Abstract

A multiscale photoacoustic microscope with continuously tunable lateral resolution is developed. The tunable resolution is achieved by using an electrical varifocal lens and an optical fiber bundle. The varifocal lens is used to generate a size tunable focused laser spot on the tip of the fiber bundle. Laser beams emerging from the other end of the fiber bundle are imaged into the object as the excitation light spot for acoustic generation. The verified lateral resolution of the system can be tuned from 1μm to more than 44.8 μm, which span from optical resolution to acoustic resolution. Additionally, a mouse ear was imaged in vivo using three different resolutions to demonstrate the feasibility of the multiscale imaging capability of our system.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013

2012

L. Liao, C. Lin, Y. Y. I. Shih, T. Duong, H. Lai, P. Wang, R. Wu, S. Tsang, J. Chang, M. Li, and Y. Chen, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metabolism 32, 938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yuan, S. Yang, and D. Xing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 023702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Methods 7, 603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

L. V. Wang, Nat. Photonics 3, 503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

2006

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beard, P.

P. Beard, Int. Focus 1, 602 (2011).

Chang, J.

L. Liao, C. Lin, Y. Y. I. Shih, T. Duong, H. Lai, P. Wang, R. Wu, S. Tsang, J. Chang, M. Li, and Y. Chen, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metabolism 32, 938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

L. Liao, C. Lin, Y. Y. I. Shih, T. Duong, H. Lai, P. Wang, R. Wu, S. Tsang, J. Chang, M. Li, and Y. Chen, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metabolism 32, 938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Deng, Y.

Y. Liu, X. Yang, H. Gong, B. Jiang, H. Wang, G. Xu, and Y. Deng, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 076007 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Duong, T.

L. Liao, C. Lin, Y. Y. I. Shih, T. Duong, H. Lai, P. Wang, R. Wu, S. Tsang, J. Chang, M. Li, and Y. Chen, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metabolism 32, 938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gong, H.

Y. Liu, X. Yang, H. Gong, B. Jiang, H. Wang, G. Xu, and Y. Deng, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 076007 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hajireza, P.

Hu, S.

Jiang, B.

Y. Liu, X. Yang, H. Gong, B. Jiang, H. Wang, G. Xu, and Y. Deng, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 076007 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, X. Yang, Y. Liu, B. Jiang, and Q. Luo, Opt. Express 21, 24210 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lai, H.

L. Liao, C. Lin, Y. Y. I. Shih, T. Duong, H. Lai, P. Wang, R. Wu, S. Tsang, J. Chang, M. Li, and Y. Chen, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metabolism 32, 938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

L. Liao, C. Lin, Y. Y. I. Shih, T. Duong, H. Lai, P. Wang, R. Wu, S. Tsang, J. Chang, M. Li, and Y. Chen, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metabolism 32, 938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

L. Liao, C. Lin, Y. Y. I. Shih, T. Duong, H. Lai, P. Wang, R. Wu, S. Tsang, J. Chang, M. Li, and Y. Chen, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metabolism 32, 938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

L. Liao, C. Lin, Y. Y. I. Shih, T. Duong, H. Lai, P. Wang, R. Wu, S. Tsang, J. Chang, M. Li, and Y. Chen, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metabolism 32, 938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

H. Wang, X. Yang, Y. Liu, B. Jiang, and Q. Luo, Opt. Express 21, 24210 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, X. Yang, H. Gong, B. Jiang, H. Wang, G. Xu, and Y. Deng, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 076007 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Q.

Maslov, K.

Ntziachristos, V.

V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Methods 7, 603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reichenbach, K. L.

Shi, W.

Shih, Y. Y. I.

L. Liao, C. Lin, Y. Y. I. Shih, T. Duong, H. Lai, P. Wang, R. Wu, S. Tsang, J. Chang, M. Li, and Y. Chen, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metabolism 32, 938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stoica, G.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, S.

L. Liao, C. Lin, Y. Y. I. Shih, T. Duong, H. Lai, P. Wang, R. Wu, S. Tsang, J. Chang, M. Li, and Y. Chen, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metabolism 32, 938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, X. Yang, Y. Liu, B. Jiang, and Q. Luo, Opt. Express 21, 24210 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, X. Yang, H. Gong, B. Jiang, H. Wang, G. Xu, and Y. Deng, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 076007 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Wang, L. V.

W. Xing, L. Wang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 38, 52 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Wang, Nat. Photonics 3, 503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 33, 929 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

L. Liao, C. Lin, Y. Y. I. Shih, T. Duong, H. Lai, P. Wang, R. Wu, S. Tsang, J. Chang, M. Li, and Y. Chen, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metabolism 32, 938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, R.

L. Liao, C. Lin, Y. Y. I. Shih, T. Duong, H. Lai, P. Wang, R. Wu, S. Tsang, J. Chang, M. Li, and Y. Chen, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metabolism 32, 938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xing, D.

Y. Yuan, S. Yang, and D. Xing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 023702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xing, W.

Xu, C.

Xu, G.

Y. Liu, X. Yang, H. Gong, B. Jiang, H. Wang, G. Xu, and Y. Deng, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 076007 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

Y. Yuan, S. Yang, and D. Xing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 023702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

Y. Liu, X. Yang, H. Gong, B. Jiang, H. Wang, G. Xu, and Y. Deng, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 076007 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, X. Yang, Y. Liu, B. Jiang, and Q. Luo, Opt. Express 21, 24210 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Y.

Y. Yuan, S. Yang, and D. Xing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 023702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zemp, R. J.

Zhang, H. F.

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 33, 929 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Yuan, S. Yang, and D. Xing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 023702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Int. Focus

P. Beard, Int. Focus 1, 602 (2011).

J. Biomed. Opt.

Y. Liu, X. Yang, H. Gong, B. Jiang, H. Wang, G. Xu, and Y. Deng, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 076007 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metabolism

L. Liao, C. Lin, Y. Y. I. Shih, T. Duong, H. Lai, P. Wang, R. Wu, S. Tsang, J. Chang, M. Li, and Y. Chen, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metabolism 32, 938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Methods

V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Methods 7, 603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

L. V. Wang, Nat. Photonics 3, 503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Science

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other

Laser Institute of America, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers (American National Standards Institute, 2007).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the resolution tunable PAM system. BS, beam sampler; DAQ, data acquisition card; EL, electrical varifocal lens; FB, fiber bundle; GS, glass slide; M1 and M2, mirrors; L1 and L2, optical lenses; Obj1, Obj2, and Obj3, objectives; P, prism; PD, photodiode; PH, pinhole; S, sample; UT, ultrasound transducer; W, water tank; and WS, work station.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Lateral resolution tuning performance test of the multiscale PAM system. (a) Averaged B scan image of carbon fiber. (b) Acoustic LSF data (blue dots) and its smooth fitting curve (red line) extracted from (a). (c) Optical spot sizes when the driving current increases from 0 to 60 mA in 5 mA intervals. (d) Close-up photograph of optical spot when the driving current is 0 mA. (e) Predicted and experimental resolutions under different driving currents. (f) C scan image of a resolution target under the driving current of 20 mA. NPA, normalized photoacoustic amplitude. NOI, normalized optical intensity.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Image of a mouse ear vasculature acquired under different scales of resolution. (a) Large region of the mouse ear imaged under low resolution. (b) Smaller region of interest imaged under higher resolution; more microvessels could be observed. (c) High-resolution image showing capillaries. The white arrows in (b) and (c) denote the vessels/capillaries, which cannot be resolved in (a) and (b).

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