Abstract

A free space duplex communication system with a single laser and a modulated retro-reflector is presented. A method to minimize the echo wave bit error rate (BER) of this system is proposed by setting the optimum threshold automatically based on the measured mean power and irradiance variances with log-normal distribution and the Bayes minimum classification error criterion. Experiments were taken at a distance of 1.55 km in a weak turbulence and the measured BER was 0.0213. The BER performance of this system is studied and the result shows the experimental BER is in good accordance with the theoretical value.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2012 (2)

J. B. Wang, M. Sheng, X. Y. Song, Y. Jiao, and M. Chen, IEEE Commun. Lett. 16, 22 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Yi, Z. J. Liu, and P. Yue, Opt. Lett. 37, 5142 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

H. G. Sandalidis, T. A. Tsiftsis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and M. Uysal, IEEE Commun. Lett. 12, 44 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Junique, D. Agren, Q. Wang, S. Almqvist, B. Noharet, and J. Y. Andersson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

D. Kedar and S. Arnon, IEEE Commun. Soc. Mag. 42(3), S2 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

S. Amon, IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 2, 626 (2003).

H. Hamid, Proc. SPIE 5173, 64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Davis, I. I. Smolyaninov, and S. D. Milner, IEEE Commun. Soc. Mag. 41(3), 51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Agren, D.

S. Junique, D. Agren, Q. Wang, S. Almqvist, B. Noharet, and J. Y. Andersson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Almqvist, S.

S. Junique, D. Agren, Q. Wang, S. Almqvist, B. Noharet, and J. Y. Andersson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Amon, S.

S. Amon, IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 2, 626 (2003).

Andersson, J. Y.

S. Junique, D. Agren, Q. Wang, S. Almqvist, B. Noharet, and J. Y. Andersson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, L. C.

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and C. Y. Hopen, Laser Beam Propagation Scintillation with Applications (Bellingham, 2001).

Arnon, S.

D. Kedar and S. Arnon, IEEE Commun. Soc. Mag. 42(3), S2 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Burris, H. R.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

J. B. Wang, M. Sheng, X. Y. Song, Y. Jiao, and M. Chen, IEEE Commun. Lett. 16, 22 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. C.

C. C. Davis, I. I. Smolyaninov, and S. D. Milner, IEEE Commun. Soc. Mag. 41(3), 51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Demma, N. A.

Dougherty, D.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Douglass, J.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gilbreath, G. C.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goetz, P. G.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Graves, B.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hamid, H.

H. Hamid, Proc. SPIE 5173, 64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hopen, C. Y.

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and C. Y. Hopen, Laser Beam Propagation Scintillation with Applications (Bellingham, 2001).

Hughes, D.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiao, Y.

J. B. Wang, M. Sheng, X. Y. Song, Y. Jiao, and M. Chen, IEEE Commun. Lett. 16, 22 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Juarez, J.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Junique, S.

S. Junique, D. Agren, Q. Wang, S. Almqvist, B. Noharet, and J. Y. Andersson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Karagiannidis, G. K.

H. G. Sandalidis, T. A. Tsiftsis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and M. Uysal, IEEE Commun. Lett. 12, 44 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kedar, D.

D. Kedar and S. Arnon, IEEE Commun. Soc. Mag. 42(3), S2 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kolodzy, P.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koplow, J.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. J.

Mahon, R.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin, T.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Milner, S. D.

C. C. Davis, I. I. Smolyaninov, and S. D. Milner, IEEE Commun. Soc. Mag. 41(3), 51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mocker, H. W.

Moore, C. I.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Noharet, B.

S. Junique, D. Agren, Q. Wang, S. Almqvist, B. Noharet, and J. Y. Andersson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oh, E.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Olson, G. J.

Phillips, R. L.

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and C. Y. Hopen, Laser Beam Propagation Scintillation with Applications (Bellingham, 2001).

Pike, A.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rabinovich, W. S.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ross, J. B.

Sandalidis, H. G.

H. G. Sandalidis, T. A. Tsiftsis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and M. Uysal, IEEE Commun. Lett. 12, 44 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, M.

J. B. Wang, M. Sheng, X. Y. Song, Y. Jiao, and M. Chen, IEEE Commun. Lett. 16, 22 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sluz, J.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

C. C. Davis, I. I. Smolyaninov, and S. D. Milner, IEEE Commun. Soc. Mag. 41(3), 51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Song, X. Y.

J. B. Wang, M. Sheng, X. Y. Song, Y. Jiao, and M. Chen, IEEE Commun. Lett. 16, 22 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stadler, B.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stell, M. F.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stotts, L. B.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Suite, M. R.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Swingen, L.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsiftsis, T. A.

H. G. Sandalidis, T. A. Tsiftsis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and M. Uysal, IEEE Commun. Lett. 12, 44 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Uysal, M.

H. G. Sandalidis, T. A. Tsiftsis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and M. Uysal, IEEE Commun. Lett. 12, 44 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vilcheck, M. J.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. B.

J. B. Wang, M. Sheng, X. Y. Song, Y. Jiao, and M. Chen, IEEE Commun. Lett. 16, 22 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

S. Junique, D. Agren, Q. Wang, S. Almqvist, B. Noharet, and J. Y. Andersson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Witkowsky, J. L.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yi, X.

Young, D. W.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yue, P.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Commun. Lett. (2)

J. B. Wang, M. Sheng, X. Y. Song, Y. Jiao, and M. Chen, IEEE Commun. Lett. 16, 22 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Sandalidis, T. A. Tsiftsis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and M. Uysal, IEEE Commun. Lett. 12, 44 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Soc. Mag. (2)

C. C. Davis, I. I. Smolyaninov, and S. D. Milner, IEEE Commun. Soc. Mag. 41(3), 51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Kedar and S. Arnon, IEEE Commun. Soc. Mag. 42(3), S2 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Junique, D. Agren, Q. Wang, S. Almqvist, B. Noharet, and J. Y. Andersson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. (1)

S. Amon, IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 2, 626 (2003).

Opt. Eng. (1)

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

H. Hamid, Proc. SPIE 5173, 64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and C. Y. Hopen, Laser Beam Propagation Scintillation with Applications (Bellingham, 2001).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Terminal A with a pulse laser sends a pulse position modulated laser beam to Terminal B with an MRR, and Terminal B loads the data on the laser pulse sequence coming from Terminal A, and reflects the modulated laser beam back.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Laser pulse sequence back from Terminal B over a propagation range of 1.55 km. The ordinates in the picture show the voltage corresponding to the echo wave’s peak power. The data in (a) and the data in (b) are recorded at different times, which represent different atmospheric conditions. The mean power in (a) is a little larger than it is in (b). The data modulated on the pulse sequence back from Terminal B is 1110 1011 1111 0101.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Threshold calculated automatically by this technique for the data in Fig. 2. Eight unmodulated round-trip pulses before 16-bit data were recorded, and the red line is the threshold. The threshold is 0.79 V in (a) while it is 0.38 V in (b).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Theoretical results for BER against distance under three weak turbulence conditions. The contrast ratio of MRR is 13 dB.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Theoretical results for BER against a contrast ratio of MRR under weak turbulence, Cn2=1.0×1015m2/3, with four different distances.

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P(IrIr0)=Ir02πσlnIIrexp{[ln(Ir/Ir0)+σlnI2/2]22σlnI2},
σlnI2=(lnIrIr0lnIrIr0)2.
P(IbIb0)=+P(IbαIr)P(IrIr0)d(IrIr0),
P(Ib)=12πσlnIIbexp{[ln(Ib/Ib0)+σlnI2/2]22σlnI2}.
P(Ib|0)=12πσlnIIbexp{[ln(βIb/Ib0)+σlnI2/2]22σlnI2}.
P(Ib|1)=12πσlnIIbexp{[ln(Ib/Ib0)+σlnI2/2]22σlnI2}.
P(ωi|X)=P(X|ωi)P(ωi)i=1MP(X|ωi)P(ωi).
IT=Ib02eσlnI2/β.
P(1|0)=IT+12πσlnI2Ibexp{[ln(Ib/Ib0)+σlnI2/22σlnI]2}dIb.
P(0|1)=0IT12πσlnI2Ibexp{[ln(βIb/Ib0)+σlnI2/22σlnI]2}dIb.
BER=12IT+12πσlnI2Ibexp{[ln(Ib/Ib0)+σlnI2/22σlnI]2}dIb+120IT12πσlnI2Ibexp{[ln(βIb/Ib0)+σlnI2/22σlnI]2}dIb.
BER=12{12erfc(σlnI2/2ln(Ib0/βIT)2σlnI)+12[1+erf(σlnI2/2ln(Ib0/IT)2σlnI)]}.
BER=12erfc(lnβ22σlnI).
σl2=1.23Cn2k7/6L11/6,

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