheng, Y.

Sipe, J.

Sipe, J. E.

V. Mizrahi and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1513 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Skolianos, G.

Smelser, C. W.

Sterke, C.

Sterke, M.

J. Mok, M. Sterke, I. Littler, and B. Eggleton, Nat. Phys. 2, 775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Streed, E.

Tameh, A.

A. Tameh, M. Isfahani, M. Javan, and N. Granpayeh, in IEEE/LEOS Winter Topicals Meeting Series, January2009, pp. 26–27.

Terrel, M.

H. Wen, M. Terrel, S. Fan, and M. Digonnet, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 156 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vallée, R.

Vernooy, D.

Wen, H.

H. Wen, G. Skolianos, S. Fan, M. Bernier, R. Vallée, and M. J. F. Digonnet, J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 1804 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Wen, M. Terrel, S. Fan, and M. Digonnet, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 156 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Wen, G. Skolianos, S. Fan, and M. Digonnet, Proc. SPIE 7949, 79490E (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Wen, “Ultra-high sensitivity strain sensor using slow light in fiber Bragg gratings,” Ph.D. dissertation (Stanford University, 2012), Sect. 2.3.

Winful, H. G.

H. G. Winful, New J. Phys. 8, 101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wuttke, C.

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

H. Wen, M. Terrel, S. Fan, and M. Digonnet, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 156 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nat. Phys. (1)

J. Mok, M. Sterke, I. Littler, and B. Eggleton, Nat. Phys. 2, 775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

H. G. Winful, New J. Phys. 8, 101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Wen, G. Skolianos, S. Fan, and M. Digonnet, Proc. SPIE 7949, 79490E (2011).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, Science 330, 1081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

A. Tameh, M. Isfahani, M. Javan, and N. Granpayeh, in IEEE/LEOS Winter Topicals Meeting Series, January2009, pp. 26–27.

H. S. Margolis, C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, and P. Gill, in 15th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 229–230.

H. Wen, “Ultra-high sensitivity strain sensor using slow light in fiber Bragg gratings,” Ph.D. dissertation (Stanford University, 2012), Sect. 2.3.

D. Johlen, F. Knappe, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 1999, and the International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication, Technical Digest, February21–26, 1999, Vol. 3.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Index profile of a uniform FBG (period Λ not to scale). (b) Simulated transmission and group index spectra of this FBG. Λ is the FBG period, and n0 the refractive index of the unperturbed fiber mode.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Index profile of a Gaussian-apodized FBG. (b) Simulated transmission and group index spectra of this FBG.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Index profile of an FBG written using the femtosecond writing technique (period Λ not to scale). (b) Simulated transmission and group index spectra of this FBG.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental setup used to measure the group delay and transmission of the FBG (see text for details).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Group index measurement (solid line), theoretical prediction (dashed lines).

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