Abstract

A sensitive hydrogen sensing device based on a selectively infiltrated photonic crystal fiber (PCF) coated with Pt-loaded WO3 is demonstrated. With Pt-loaded WO3 coating acting as the catalytic layer, hydrogen undergoes an exothermic reaction with oxygen and releases heat when the device is exposed to gas mixtures of air and hydrogen, which induces local temperature change in the PCF and hence leads to the resonant wavelength shift of the proposed device. The maximum wavelength shift of 98.5 nm is obtained with a 10-mm-long infiltrated PCF for 4% (v/v) H2 concentration, and a hydrogen sensitivity of 32.3 nm/% (v/v) H2 is achieved within the range of 1%–4% (v/v) H2 in air.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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J. Dai, M. Yang, Z. Yang, Z. Li, Y. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Zhang, and Z. Zhuang, Sens. Actuators B 190, 657 (2014).
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2013

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M. Wang, M. Yang, J. Cheng, J. Dai, M. Yang, and D. N. Wang, Opt. Lett. 37, 1940 (2012).
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Y. Wang, C. R. Liao, and D. N. Wang, Opt. Lett. 37, 4747 (2012).
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M. Yang, Z. Yang, J. Dai, and D. Zhang, Sens. Actuators B 166–167, 632 (2012).
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S. F. Silva, L. Coelho, O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, and F. X. Malcata, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 93 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

2009

2008

C. Caucheteur, M. Debliquy, D. Lahem, and P. Mégret, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 96 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Caucheteur, M. Debliquy, D. Lahem, and P. Mégret, Opt. Express 16, 16854 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Wei, T. Wei, H. Xiao, and Y. S. Lin, Sens. Actuators B 134, 687 (2008).
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2007

M. Buric, K. P. Chen, M. Bhattarai, P. R. Swinehart, and M. Maklad, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 255 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Trouillet, E. Marin, and C. Veillas, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002

X. Bévenot, A. Trouillet, C. Veillas, H. Gagnaire, and M. Clément, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. Villatoro, A. Díez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, Electron. Lett. 37, 1011 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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S. Sekimoto, H. Nakagawa, S. Okazaki, K. Fukuda, S. Asakura, T. Shigemori, and S. Takahashi, Sens. Actuators B 66, 142 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. Tabib-Azar, B. Sutapun, R. Petrick, and A. Kazemi, Sens. Actuators B 56, 158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Sutapun, M. Tabib-Azar, and A. Kazemi, Sens. Actuators B 60, 27 (1999).
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M. A. Butler and D. S. Ginley, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 3706 (1988).
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1987

F. Farahi, P. A. Leilabady, J. D. C. Jones, and D. A. Jackson, J. Phys. E 20, 432 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984

M. A. Butler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 2736 (1984).

Andrés, M. V.

J. Villatoro, A. Díez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, Electron. Lett. 37, 1011 (2001).
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Asakura, S.

S. Sekimoto, H. Nakagawa, S. Okazaki, K. Fukuda, S. Asakura, T. Shigemori, and S. Takahashi, Sens. Actuators B 66, 142 (2000).
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Bang, O.

W. Yuan, F. Wang, A. Savenko, D. H. Petersen, and O. Bang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 076103 (2011).
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F. Wang, W. Yuan, O. Hansen, and O. Bang, Opt. Express 19, 17585 (2011).
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Bévenot, X.

X. Bévenot, A. Trouillet, C. Veillas, H. Gagnaire, and M. Clément, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bhattarai, M.

M. Buric, K. P. Chen, M. Bhattarai, P. R. Swinehart, and M. Maklad, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 255 (2007).
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Buric, M.

M. Buric, K. P. Chen, M. Bhattarai, P. R. Swinehart, and M. Maklad, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 255 (2007).
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Butler, M. A.

M. A. Butler and D. S. Ginley, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 3706 (1988).
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M. A. Butler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 2736 (1984).

Cao, K.

Caucheteur, C.

C. Caucheteur, M. Debliquy, D. Lahem, and P. Mégret, Opt. Express 16, 16854 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Caucheteur, M. Debliquy, D. Lahem, and P. Mégret, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 96 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. P.

M. Buric, K. P. Chen, M. Bhattarai, P. R. Swinehart, and M. Maklad, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 255 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Cheng, J.

Claus, R. U.

J. S. Zeakes, K. A. Murphy, A. Elshabini-Raid, and R. U. Claus, in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, LEOS’94 (IEEE, 1994), Vol. 2, p. 235.

Clément, M.

X. Bévenot, A. Trouillet, C. Veillas, H. Gagnaire, and M. Clément, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Coelho, L.

S. F. Silva, L. Coelho, O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, and F. X. Malcata, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 93 (2012).
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Cruz, J. L.

J. Villatoro, A. Díez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, Electron. Lett. 37, 1011 (2001).
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J. Dai, M. Yang, Z. Yang, Z. Li, Y. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Zhang, and Z. Zhuang, Sens. Actuators B 190, 657 (2014).
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M. Yang, Z. Yang, J. Dai, and D. Zhang, Sens. Actuators B 166–167, 632 (2012).
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J. Dai, M. Yang, Y. Chen, K. Cao, H. Liao, and P. Zhang, Opt. Express 19, 6141 (2011).
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Dam, B.

Debliquy, M.

C. Caucheteur, M. Debliquy, D. Lahem, and P. Mégret, Opt. Express 16, 16854 (2008).
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C. Caucheteur, M. Debliquy, D. Lahem, and P. Mégret, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 96 (2008).
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J. Villatoro, A. Díez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, Electron. Lett. 37, 1011 (2001).
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Ecke, W.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, and R. Willsch, Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 1018 (2009).
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Elshabini-Raid, A.

J. S. Zeakes, K. A. Murphy, A. Elshabini-Raid, and R. U. Claus, in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, LEOS’94 (IEEE, 1994), Vol. 2, p. 235.

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F. Farahi, P. A. Leilabady, J. D. C. Jones, and D. A. Jackson, J. Phys. E 20, 432 (1987).
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Frazão, O.

S. F. Silva, L. Coelho, O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, and F. X. Malcata, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 93 (2012).
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Fukuda, K.

S. Sekimoto, H. Nakagawa, S. Okazaki, K. Fukuda, S. Asakura, T. Shigemori, and S. Takahashi, Sens. Actuators B 66, 142 (2000).
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X. Bévenot, A. Trouillet, C. Veillas, H. Gagnaire, and M. Clément, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 118 (2002).
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M. A. Butler and D. S. Ginley, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 3706 (1988).
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Han, T.

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F. Farahi, P. A. Leilabady, J. D. C. Jones, and D. A. Jackson, J. Phys. E 20, 432 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Javahiraly, N.

Jones, J. D. C.

F. Farahi, P. A. Leilabady, J. D. C. Jones, and D. A. Jackson, J. Phys. E 20, 432 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kazemi, A.

M. Tabib-Azar, B. Sutapun, R. Petrick, and A. Kazemi, Sens. Actuators B 56, 158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Sutapun, M. Tabib-Azar, and A. Kazemi, Sens. Actuators B 60, 27 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuhlmey, B. T.

Lahem, D.

C. Caucheteur, M. Debliquy, D. Lahem, and P. Mégret, Opt. Express 16, 16854 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Caucheteur, M. Debliquy, D. Lahem, and P. Mégret, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 96 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leilabady, P. A.

F. Farahi, P. A. Leilabady, J. D. C. Jones, and D. A. Jackson, J. Phys. E 20, 432 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

J. Dai, M. Yang, Z. Yang, Z. Li, Y. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Zhang, and Z. Zhuang, Sens. Actuators B 190, 657 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C. R.

Liao, H.

Lin, Y. S.

X. Wei, T. Wei, H. Xiao, and Y. S. Lin, Sens. Actuators B 134, 687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

Liu, Y.

Maklad, M.

M. Buric, K. P. Chen, M. Bhattarai, P. R. Swinehart, and M. Maklad, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 255 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Malcata, F. X.

S. F. Silva, L. Coelho, O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, and F. X. Malcata, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 93 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Marin, E.

A. Trouillet, E. Marin, and C. Veillas, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mégret, P.

C. Caucheteur, M. Debliquy, D. Lahem, and P. Mégret, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 96 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Caucheteur, M. Debliquy, D. Lahem, and P. Mégret, Opt. Express 16, 16854 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meyrueis, P.

Murphy, K. A.

J. S. Zeakes, K. A. Murphy, A. Elshabini-Raid, and R. U. Claus, in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, LEOS’94 (IEEE, 1994), Vol. 2, p. 235.

Nakagawa, H.

S. Sekimoto, H. Nakagawa, S. Okazaki, K. Fukuda, S. Asakura, T. Shigemori, and S. Takahashi, Sens. Actuators B 66, 142 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Okazaki, S.

S. Sekimoto, H. Nakagawa, S. Okazaki, K. Fukuda, S. Asakura, T. Shigemori, and S. Takahashi, Sens. Actuators B 66, 142 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Perrotton, C.

Petersen, D. H.

W. Yuan, F. Wang, A. Savenko, D. H. Petersen, and O. Bang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 076103 (2011).
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Petrick, R.

M. Tabib-Azar, B. Sutapun, R. Petrick, and A. Kazemi, Sens. Actuators B 56, 158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pricking, S.

Santos, J. L.

S. F. Silva, L. Coelho, O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, and F. X. Malcata, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 93 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Savenko, A.

W. Yuan, F. Wang, A. Savenko, D. H. Petersen, and O. Bang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 076103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schreuders, H.

Schroeder, K.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, and R. Willsch, Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 1018 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sekimoto, S.

S. Sekimoto, H. Nakagawa, S. Okazaki, K. Fukuda, S. Asakura, T. Shigemori, and S. Takahashi, Sens. Actuators B 66, 142 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shigemori, T.

S. Sekimoto, H. Nakagawa, S. Okazaki, K. Fukuda, S. Asakura, T. Shigemori, and S. Takahashi, Sens. Actuators B 66, 142 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Silva, S. F.

S. F. Silva, L. Coelho, O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, and F. X. Malcata, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 93 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Slaman, M.

Sutapun, B.

M. Tabib-Azar, B. Sutapun, R. Petrick, and A. Kazemi, Sens. Actuators B 56, 158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Sutapun, M. Tabib-Azar, and A. Kazemi, Sens. Actuators B 60, 27 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Swinehart, P. R.

M. Buric, K. P. Chen, M. Bhattarai, P. R. Swinehart, and M. Maklad, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 255 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tabib-Azar, M.

B. Sutapun, M. Tabib-Azar, and A. Kazemi, Sens. Actuators B 60, 27 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Tabib-Azar, B. Sutapun, R. Petrick, and A. Kazemi, Sens. Actuators B 56, 158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tai, B.

Takahashi, S.

S. Sekimoto, H. Nakagawa, S. Okazaki, K. Fukuda, S. Asakura, T. Shigemori, and S. Takahashi, Sens. Actuators B 66, 142 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Trouillet, A.

A. Trouillet, E. Marin, and C. Veillas, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Bévenot, A. Trouillet, C. Veillas, H. Gagnaire, and M. Clément, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Veillas, C.

A. Trouillet, E. Marin, and C. Veillas, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Bévenot, A. Trouillet, C. Veillas, H. Gagnaire, and M. Clément, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vieweg, M.

Villatoro, J.

J. Villatoro, A. Díez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, Electron. Lett. 37, 1011 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D. N.

Wang, F.

F. Wang, W. Yuan, O. Hansen, and O. Bang, Opt. Express 19, 17585 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Yuan, F. Wang, A. Savenko, D. H. Petersen, and O. Bang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 076103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

J. Dai, M. Yang, Z. Yang, Z. Li, Y. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Zhang, and Z. Zhuang, Sens. Actuators B 190, 657 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

Wang, Y.

J. Dai, M. Yang, Z. Yang, Z. Li, Y. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Zhang, and Z. Zhuang, Sens. Actuators B 190, 657 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, C. R. Liao, and D. N. Wang, Opt. Lett. 37, 4747 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, C. R. Liao, and D. N. Wang, Opt. Express 18, 18056 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Wei, T.

X. Wei, T. Wei, H. Xiao, and Y. S. Lin, Sens. Actuators B 134, 687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wei, X.

X. Wei, T. Wei, H. Xiao, and Y. S. Lin, Sens. Actuators B 134, 687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Westerwaal, R. J.

Willsch, R.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, and R. Willsch, Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 1018 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D. C.

Wu, D. K. C.

Xiao, H.

X. Wei, T. Wei, H. Xiao, and Y. S. Lin, Sens. Actuators B 134, 687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M.

Yang, Z.

J. Dai, M. Yang, Z. Yang, Z. Li, Y. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Zhang, and Z. Zhuang, Sens. Actuators B 190, 657 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. Yang, Z. Yang, J. Dai, and D. Zhang, Sens. Actuators B 166–167, 632 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, W.

W. Yuan, F. Wang, A. Savenko, D. H. Petersen, and O. Bang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 076103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, W. Yuan, O. Hansen, and O. Bang, Opt. Express 19, 17585 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zeakes, J. S.

J. S. Zeakes, K. A. Murphy, A. Elshabini-Raid, and R. U. Claus, in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, LEOS’94 (IEEE, 1994), Vol. 2, p. 235.

Zhang, D.

M. Yang, Z. Yang, J. Dai, and D. Zhang, Sens. Actuators B 166–167, 632 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, P.

Zhang, Y.

J. Dai, M. Yang, Z. Yang, Z. Li, Y. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Zhang, and Z. Zhuang, Sens. Actuators B 190, 657 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, Z.

J. Dai, M. Yang, Z. Yang, Z. Li, Y. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Zhang, and Z. Zhuang, Sens. Actuators B 190, 657 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Zou, B.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. A. Butler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 2736 (1984).

Electron. Lett.

J. Villatoro, A. Díez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, Electron. Lett. 37, 1011 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. Caucheteur, M. Debliquy, D. Lahem, and P. Mégret, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 96 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Buric, K. P. Chen, M. Bhattarai, P. R. Swinehart, and M. Maklad, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 255 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J.

S. F. Silva, L. Coelho, O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, and F. X. Malcata, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 93 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. A. Butler and D. S. Ginley, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 3706 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Phys. E

F. Farahi, P. A. Leilabady, J. D. C. Jones, and D. A. Jackson, J. Phys. E 20, 432 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

X. Bévenot, A. Trouillet, C. Veillas, H. Gagnaire, and M. Clément, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Trouillet, E. Marin, and C. Veillas, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lasers Eng.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, and R. Willsch, Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 1018 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

W. Yuan, F. Wang, A. Savenko, D. H. Petersen, and O. Bang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 076103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B

J. Dai, M. Yang, Z. Yang, Z. Li, Y. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Zhang, and Z. Zhuang, Sens. Actuators B 190, 657 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. Yang, Z. Yang, J. Dai, and D. Zhang, Sens. Actuators B 166–167, 632 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Wei, T. Wei, H. Xiao, and Y. S. Lin, Sens. Actuators B 134, 687 (2008).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Cross-section view of the selectively infiltrated PCF (the white spot near the fiber core indicates the liquid-filled waveguide) and (b) schematic diagram of the proposed hydrogen sensor; the gray rendering represents Pt-loaded WO3 coating, the red rod represents the liquid-filled waveguide, and the rightmost gray rod represents fiber core of single-mode fiber, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Transmission spectra at 21.3°C, 25°C, and 30°C and (b) resonant wavelength shift versus temperature (blue squares) and residues versus linear fitted values (red circles) of the selectively infiltrated PCF device.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Wavelength shifts of the hydrogen sensor in successive hydrogenation cycles (between 0% and 4% H2 in air). (b) Hysteresis of the hydrogen sensor in the first round of test. The contrasts are 6.09 and 4.62 nm at hydrogen concentrations of 1% and 2% (v/v) H2 in air, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Response of the Pt-loaded WO3 coated hydrogen sensor in successive hydrogenation cycles (at 0% and 4% H2 in air). The resonant wavelength shifts in the three cycles are 92.6, 96.1, and 98.5 nm, respectively, and the average rising and falling response times are 102 and 92 s, respectively.

Equations (2)

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WO3+xH2PtWO3x+xH2O,
WO3x+x2O2PtWO3.

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