Abstract

The increasing preclinical and clinical utilization of digital cameras for photographic measurements of tissue conditions motivates the study of reflectance measurements obtained with planar illumination. We examine herein a formula that models the total diffuse reflectance measured from a semi-infinite medium using an exponentially decaying source, assuming continuous plane wave epi-illumination. The model is validated with experimental reflectance measurements from tissue mimicking phantoms. The need for adjusting the blood absorption spectrum due to pigment packaging is discussed along with the potential applications of the proposed formulation.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2012

W. Scheuer, G. M. van Dam, M. Dobosz, M. Schwaiger, and V. Ntziachristos, Sci. Transl. Med. 4, 134ps111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, and A. G. van der Zee, Nat. Med. 17, 1315 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Valdés, F. Leblond, A. Kim, B. T. Harris, B. C. Wilson, X. Fan, T. D. Tosteson, A. Hartov, S. Ji, and K. Erkmen, J. Neurosurg. 115, 11 (2011).

2009

G. Themelis, J. S. Yoo, K.-S. Soh, R. Schulz, and V. Ntziachristos, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

P.-L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, and C. H. Contag, Nat. Med. 14, 454 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Alerstam, T. Svensson, and S. Andersson-Engels, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 060504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

R. S. Bradley and M. S. Thorniley, J. R. Soc. Interface 3, 1 (2006).

2005

J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, G. Zacharakis, and V. Ntziachristos, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 546 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, G. Turner, J. Dunham, S. Windsor, A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and H. A. Shih, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064007 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

2001

G. Zonios, J. Bykowski, and N. Kollias, J. Invest. Derm. 117, 1452 (2001).

2000

1999

1997

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 54, 141 (1997).

1995

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131 (1995).

R. Aronson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2532 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, Med. Phys. 19, 879 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. van Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Alerstam, E.

E. Alerstam, T. Svensson, and S. Andersson-Engels, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 060504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Andersson-Engels, S.

E. Alerstam, T. Svensson, and S. Andersson-Engels, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 060504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Aronson, R.

Arts, H. J.

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, and A. G. van der Zee, Nat. Med. 17, 1315 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ayers, F. R.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berger, A. J.

Bevilacqua, F.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Berger, A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, and B. J. Tromberg, Appl. Opt. 39, 6498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, R. S.

R. S. Bradley and M. S. Thorniley, J. R. Soc. Interface 3, 1 (2006).

Bykowski, J.

G. Zonios, J. Bykowski, and N. Kollias, J. Invest. Derm. 117, 1452 (2001).

Cerussi, A. E.

Contag, C. H.

P.-L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, and C. H. Contag, Nat. Med. 14, 454 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Corngold, N.

Crane, L. M.

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, and A. G. van der Zee, Nat. Med. 17, 1315 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, J. M.

P.-L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, and C. H. Contag, Nat. Med. 14, 454 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cuccia, D. J.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Jong, J. S.

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, and A. G. van der Zee, Nat. Med. 17, 1315 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dobosz, M.

W. Scheuer, G. M. van Dam, M. Dobosz, M. Schwaiger, and V. Ntziachristos, Sci. Transl. Med. 4, 134ps111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Du, C. B.

P.-L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, and C. H. Contag, Nat. Med. 14, 454 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dunham, J.

V. Ntziachristos, G. Turner, J. Dunham, S. Windsor, A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and H. A. Shih, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064007 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Durkin, A. J.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Erkmen, K.

P. A. Valdés, F. Leblond, A. Kim, B. T. Harris, B. C. Wilson, X. Fan, T. D. Tosteson, A. Hartov, S. Ji, and K. Erkmen, J. Neurosurg. 115, 11 (2011).

Fabbri, F.

Fan, X.

P. A. Valdés, F. Leblond, A. Kim, B. T. Harris, B. C. Wilson, X. Fan, T. D. Tosteson, A. Hartov, S. Ji, and K. Erkmen, J. Neurosurg. 115, 11 (2011).

Fantini, S.

Farrell, T. J.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, Med. Phys. 19, 879 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Finlay, J. C.

Flock, S. T.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. van Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Foster, T. H.

Franceschini, M. A.

Friedland, S.

P.-L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, and C. H. Contag, Nat. Med. 14, 454 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, J.

P.-L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, and C. H. Contag, Nat. Med. 14, 454 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harlaar, N. J.

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, and A. G. van der Zee, Nat. Med. 17, 1315 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Harris, B. T.

P. A. Valdés, F. Leblond, A. Kim, B. T. Harris, B. C. Wilson, X. Fan, T. D. Tosteson, A. Hartov, S. Ji, and K. Erkmen, J. Neurosurg. 115, 11 (2011).

Hartov, A.

P. A. Valdés, F. Leblond, A. Kim, B. T. Harris, B. C. Wilson, X. Fan, T. D. Tosteson, A. Hartov, S. Ji, and K. Erkmen, J. Neurosurg. 115, 11 (2011).

Hsiung, P.-L.

P.-L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, and C. H. Contag, Nat. Med. 14, 454 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ishimaru, A.

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, 1978).

Jacques, S. L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 54, 141 (1997).

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131 (1995).

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. van Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jakubowski, D.

Ji, S.

P. A. Valdés, F. Leblond, A. Kim, B. T. Harris, B. C. Wilson, X. Fan, T. D. Tosteson, A. Hartov, S. Ji, and K. Erkmen, J. Neurosurg. 115, 11 (2011).

Kelder, W.

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, and A. G. van der Zee, Nat. Med. 17, 1315 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, A.

P. A. Valdés, F. Leblond, A. Kim, B. T. Harris, B. C. Wilson, X. Fan, T. D. Tosteson, A. Hartov, S. Ji, and K. Erkmen, J. Neurosurg. 115, 11 (2011).

Kollias, N.

G. Zonios, J. Bykowski, and N. Kollias, J. Invest. Derm. 117, 1452 (2001).

Leblond, F.

P. A. Valdés, F. Leblond, A. Kim, B. T. Harris, B. C. Wilson, X. Fan, T. D. Tosteson, A. Hartov, S. Ji, and K. Erkmen, J. Neurosurg. 115, 11 (2011).

Lowe, A. W.

P.-L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, and C. H. Contag, Nat. Med. 14, 454 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mao, J. J.

Ntziachristos, V.

W. Scheuer, G. M. van Dam, M. Dobosz, M. Schwaiger, and V. Ntziachristos, Sci. Transl. Med. 4, 134ps111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Themelis, J. S. Yoo, K.-S. Soh, R. Schulz, and V. Ntziachristos, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, G. Turner, J. Dunham, S. Windsor, A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and H. A. Shih, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064007 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, G. Zacharakis, and V. Ntziachristos, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 546 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, M. S.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, Med. Phys. 19, 879 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pleijhuis, R. G.

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, and A. G. van der Zee, Nat. Med. 17, 1315 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Povoski, S. P.

Qiang, B.

Ripoll, J.

V. Ntziachristos, G. Turner, J. Dunham, S. Windsor, A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and H. A. Shih, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064007 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, G. Zacharakis, and V. Ntziachristos, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 546 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Ripoll, Principles of Diffuse Light Propagation: Light Propagation in Tissues with Applications in Biology and Medicine (World Scientific, 2012).

Sahbaie, P.

P.-L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, and C. H. Contag, Nat. Med. 14, 454 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sarantopoulos, A.

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, and A. G. van der Zee, Nat. Med. 17, 1315 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Scheuer, W.

W. Scheuer, G. M. van Dam, M. Dobosz, M. Schwaiger, and V. Ntziachristos, Sci. Transl. Med. 4, 134ps111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, R.

G. Themelis, J. S. Yoo, K.-S. Soh, R. Schulz, and V. Ntziachristos, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schwaiger, M.

W. Scheuer, G. M. van Dam, M. Dobosz, M. Schwaiger, and V. Ntziachristos, Sci. Transl. Med. 4, 134ps111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shih, H. A.

V. Ntziachristos, G. Turner, J. Dunham, S. Windsor, A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and H. A. Shih, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064007 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Soetikno, R.

P.-L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, and C. H. Contag, Nat. Med. 14, 454 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Soh, K.-S.

G. Themelis, J. S. Yoo, K.-S. Soh, R. Schulz, and V. Ntziachristos, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Soubret, A.

V. Ntziachristos, G. Turner, J. Dunham, S. Windsor, A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and H. A. Shih, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064007 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Star, W. M.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. van Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Svensson, T.

E. Alerstam, T. Svensson, and S. Andersson-Engels, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 060504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Themelis, G.

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, and A. G. van der Zee, Nat. Med. 17, 1315 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Themelis, J. S. Yoo, K.-S. Soh, R. Schulz, and V. Ntziachristos, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thorniley, M. S.

R. S. Bradley and M. S. Thorniley, J. R. Soc. Interface 3, 1 (2006).

Tosteson, T. D.

P. A. Valdés, F. Leblond, A. Kim, B. T. Harris, B. C. Wilson, X. Fan, T. D. Tosteson, A. Hartov, S. Ji, and K. Erkmen, J. Neurosurg. 115, 11 (2011).

Tromberg, B. J.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Berger, A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, and B. J. Tromberg, Appl. Opt. 39, 6498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Turner, G.

V. Ntziachristos, G. Turner, J. Dunham, S. Windsor, A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and H. A. Shih, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064007 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Valdés, P. A.

P. A. Valdés, F. Leblond, A. Kim, B. T. Harris, B. C. Wilson, X. Fan, T. D. Tosteson, A. Hartov, S. Ji, and K. Erkmen, J. Neurosurg. 115, 11 (2011).

van Dam, G. M.

W. Scheuer, G. M. van Dam, M. Dobosz, M. Schwaiger, and V. Ntziachristos, Sci. Transl. Med. 4, 134ps111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, and A. G. van der Zee, Nat. Med. 17, 1315 (2011).
[CrossRef]

van der Zee, A. G.

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, and A. G. van der Zee, Nat. Med. 17, 1315 (2011).
[CrossRef]

van Gemert, M. J.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. van Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 54, 141 (1997).

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131 (1995).

Wilson, B.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, Med. Phys. 19, 879 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, B. C.

P. A. Valdés, F. Leblond, A. Kim, B. T. Harris, B. C. Wilson, X. Fan, T. D. Tosteson, A. Hartov, S. Ji, and K. Erkmen, J. Neurosurg. 115, 11 (2011).

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. van Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Windsor, S.

V. Ntziachristos, G. Turner, J. Dunham, S. Windsor, A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and H. A. Shih, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064007 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, A. P.

P.-L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, and C. H. Contag, Nat. Med. 14, 454 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, R. X.

Yessayan, D.

Yoo, J. S.

G. Themelis, J. S. Yoo, K.-S. Soh, R. Schulz, and V. Ntziachristos, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zacharakis, G.

Zheng, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 54, 141 (1997).

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131 (1995).

Zonios, G.

G. Zonios, J. Bykowski, and N. Kollias, J. Invest. Derm. 117, 1452 (2001).

Appl. Opt.

Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131 (1995).

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 54, 141 (1997).

J. Biomed. Opt.

E. Alerstam, T. Svensson, and S. Andersson-Engels, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 060504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, G. Turner, J. Dunham, S. Windsor, A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and H. A. Shih, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064007 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Themelis, J. S. Yoo, K.-S. Soh, R. Schulz, and V. Ntziachristos, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Invest. Derm.

G. Zonios, J. Bykowski, and N. Kollias, J. Invest. Derm. 117, 1452 (2001).

J. Neurosurg.

P. A. Valdés, F. Leblond, A. Kim, B. T. Harris, B. C. Wilson, X. Fan, T. D. Tosteson, A. Hartov, S. Ji, and K. Erkmen, J. Neurosurg. 115, 11 (2011).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) System schematic. (b) System response (mean measurement from diffuse standard before correction). (c) comparison of measured reflection intensity (solid lines) and documented spectra (dashed lines) of a Macbeth chart.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a), (b) Comparison of experimental measurements (stars) with theoretical spectral predictions (lines with circles for different blood (a) and Intralipid (b) concentrations. (c) Box plot of the mean error per wavelength for all concentrations (red points: outliers, whiskers: minimum/maximum excluding outliers, box: 25% quartiles; red line: mean value). (d) Mean error per concentration across wavelength (color change from blue to red corresponds to increasing blood concentration).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Comparison of documented and experimentally measured effect of pigment packaging. (b) Absolute error % for all measurements. Marker size: Intralipid conc., marker color (from blue to red): Increasing blood conc. The red horizontal plane thresholds the 10% error.

Equations (5)

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Jdet(z=0)=U(z=0)α,
U(z=0)=NA2S0μs2Dμa1μs+μa+μa/D2αDD/μa+αD,
D=13(μs+aμa),
S0=(1Rairn0)S(inc),
Jdet(z=0)=(1Rairn0)S(inc)μsDμa((μs+μa)Dμa+μa)(1+αDμa).

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