Abstract

We have developed multifunctional optical beam shapers based on plasmonic metasurfaces. The metasurfaces are composed of subwavelength-spaced polarization- and wavelength-selective optical nanoantennas that allow encoding several beam shapers on a single element. We demonstrate numerically and experimentally beam shapers that can be used to switch between arbitrary beam shapes. We specifically demonstrate switching between one-dimensional Airy and Gaussian beams, Hermite–Gaussian beams of different orders, and two-dimensional Airy and Bessel beams. These beam shapers can be used as integrated optical elements in applications that require more than one laser beam shape.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (5)

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, Science 339, 1232009 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhou, Y. Liu, and W. Cai, Opt. Express 21, 4348 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 197401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Monticone, N. M. Estakhri, and A. Alù, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 203903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Lin, J. P. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X.-C. Yuan, and F. Capasso, Science 340, 331 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, Nano Lett. 12, 4932 (2012).

T. Ellenbogen, K. Seo, and K. B. Crozier, Nano Lett. 12, 1026 (2012).

2011 (1)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, Science 334, 333 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

H. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, Nat. Mater. 9, 387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. West, S. Ishii, G. Naik, N. Emani, V. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 795 (2010).

2009 (2)

T. Ellenbogen and N. Voloch-Bloch, Nat. Photonics 3, 395 (2009).

P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, Science 324, 229 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 224 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 266802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. Elser, R. Wangberg, V. A. Podolskiy, and E. E. Narimanov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Jain, S. Eustis, and M. A. El-Sayed, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 18243 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Murphy, T. K. Sau, A. M. Gole, C. J. Orendorff, J. Gao, L. Gou, S. E. Hunyadi, and T. Li, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 13857 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Pang, M. Nezhad, U. Levy, C.-H. Tsai, and Y. Fainman, Appl. Opt. 44, 2377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

U. Levy, C.-H. Tsai, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, Opt. Lett. 29, 1718 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Evanoff and G. Chumanov, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 13957 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. Tretyakov, I. Nefedov, A. Sihvola, S. Maslovski, and C. Simovski, J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 17, 695 (2003).

2002 (1)

S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, P. Sabouroux, N. Guérin, and P. Vincent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 213902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. Arlt, V. Garces-Chavez, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 197, 239 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1979 (1)

Aieta, F.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, Nano Lett. 12, 4932 (2012).

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, Science 334, 333 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Alù, A.

F. Monticone, N. M. Estakhri, and A. Alù, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 203903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Antoniou, N.

J. Lin, J. P. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X.-C. Yuan, and F. Capasso, Science 340, 331 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Arlt, J.

J. Arlt, V. Garces-Chavez, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 197, 239 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Blanchard, R.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, Nano Lett. 12, 4932 (2012).

Boltasseva, A.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, Science 339, 1232009 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. West, S. Ishii, G. Naik, N. Emani, V. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 795 (2010).

Broky, J.

Cai, W.

F. Zhou, Y. Liu, and W. Cai, Opt. Express 21, 4348 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 224 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

J. Lin, J. P. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X.-C. Yuan, and F. Capasso, Science 340, 331 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, Nano Lett. 12, 4932 (2012).

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, Science 334, 333 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

H. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, Nat. Mater. 9, 387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, Nat. Mater. 9, 387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 224 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Christodoulides, D. N.

P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, Science 324, 229 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 33, 207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chumanov, G.

D. D. Evanoff and G. Chumanov, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 13957 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Crozier, K. B.

T. Ellenbogen, K. Seo, and K. B. Crozier, Nano Lett. 12, 1026 (2012).

Dholakia, K.

J. Arlt, V. Garces-Chavez, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 197, 239 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dogariu, A.

Ellenbogen, T.

T. Ellenbogen, K. Seo, and K. B. Crozier, Nano Lett. 12, 1026 (2012).

T. Ellenbogen and N. Voloch-Bloch, Nat. Photonics 3, 395 (2009).

El-Sayed, M. A.

P. K. Jain, S. Eustis, and M. A. El-Sayed, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 18243 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Elser, J.

J. Elser, R. Wangberg, V. A. Podolskiy, and E. E. Narimanov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Emani, N.

P. West, S. Ishii, G. Naik, N. Emani, V. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 795 (2010).

Enoch, S.

S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, P. Sabouroux, N. Guérin, and P. Vincent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 213902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Estakhri, N. M.

F. Monticone, N. M. Estakhri, and A. Alù, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 203903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Eustis, S.

P. K. Jain, S. Eustis, and M. A. El-Sayed, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 18243 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Evanoff, D. D.

D. D. Evanoff and G. Chumanov, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 13957 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

Fang, N.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gaburro, Z.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, Nano Lett. 12, 4932 (2012).

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, Science 334, 333 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J.

C. J. Murphy, T. K. Sau, A. M. Gole, C. J. Orendorff, J. Gao, L. Gou, S. E. Hunyadi, and T. Li, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 13857 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garces-Chavez, V.

J. Arlt, V. Garces-Chavez, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 197, 239 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Genevet, P.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, Nano Lett. 12, 4932 (2012).

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, Science 334, 333 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gole, A. M.

C. J. Murphy, T. K. Sau, A. M. Gole, C. J. Orendorff, J. Gao, L. Gou, S. E. Hunyadi, and T. Li, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 13857 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gou, L.

C. J. Murphy, T. K. Sau, A. M. Gole, C. J. Orendorff, J. Gao, L. Gou, S. E. Hunyadi, and T. Li, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 13857 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grbic, A.

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 197401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Guérin, N.

S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, P. Sabouroux, N. Guérin, and P. Vincent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 213902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hell, S. W.

Hunyadi, S. E.

C. J. Murphy, T. K. Sau, A. M. Gole, C. J. Orendorff, J. Gao, L. Gou, S. E. Hunyadi, and T. Li, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 13857 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, S.

P. West, S. Ishii, G. Naik, N. Emani, V. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 795 (2010).

Jain, P. K.

P. K. Jain, S. Eustis, and M. A. El-Sayed, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 18243 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kats, M. A.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, Nano Lett. 12, 4932 (2012).

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, Science 334, 333 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, Science 339, 1232009 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 224 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kolesik, M.

P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, Science 324, 229 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. H.

Levy, U.

Li, T.

C. J. Murphy, T. K. Sau, A. M. Gole, C. J. Orendorff, J. Gao, L. Gou, S. E. Hunyadi, and T. Li, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 13857 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

J. Lin, J. P. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X.-C. Yuan, and F. Capasso, Science 340, 331 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

Maslovski, S.

S. Tretyakov, I. Nefedov, A. Sihvola, S. Maslovski, and C. Simovski, J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 17, 695 (2003).

Moloney, J. V.

P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, Science 324, 229 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Monticone, F.

F. Monticone, N. M. Estakhri, and A. Alù, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 203903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, J. P. B.

J. Lin, J. P. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X.-C. Yuan, and F. Capasso, Science 340, 331 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, C. J.

C. J. Murphy, T. K. Sau, A. M. Gole, C. J. Orendorff, J. Gao, L. Gou, S. E. Hunyadi, and T. Li, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 13857 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Naik, G.

P. West, S. Ishii, G. Naik, N. Emani, V. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 795 (2010).

Narimanov, E. E.

J. Elser, R. Wangberg, V. A. Podolskiy, and E. E. Narimanov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nefedov, I.

S. Tretyakov, I. Nefedov, A. Sihvola, S. Maslovski, and C. Simovski, J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 17, 695 (2003).

Nezhad, M.

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 266802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Orendorff, C. J.

C. J. Murphy, T. K. Sau, A. M. Gole, C. J. Orendorff, J. Gao, L. Gou, S. E. Hunyadi, and T. Li, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 13857 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pang, L.

Pendry, J.

J. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, C.

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 197401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Podolskiy, V. A.

J. Elser, R. Wangberg, V. A. Podolskiy, and E. E. Narimanov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Polynkin, P.

P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, Science 324, 229 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sabouroux, P.

S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, P. Sabouroux, N. Guérin, and P. Vincent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 213902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, 2nd ed. (Wiley-Interscience, 2007).

Sau, T. K.

C. J. Murphy, T. K. Sau, A. M. Gole, C. J. Orendorff, J. Gao, L. Gou, S. E. Hunyadi, and T. Li, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 13857 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Seo, K.

T. Ellenbogen, K. Seo, and K. B. Crozier, Nano Lett. 12, 1026 (2012).

Shalaev, V.

P. West, S. Ishii, G. Naik, N. Emani, V. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 795 (2010).

Shalaev, V. M.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, Science 339, 1232009 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 224 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, P.

H. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, Nat. Mater. 9, 387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

J. Arlt, V. Garces-Chavez, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 197, 239 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sihvola, A.

S. Tretyakov, I. Nefedov, A. Sihvola, S. Maslovski, and C. Simovski, J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 17, 695 (2003).

Simovski, C.

S. Tretyakov, I. Nefedov, A. Sihvola, S. Maslovski, and C. Simovski, J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 17, 695 (2003).

Siviloglou, G. A.

P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, Science 324, 229 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 33, 207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tayeb, G.

S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, P. Sabouroux, N. Guérin, and P. Vincent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 213902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, 2nd ed. (Wiley-Interscience, 2007).

Tetienne, J.-P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, Science 334, 333 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tretyakov, S.

S. Tretyakov, I. Nefedov, A. Sihvola, S. Maslovski, and C. Simovski, J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 17, 695 (2003).

Tsai, C.-H.

Vincent, P.

S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, P. Sabouroux, N. Guérin, and P. Vincent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 213902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Voloch-Bloch, N.

T. Ellenbogen and N. Voloch-Bloch, Nat. Photonics 3, 395 (2009).

Wang, Q.

J. Lin, J. P. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X.-C. Yuan, and F. Capasso, Science 340, 331 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wangberg, R.

J. Elser, R. Wangberg, V. A. Podolskiy, and E. E. Narimanov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

West, P.

P. West, S. Ishii, G. Naik, N. Emani, V. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 795 (2010).

Wichmann, J.

Yu, N.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, Nano Lett. 12, 4932 (2012).

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, Science 334, 333 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, G.

J. Lin, J. P. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X.-C. Yuan, and F. Capasso, Science 340, 331 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, X.-C.

J. Lin, J. P. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X.-C. Yuan, and F. Capasso, Science 340, 331 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, F.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Elser, R. Wangberg, V. A. Podolskiy, and E. E. Narimanov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. (1)

S. Tretyakov, I. Nefedov, A. Sihvola, S. Maslovski, and C. Simovski, J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 17, 695 (2003).

J. Phys. Chem. B (3)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) A scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the Airy–Gaussian mCGH. The inset shows the mCGH rod and cross-shaped building blocks. (b) and (c) Polarized bright-field optical images of the mCGH. The images are stretched for viewing purposes. (d) Artistic view of the experiment. Polarized light is normally incident on the mCGH. The emerging beams at the far field are imaged on a screen in transmission and reflection.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulations and experimental results of the Airy–Gaussian mCGH mask. Simulated normalized transmission patterns through the mCGH with (a) zero phase, ϕx(x,y)=0, and (b) a cubic phase, ϕy(x,y)=y3/a. (c) and (d) show the simulated far-field beams. (e) and (f) show the experimental switching between (e) the Gaussian beam and (f) the Airy beam at the first diffraction orders.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental results of the HG mCGH beam-shaping element. (a) and (b) show a schematic view of the mCGH mask pattern. (c) and (d) show the experimental result for switching between HG01 and HG00 beams.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Polarized diffraction from the mCGH designed to switch between 2D Airy and Bessel beams. (a) Simulated and (b) experimentally obtained Bessel beams at the first diffracted order. (c) Simulated and (d) experimentally obtained 2D Airy beams. The arrows indicate the input laser polarization.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λeff=n1+n2(λλp),
t(x,y)={1cos(2πΛxϕ(x,y))cos(πq(x,y))00otherwise,
t(x,y,λ,e^)=tx(x,y,λ)ex+ty(x,y,λ)ey,
T(x,y,λ,φ)=Tx(x,y,λ)cos2φ+Ty(x,y,λ)sin2φ,

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