Abstract

A simple and reliable spectrum-retrieval method was proposed for the development of miniature stationary Fourier transform (FT) spectrometers based on a LiNbO3 (LN) waveguide Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulator. The method takes into account the wavelength dependence of the optical pathlength difference (OPD) and allows us to use a nonlinear voltage ramp to modulate the OPD. The method is based on the dispersion of the half-wave voltage, which was measured to be a monotonous polynomial function of the wavelength for the LN waveguide MZI used. With the measured dispersion of the half-wave voltage, the OPD, as a linear function of the modulating voltage, can be accurately determined at each wavelength in the near-infrared region in which the MZI used is a single-mode device. A prototype FT spectrometer was prepared using a LN waveguide MZI modulator based on the above method. The experimental results demonstrated that the spectrometer can be used for accurate determination of the laser wavelength and for liquid absorptiometry.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2007 (3)

T. Sandner, A. Kenda, C. Drabe, H. Schenk, and W. Scherf, Proc. SPIE 6466, 646602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, A. Cerutti, A. Nubile, P. Cerabolini, M. Chiarini, G. Pennestrì, W. Dinicolantonio, and R. Guzzi, Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. 36, 597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, A. Cerutti, M. Chiarini, G. Pennestrì, C. Sada, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and P. Mazzoldi, Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

K. Yu, D. Lee, U. Krishnamoorthy, N. Park, and O. Solgaard, Sens. Actuators A 130–131, 523 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

U. Wallrabe, C. Solf, J. Mohr, and J. G. Korvink, Sens. Actuators A 123–124, 459 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Q. Jain, S. Todd, and H. Xie, Sens. Actuators A 122, 9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. Solf, A. Janssen, J. Mohr, A. Ruzzu, and U. Wallrabe, Microsyst. Technol. 10, 706 (2004).

2002 (2)

J. Howard, Appl. Opt. 41, 197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1951 (1)

J. A. Curcio and C. C. Petty, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 41, 302 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Argiolas, N.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, A. Cerutti, M. Chiarini, G. Pennestrì, C. Sada, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and P. Mazzoldi, Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bazzan, M.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, A. Cerutti, M. Chiarini, G. Pennestrì, C. Sada, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and P. Mazzoldi, Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bentini, G. G.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, A. Cerutti, M. Chiarini, G. Pennestrì, C. Sada, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and P. Mazzoldi, Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, A. Cerutti, A. Nubile, P. Cerabolini, M. Chiarini, G. Pennestrì, W. Dinicolantonio, and R. Guzzi, Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. 36, 597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Bentini and M. Chiarini, Springer Series on Chemical Sensors and Biosensors 10, (Springer-Verlag, 2012), pp. 103–154.

Bianconi, M.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, A. Cerutti, M. Chiarini, G. Pennestrì, C. Sada, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and P. Mazzoldi, Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, A. Cerutti, A. Nubile, P. Cerabolini, M. Chiarini, G. Pennestrì, W. Dinicolantonio, and R. Guzzi, Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. 36, 597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cerabolini, P.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, A. Cerutti, A. Nubile, P. Cerabolini, M. Chiarini, G. Pennestrì, W. Dinicolantonio, and R. Guzzi, Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. 36, 597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cerutti, A.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, A. Cerutti, M. Chiarini, G. Pennestrì, C. Sada, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and P. Mazzoldi, Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, A. Cerutti, A. Nubile, P. Cerabolini, M. Chiarini, G. Pennestrì, W. Dinicolantonio, and R. Guzzi, Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. 36, 597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chiarini, M.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, A. Cerutti, M. Chiarini, G. Pennestrì, C. Sada, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and P. Mazzoldi, Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, A. Cerutti, A. Nubile, P. Cerabolini, M. Chiarini, G. Pennestrì, W. Dinicolantonio, and R. Guzzi, Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. 36, 597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Bentini and M. Chiarini, Springer Series on Chemical Sensors and Biosensors 10, (Springer-Verlag, 2012), pp. 103–154.

Correra, L.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Curcio, J. A.

J. A. Curcio and C. C. Petty, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 41, 302 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Dinicolantonio, W.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, A. Cerutti, A. Nubile, P. Cerabolini, M. Chiarini, G. Pennestrì, W. Dinicolantonio, and R. Guzzi, Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. 36, 597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Drabe, C.

T. Sandner, A. Kenda, C. Drabe, H. Schenk, and W. Scherf, Proc. SPIE 6466, 646602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guo, S.

L. Wu, A. Pais, S. R. Samuelson, S. Guo, and H. Xie, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (Transducers’09), Denver, Colorado, June21, 2009.

Guzzi, R.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, A. Cerutti, A. Nubile, P. Cerabolini, M. Chiarini, G. Pennestrì, W. Dinicolantonio, and R. Guzzi, Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. 36, 597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Herzig, H. P.

Howard, J.

Jain, H. Q.

H. Q. Jain, S. Todd, and H. Xie, Sens. Actuators A 122, 9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Janssen, A.

C. Solf, A. Janssen, J. Mohr, A. Ruzzu, and U. Wallrabe, Microsyst. Technol. 10, 706 (2004).

Kenda, A.

T. Sandner, A. Kenda, C. Drabe, H. Schenk, and W. Scherf, Proc. SPIE 6466, 646602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Korvink, J. G.

U. Wallrabe, C. Solf, J. Mohr, and J. G. Korvink, Sens. Actuators A 123–124, 459 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, U.

K. Yu, D. Lee, U. Krishnamoorthy, N. Park, and O. Solgaard, Sens. Actuators A 130–131, 523 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D.

K. Yu, D. Lee, U. Krishnamoorthy, N. Park, and O. Solgaard, Sens. Actuators A 130–131, 523 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Manzardo, O.

Marxer, C. R.

Mazzoldi, P.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, A. Cerutti, M. Chiarini, G. Pennestrì, C. Sada, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and P. Mazzoldi, Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mohr, J.

U. Wallrabe, C. Solf, J. Mohr, and J. G. Korvink, Sens. Actuators A 123–124, 459 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Solf, A. Janssen, J. Mohr, A. Ruzzu, and U. Wallrabe, Microsyst. Technol. 10, 706 (2004).

Nubile, A.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, A. Cerutti, A. Nubile, P. Cerabolini, M. Chiarini, G. Pennestrì, W. Dinicolantonio, and R. Guzzi, Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. 36, 597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pais, A.

L. Wu, A. Pais, S. R. Samuelson, S. Guo, and H. Xie, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (Transducers’09), Denver, Colorado, June21, 2009.

Park, N.

K. Yu, D. Lee, U. Krishnamoorthy, N. Park, and O. Solgaard, Sens. Actuators A 130–131, 523 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pennestrì, G.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, A. Cerutti, A. Nubile, P. Cerabolini, M. Chiarini, G. Pennestrì, W. Dinicolantonio, and R. Guzzi, Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. 36, 597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, A. Cerutti, M. Chiarini, G. Pennestrì, C. Sada, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and P. Mazzoldi, Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Petty, C. C.

J. A. Curcio and C. C. Petty, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 41, 302 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Rooij, N. F.

Ruzzu, A.

C. Solf, A. Janssen, J. Mohr, A. Ruzzu, and U. Wallrabe, Microsyst. Technol. 10, 706 (2004).

Sada, C.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, A. Cerutti, M. Chiarini, G. Pennestrì, C. Sada, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and P. Mazzoldi, Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Samuelson, S. R.

L. Wu, A. Pais, S. R. Samuelson, S. Guo, and H. Xie, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (Transducers’09), Denver, Colorado, June21, 2009.

Sandner, T.

T. Sandner, A. Kenda, C. Drabe, H. Schenk, and W. Scherf, Proc. SPIE 6466, 646602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schenk, H.

T. Sandner, A. Kenda, C. Drabe, H. Schenk, and W. Scherf, Proc. SPIE 6466, 646602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scherf, W.

T. Sandner, A. Kenda, C. Drabe, H. Schenk, and W. Scherf, Proc. SPIE 6466, 646602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Solf, C.

U. Wallrabe, C. Solf, J. Mohr, and J. G. Korvink, Sens. Actuators A 123–124, 459 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Solf, A. Janssen, J. Mohr, A. Ruzzu, and U. Wallrabe, Microsyst. Technol. 10, 706 (2004).

Solgaard, O.

K. Yu, D. Lee, U. Krishnamoorthy, N. Park, and O. Solgaard, Sens. Actuators A 130–131, 523 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Todd, S.

H. Q. Jain, S. Todd, and H. Xie, Sens. Actuators A 122, 9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wallrabe, U.

U. Wallrabe, C. Solf, J. Mohr, and J. G. Korvink, Sens. Actuators A 123–124, 459 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Solf, A. Janssen, J. Mohr, A. Ruzzu, and U. Wallrabe, Microsyst. Technol. 10, 706 (2004).

Wu, L.

L. Wu, A. Pais, S. R. Samuelson, S. Guo, and H. Xie, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (Transducers’09), Denver, Colorado, June21, 2009.

Xie, H.

H. Q. Jain, S. Todd, and H. Xie, Sens. Actuators A 122, 9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Wu, A. Pais, S. R. Samuelson, S. Guo, and H. Xie, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (Transducers’09), Denver, Colorado, June21, 2009.

Yu, K.

K. Yu, D. Lee, U. Krishnamoorthy, N. Park, and O. Solgaard, Sens. Actuators A 130–131, 523 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. A. Curcio and C. C. Petty, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 41, 302 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Microsyst. Technol. (1)

C. Solf, A. Janssen, J. Mohr, A. Ruzzu, and U. Wallrabe, Microsyst. Technol. 10, 706 (2004).

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, A. Cerutti, M. Chiarini, G. Pennestrì, C. Sada, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and P. Mazzoldi, Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. (1)

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, A. Cerutti, A. Nubile, P. Cerabolini, M. Chiarini, G. Pennestrì, W. Dinicolantonio, and R. Guzzi, Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. 36, 597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

T. Sandner, A. Kenda, C. Drabe, H. Schenk, and W. Scherf, Proc. SPIE 6466, 646602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A (3)

K. Yu, D. Lee, U. Krishnamoorthy, N. Park, and O. Solgaard, Sens. Actuators A 130–131, 523 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Wallrabe, C. Solf, J. Mohr, and J. G. Korvink, Sens. Actuators A 123–124, 459 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Q. Jain, S. Todd, and H. Xie, Sens. Actuators A 122, 9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

L. Wu, A. Pais, S. R. Samuelson, S. Guo, and H. Xie, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (Transducers’09), Denver, Colorado, June21, 2009.

G. G. Bentini and M. Chiarini, Springer Series on Chemical Sensors and Biosensors 10, (Springer-Verlag, 2012), pp. 103–154.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of a LN waveguide MZI modulator based FT spectrometer with a 1 cm long quartz cell for liquid analysis or a side-polished fiber segment for evanescent-wave absorptiometry.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Interferogram (blue curve) measured at λ=1550.7nm with the corresponding nonlinear voltage ramp (red curve). (b) Half-wave voltages obtained as a function of wavelength in the NIR region (inset: the laser emission spectrum retrieved).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Dual-wavelength interferogram generated by scanning the modulating voltage from 60V to 60 V. (b) Retrieved power spectrum (the spectrum was normalized with the peak intensity at 1267.9 nm).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Retrieved power spectra corresponding to different driving currents for the 1267.8 nm DFB laser (the spectra were normalized with the highest peak intensity among them). (b) Peak intensities at 1267.9 nm versus the driving currents (inset: linear dependence of the output power of the laser on its driving current obtained with a commercial spectrometer).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Absorption spectrum of the ethanol-water mixture obtained with the prototype FT spectrometer (the retrieved intensity spectra corresponding to the pure ethanol reference and the ethanol-water mixture sample in the 2 mm long quartz cell were also shown. The water concentration in the sample is 20 vol.%).

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

OPD=ne3(λ)γ33(λ)Γ(λ)LDV(t)=ne3(λ)γ33(λ)Γ(λ)LβDt,
f(λ)=ne3(λ)γ33(λ)Γ(λ)LβλD.
Vπ(λ)=λD2ne3(λ)γ33(λ)Γ(λ)L.
OPD=λV2Vπ(λ)=λg(λ)V,
Iout(V)=0B(λ)cos[2πg(λ)V]dλ=0B(g)cos(2πgV)dg,
B(g)=VmaxVmaxIout(V)cos(2πgV)dV.

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