Abstract

We report an experimental study that shows the attribution of the elastic property of light absorbing targets to the generation of ultrasound signals induced due to the photoacoustic effect. We investigated the variation in strength of the detected photoacoustic signals for various targets embedded in a background phantom with: (1) different elastic coefficients (94–346 kPa) and (2) various sizes (0.25–1.5mm2). The results show that photoacoustic signals increase with an increase in elastic coefficient (i.e., showing to contrast in elastic property) while it is independent of variation in target sizes. Quantitative (analysis) study, and 2D and 3D reconstructed images are also presented. This study demonstrates the feasibility of imaging elastic property using photoacoustic technique.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Suheshkumar Singh and H. Jiang, “Estimating both direction and magnitude of flow velocity using photoacoustic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (in press).
  3. H. Jiang, Z. Yuan, and X. Gu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 878 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. Miller, and S. Y. Emelianov, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034024 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Scholz, M. Engelhardt, B. Brendel, and H. Ermert, J. Ultrasound Med. 24, 985 (2005).
  6. T. Krouskop, T. M. Wheeler, F. Kallel, B. S. Garra, and T. Hall, Ultrason. Imag. 20, 260 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Z. Xu, R. Paparcone, and M. J. Buehler, Biophys. J. 98, 2053 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Xi, L. Zhou, and H. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 013702 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Beard, Interf. Foc. 1, 602 (2011).
  10. B. T. Cox, J. G. Laufer, and P. Beard, Proc. SPIE 7177, 717713 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. R. Hendee and E. Russell Ritenour, Medical Imaging Physics, 4th ed. (Wiley-Liss, 2002).
  12. M. Suheshkumar Singh, K. Rajan, and R. M. Vasu, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 104704 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. E. Connor, J. Mwamuka, A. Gole, C. J. Murphy, and M. D. Wyatt, Small 1, 325 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. J. Hall, M. Bilgen, M. F. Insana, and T. A. Krouskop, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 44, 1355 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Sarvazyan, A. Skovoroda, S. Emelianov, J. Fowlkes, J. Pipe, R. Adler, R. Buxton, and P. L. Carson, Acoust. Imaging 21, 223 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 013702 (1996).

2012

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Xi, L. Zhou, and H. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 013702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

P. Beard, Interf. Foc. 1, 602 (2011).

M. Suheshkumar Singh, K. Rajan, and R. M. Vasu, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 104704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

Z. Xu, R. Paparcone, and M. J. Buehler, Biophys. J. 98, 2053 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

B. T. Cox, J. G. Laufer, and P. Beard, Proc. SPIE 7177, 717713 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. Miller, and S. Y. Emelianov, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

H. Jiang, Z. Yuan, and X. Gu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 878 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. Scholz, M. Engelhardt, B. Brendel, and H. Ermert, J. Ultrasound Med. 24, 985 (2005).

E. E. Connor, J. Mwamuka, A. Gole, C. J. Murphy, and M. D. Wyatt, Small 1, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1998

T. Krouskop, T. M. Wheeler, F. Kallel, B. S. Garra, and T. Hall, Ultrason. Imag. 20, 260 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

T. J. Hall, M. Bilgen, M. F. Insana, and T. A. Krouskop, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 44, 1355 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 013702 (1996).

1995

A. Sarvazyan, A. Skovoroda, S. Emelianov, J. Fowlkes, J. Pipe, R. Adler, R. Buxton, and P. L. Carson, Acoust. Imaging 21, 223 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Adler, R.

A. Sarvazyan, A. Skovoroda, S. Emelianov, J. Fowlkes, J. Pipe, R. Adler, R. Buxton, and P. L. Carson, Acoust. Imaging 21, 223 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Aglyamov, S.

J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. Miller, and S. Y. Emelianov, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beard, P.

P. Beard, Interf. Foc. 1, 602 (2011).

B. T. Cox, J. G. Laufer, and P. Beard, Proc. SPIE 7177, 717713 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bilgen, M.

T. J. Hall, M. Bilgen, M. F. Insana, and T. A. Krouskop, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 44, 1355 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brendel, B.

M. Scholz, M. Engelhardt, B. Brendel, and H. Ermert, J. Ultrasound Med. 24, 985 (2005).

Buehler, M. J.

Z. Xu, R. Paparcone, and M. J. Buehler, Biophys. J. 98, 2053 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Buxton, R.

A. Sarvazyan, A. Skovoroda, S. Emelianov, J. Fowlkes, J. Pipe, R. Adler, R. Buxton, and P. L. Carson, Acoust. Imaging 21, 223 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Carson, P. L.

A. Sarvazyan, A. Skovoroda, S. Emelianov, J. Fowlkes, J. Pipe, R. Adler, R. Buxton, and P. L. Carson, Acoust. Imaging 21, 223 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Connor, E. E.

E. E. Connor, J. Mwamuka, A. Gole, C. J. Murphy, and M. D. Wyatt, Small 1, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cox, B. T.

B. T. Cox, J. G. Laufer, and P. Beard, Proc. SPIE 7177, 717713 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cubeddu, R.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 013702 (1996).

Emelianov, S.

A. Sarvazyan, A. Skovoroda, S. Emelianov, J. Fowlkes, J. Pipe, R. Adler, R. Buxton, and P. L. Carson, Acoust. Imaging 21, 223 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Emelianov, S. Y.

J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. Miller, and S. Y. Emelianov, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Engelhardt, M.

M. Scholz, M. Engelhardt, B. Brendel, and H. Ermert, J. Ultrasound Med. 24, 985 (2005).

Ermert, H.

M. Scholz, M. Engelhardt, B. Brendel, and H. Ermert, J. Ultrasound Med. 24, 985 (2005).

Fowlkes, J.

A. Sarvazyan, A. Skovoroda, S. Emelianov, J. Fowlkes, J. Pipe, R. Adler, R. Buxton, and P. L. Carson, Acoust. Imaging 21, 223 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Garra, B. S.

T. Krouskop, T. M. Wheeler, F. Kallel, B. S. Garra, and T. Hall, Ultrason. Imag. 20, 260 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gole, A.

E. E. Connor, J. Mwamuka, A. Gole, C. J. Murphy, and M. D. Wyatt, Small 1, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gu, X.

H. Jiang, Z. Yuan, and X. Gu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 878 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hall, T.

T. Krouskop, T. M. Wheeler, F. Kallel, B. S. Garra, and T. Hall, Ultrason. Imag. 20, 260 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hall, T. J.

T. J. Hall, M. Bilgen, M. F. Insana, and T. A. Krouskop, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 44, 1355 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hendee, W. R.

W. R. Hendee and E. Russell Ritenour, Medical Imaging Physics, 4th ed. (Wiley-Liss, 2002).

Hu, S.

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Insana, M. F.

T. J. Hall, M. Bilgen, M. F. Insana, and T. A. Krouskop, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 44, 1355 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

L. Xi, L. Zhou, and H. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 013702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, Z. Yuan, and X. Gu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 878 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Suheshkumar Singh and H. Jiang, “Estimating both direction and magnitude of flow velocity using photoacoustic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (in press).

Johnston, K.

J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. Miller, and S. Y. Emelianov, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kallel, F.

T. Krouskop, T. M. Wheeler, F. Kallel, B. S. Garra, and T. Hall, Ultrason. Imag. 20, 260 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Krouskop, T.

T. Krouskop, T. M. Wheeler, F. Kallel, B. S. Garra, and T. Hall, Ultrason. Imag. 20, 260 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Krouskop, T. A.

T. J. Hall, M. Bilgen, M. F. Insana, and T. A. Krouskop, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 44, 1355 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Larson, T.

J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. Miller, and S. Y. Emelianov, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laufer, J. G.

B. T. Cox, J. G. Laufer, and P. Beard, Proc. SPIE 7177, 717713 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L.

J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. Miller, and S. Y. Emelianov, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, T.

J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. Miller, and S. Y. Emelianov, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, C. J.

E. E. Connor, J. Mwamuka, A. Gole, C. J. Murphy, and M. D. Wyatt, Small 1, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mwamuka, J.

E. E. Connor, J. Mwamuka, A. Gole, C. J. Murphy, and M. D. Wyatt, Small 1, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paparcone, R.

Z. Xu, R. Paparcone, and M. J. Buehler, Biophys. J. 98, 2053 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. Miller, and S. Y. Emelianov, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pifferi, A.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 013702 (1996).

Pipe, J.

A. Sarvazyan, A. Skovoroda, S. Emelianov, J. Fowlkes, J. Pipe, R. Adler, R. Buxton, and P. L. Carson, Acoust. Imaging 21, 223 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rajan, K.

M. Suheshkumar Singh, K. Rajan, and R. M. Vasu, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 104704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Russell Ritenour, E.

W. R. Hendee and E. Russell Ritenour, Medical Imaging Physics, 4th ed. (Wiley-Liss, 2002).

Sarvazyan, A.

A. Sarvazyan, A. Skovoroda, S. Emelianov, J. Fowlkes, J. Pipe, R. Adler, R. Buxton, and P. L. Carson, Acoust. Imaging 21, 223 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Scholz, M.

M. Scholz, M. Engelhardt, B. Brendel, and H. Ermert, J. Ultrasound Med. 24, 985 (2005).

Shah, J.

J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. Miller, and S. Y. Emelianov, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Skovoroda, A.

A. Sarvazyan, A. Skovoroda, S. Emelianov, J. Fowlkes, J. Pipe, R. Adler, R. Buxton, and P. L. Carson, Acoust. Imaging 21, 223 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sokolov, K.

J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. Miller, and S. Y. Emelianov, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suheshkumar Singh, M.

M. Suheshkumar Singh, K. Rajan, and R. M. Vasu, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 104704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Suheshkumar Singh and H. Jiang, “Estimating both direction and magnitude of flow velocity using photoacoustic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (in press).

Taroni, P.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 013702 (1996).

Torricelli, A.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 013702 (1996).

Valentini, G.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 013702 (1996).

Vasu, R. M.

M. Suheshkumar Singh, K. Rajan, and R. M. Vasu, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 104704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. V.

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wheeler, T. M.

T. Krouskop, T. M. Wheeler, F. Kallel, B. S. Garra, and T. Hall, Ultrason. Imag. 20, 260 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wyatt, M. D.

E. E. Connor, J. Mwamuka, A. Gole, C. J. Murphy, and M. D. Wyatt, Small 1, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xi, L.

L. Xi, L. Zhou, and H. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 013702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Z. Xu, R. Paparcone, and M. J. Buehler, Biophys. J. 98, 2053 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Z.

H. Jiang, Z. Yuan, and X. Gu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 878 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

L. Xi, L. Zhou, and H. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 013702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Acoust. Imaging

A. Sarvazyan, A. Skovoroda, S. Emelianov, J. Fowlkes, J. Pipe, R. Adler, R. Buxton, and P. L. Carson, Acoust. Imaging 21, 223 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. Xi, L. Zhou, and H. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 013702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J.

Z. Xu, R. Paparcone, and M. J. Buehler, Biophys. J. 98, 2053 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control

T. J. Hall, M. Bilgen, M. F. Insana, and T. A. Krouskop, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 44, 1355 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Interf. Foc.

P. Beard, Interf. Foc. 1, 602 (2011).

J. Appl. Phys.

M. Suheshkumar Singh, K. Rajan, and R. M. Vasu, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 104704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. Miller, and S. Y. Emelianov, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

H. Jiang, Z. Yuan, and X. Gu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 878 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Ultrasound Med.

M. Scholz, M. Engelhardt, B. Brendel, and H. Ermert, J. Ultrasound Med. 24, 985 (2005).

Phys. Med. Biol.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 013702 (1996).

Proc. SPIE

B. T. Cox, J. G. Laufer, and P. Beard, Proc. SPIE 7177, 717713 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Small

E. E. Connor, J. Mwamuka, A. Gole, C. J. Murphy, and M. D. Wyatt, Small 1, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ultrason. Imag.

T. Krouskop, T. M. Wheeler, F. Kallel, B. S. Garra, and T. Hall, Ultrason. Imag. 20, 260 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Suheshkumar Singh and H. Jiang, “Estimating both direction and magnitude of flow velocity using photoacoustic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (in press).

W. R. Hendee and E. Russell Ritenour, Medical Imaging Physics, 4th ed. (Wiley-Liss, 2002).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Targets (T1 to T6) of similar cross-sections (1.0mm×0.5mm in xz-plane) with variation in elastic coefficient were embedded in background phantom (a) and targets of different cross-sections (0.5mm×0.5mm to 3.0mm×0.5mm for T1 to T4 in xz-plane) with optical and mechanical properties similar to that of the background phantom (b).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) 2D reconstructed image representative to B-scan PA signals for scanning along the x axis [for the sample as shown in Fig. 1(a)]. (b) Line plot showing the variation of PA signals along the line as marked in (a). (c) The variation of PA signals (as obtained from the target regions) with Young’s modulus, E.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

3D reconstructed image, using Amira software, of PA signals obtained while extending the scanning toward y axis. The depth of extension along the y axis was 15 scan points, which corresponds to 930 μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) 3D reconstructed image of PA signal for raster scanning in sample (2). (b) Line plot showing the variation of detected PA signals along a midline in the first frame of the 3D reconstructed image [marked line as shown in (a)]. (c) The dependence of PA signals on the size of targets embedded in background.

Equations (1)

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P0(r⃗)=Γ(r⃗)Ae(r⃗),

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