Abstract

We propose a new type of bistable device for silicon photonics, using the self-electro-optic effect within an optical cavity. Since the bistability does not depend on the intrinsic optical nonlinearity of the material, but is instead engineered by means of optoelectronic feedback, it appears at low optical powers. This bistable device satisfies all the basic criteria required in an optical switch to build a scalable digital optical computing system.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Gibbs, Optical Bistability Controlling Light With Light (Academic, 1985).
  2. D. A. B. Miller, Nat. Photonics 4, 3 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. L. Lentine and D. A. B. Miller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 655 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Hochberg and T. Baehr-Jones, Nat. Photonics 4, 492 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, Nature 437, 1334 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. K. Doylend, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, Opt. Express 18, 14671 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. Gan, R.-J. Shiue, Y. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, Nat. Photonics 7, 883 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Tang, H.-W. Chen, S. Jain, J. D. Peters, U. Westergren, and J. E. Bowers, Opt. Express 19, 5811 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Yariv, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 483 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Q. Xu and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 31, 341 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, Opt. Express 13, 2678 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, Nat. Photonics 4, 477 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Nozaki, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, Y. Suzaki, T. Segawa, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, R. Takahashi, and M. Notomi, Nat. Photonics 6, 248 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J.-H. Li, Phys. Rev. B 75, 155329 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, Nat. Photonics 4, 518 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. Guoliang, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, L. Ying, H. Thacker, Z. Xuezhe, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 95 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C.-H. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, T. B. Norris, and Z. Zhong, Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 273 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, Opt. Express 19, 20435 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, X. Zhu, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, and K. Bergman, Opt. Express 21, 14342 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, Nature 474, 64 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, Opt. Express 16, 4309 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2014 (1)

C.-H. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, T. B. Norris, and Z. Zhong, Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 273 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (3)

L. Guoliang, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, L. Ying, H. Thacker, Z. Xuezhe, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 95 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Gan, R.-J. Shiue, Y. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, Nat. Photonics 7, 883 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, X. Zhu, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, and K. Bergman, Opt. Express 21, 14342 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

K. Nozaki, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, Y. Suzaki, T. Segawa, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, R. Takahashi, and M. Notomi, Nat. Photonics 6, 248 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2010 (5)

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, Nat. Photonics 4, 477 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, Nat. Photonics 4, 518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Doylend, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, Opt. Express 18, 14671 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, Nat. Photonics 4, 3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Hochberg and T. Baehr-Jones, Nat. Photonics 4, 492 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

J.-H. Li, Phys. Rev. B 75, 155329 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, Opt. Express 13, 2678 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, Nature 437, 1334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. Yariv, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

A. L. Lentine and D. A. B. Miller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 655 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ackert, J. J.

Assefa, S.

X. Gan, R.-J. Shiue, Y. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, Nat. Photonics 7, 883 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Baehr-Jones, T.

M. Hochberg and T. Baehr-Jones, Nat. Photonics 4, 492 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Beausoleil, R. G.

Bergman, K.

Bowers, J. E.

Chang, Y.-C.

C.-H. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, T. B. Norris, and Z. Zhong, Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 273 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-W.

Cunningham, J. E.

L. Guoliang, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, L. Ying, H. Thacker, Z. Xuezhe, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 95 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, Opt. Express 19, 20435 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Doylend, J. K.

Englund, D.

X. Gan, R.-J. Shiue, Y. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, Nat. Photonics 7, 883 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fattal, D.

Gan, X.

X. Gan, R.-J. Shiue, Y. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, Nat. Photonics 7, 883 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

X. Gan, R.-J. Shiue, Y. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, Nat. Photonics 7, 883 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, Nat. Photonics 4, 518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Y.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, Nature 437, 1334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Geng, B.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, Nature 474, 64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, H.

H. Gibbs, Optical Bistability Controlling Light With Light (Academic, 1985).

Guoliang, L.

L. Guoliang, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, L. Ying, H. Thacker, Z. Xuezhe, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 95 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. S.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, Nature 437, 1334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

X. Gan, R.-J. Shiue, Y. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, Nat. Photonics 7, 883 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

M. Hochberg and T. Baehr-Jones, Nat. Photonics 4, 492 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hone, J.

X. Gan, R.-J. Shiue, Y. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, Nat. Photonics 7, 883 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jain, S.

Jessop, P. E.

Jin, Y.

L. Guoliang, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, L. Ying, H. Thacker, Z. Xuezhe, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 95 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ju, L.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, Nature 474, 64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kamins, T. I.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, Nature 437, 1334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kawaguchi, Y.

K. Nozaki, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, Y. Suzaki, T. Segawa, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, R. Takahashi, and M. Notomi, Nat. Photonics 6, 248 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kira, G.

Knights, A. P.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

L. Guoliang, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, L. Ying, H. Thacker, Z. Xuezhe, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 95 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, Opt. Express 19, 20435 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, Nature 437, 1334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuramochi, E.

Lee, Y. K.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, Nature 437, 1334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

A. L. Lentine and D. A. B. Miller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 655 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Li, J.-H.

J.-H. Li, Phys. Rev. B 75, 155329 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Liu, C.-H.

C.-H. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, T. B. Norris, and Z. Zhong, Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 273 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, Nature 474, 64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Logan, D. F.

Luo, Y.

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, Nat. Photonics 4, 518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

K. Nozaki, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, Y. Suzaki, T. Segawa, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, R. Takahashi, and M. Notomi, Nat. Photonics 6, 248 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, Nat. Photonics 4, 477 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meric, I.

X. Gan, R.-J. Shiue, Y. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, Nat. Photonics 7, 883 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, Nat. Photonics 4, 3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, Nature 437, 1334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine and D. A. B. Miller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 655 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mitsugi, S.

Norris, T. B.

C.-H. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, T. B. Norris, and Z. Zhong, Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 273 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Notomi, M.

K. Nozaki, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, Y. Suzaki, T. Segawa, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, R. Takahashi, and M. Notomi, Nat. Photonics 6, 248 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, Nat. Photonics 4, 477 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, Opt. Express 13, 2678 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nozaki, K.

K. Nozaki, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, Y. Suzaki, T. Segawa, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, R. Takahashi, and M. Notomi, Nat. Photonics 6, 248 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, Nat. Photonics 4, 477 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Padmaraju, K.

Peters, J. D.

Raj, K.

L. Guoliang, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, L. Ying, H. Thacker, Z. Xuezhe, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 95 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, Opt. Express 19, 20435 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, Nat. Photonics 4, 518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ren, S.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, Nature 437, 1334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roth, J. E.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, Nature 437, 1334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sato, T.

K. Nozaki, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, Y. Suzaki, T. Segawa, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, R. Takahashi, and M. Notomi, Nat. Photonics 6, 248 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, Nat. Photonics 4, 477 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Segawa, T.

K. Nozaki, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, Y. Suzaki, T. Segawa, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, R. Takahashi, and M. Notomi, Nat. Photonics 6, 248 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shepard, K.

X. Gan, R.-J. Shiue, Y. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, Nat. Photonics 7, 883 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shinya, A.

K. Nozaki, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, Y. Suzaki, T. Segawa, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, R. Takahashi, and M. Notomi, Nat. Photonics 6, 248 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, Nat. Photonics 4, 477 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, Opt. Express 13, 2678 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shiue, R.-J.

X. Gan, R.-J. Shiue, Y. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, Nat. Photonics 7, 883 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shubin, I.

L. Guoliang, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, L. Ying, H. Thacker, Z. Xuezhe, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 95 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, Opt. Express 19, 20435 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Suzaki, Y.

K. Nozaki, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, Y. Suzaki, T. Segawa, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, R. Takahashi, and M. Notomi, Nat. Photonics 6, 248 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, R.

K. Nozaki, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, Y. Suzaki, T. Segawa, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, R. Takahashi, and M. Notomi, Nat. Photonics 6, 248 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, T.

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, Nat. Photonics 4, 477 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, Opt. Express 13, 2678 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Y.

Taniyama, H.

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, Nat. Photonics 4, 477 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thacker, H.

L. Guoliang, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, L. Ying, H. Thacker, Z. Xuezhe, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 95 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, Opt. Express 19, 20435 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, Nat. Photonics 4, 518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ulin-Avila, E.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, Nature 474, 64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, Nature 474, 64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Westergren, U.

Xu, Q.

Xuezhe, Z.

L. Guoliang, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, L. Ying, H. Thacker, Z. Xuezhe, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 95 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yin, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, Nature 474, 64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ying, L.

L. Guoliang, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, L. Ying, H. Thacker, Z. Xuezhe, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 95 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zentgraf, T.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, Nature 474, 64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, Nature 474, 64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

Zhong, Z.

C.-H. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, T. B. Norris, and Z. Zhong, Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 273 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. L. Lentine and D. A. B. Miller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 655 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Guoliang, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, L. Ying, H. Thacker, Z. Xuezhe, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 95 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Yariv, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

C.-H. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, T. B. Norris, and Z. Zhong, Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 273 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (6)

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, Nat. Photonics 4, 477 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Nozaki, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, Y. Suzaki, T. Segawa, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, R. Takahashi, and M. Notomi, Nat. Photonics 6, 248 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Hochberg and T. Baehr-Jones, Nat. Photonics 4, 492 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, Nat. Photonics 4, 3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Gan, R.-J. Shiue, Y. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, Nat. Photonics 7, 883 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, Nat. Photonics 4, 518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, Nature 474, 64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, Nature 437, 1334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J.-H. Li, Phys. Rev. B 75, 155329 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. Gibbs, Optical Bistability Controlling Light With Light (Academic, 1985).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Block diagram for a generic optically bistable device. The bistability is caused by positive feedback. (b) Schematic of an SEO bistable device, conceived in a silicon photonics platform: a ring cavity in a p-i-n diode with an embedded photodetector (PD).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Cavity output power as a function of the input laser power for an SEO device, where the cavity modulation is achieved via the depletion capacitance of the diode, causing the cavity resonance to shift as a square root of the applied voltage. The parameters of the simulation are Δo/2π=200GHz, γc/2π=10GHz and γl/2π=10GHz, Vo=7V, α=150, R=1.5 and S=1A/W. (b) The voltage across the diode and (c) the ring resonance shift Δ normalized by the cavity linewidth Δω/2π200GHz, both as functions of the input power.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Schematic of a symmetric SEO bistable device, with two ring resonators connected electrically in series. (b) The current through diode 1 (Id1) and diode 2 (Id2) as a function of the voltage Vd1 across diode 1 for different optical powers incident on diode 1 (Pin1), but with the power incident on diode 2 fixed at Pin2=1mW. The intersections of the two curves give the operating points. We note that, depending on the ratio of the input powers of the two diodes, we can have one or three points of operation. This gives rise to the bistability. (c) Output power Pout from the two ring cavities as a function of Pin1 with Pin2=1mW. (d) The bistable operation solely depends on the power ratio, showing that it can be used to achieve time-sequential gain. The logic 1 and logic 0 regions are highlighted.

Equations (4)

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da(t)dt=iΔa(t)[γc+γl]a(t)+i2γcSin,
η2Pabs3+2ηΔoPabs2+[(γc+γl)2+Δo2]Pabs=4γcγlPin.
ΔΔoΔnαVoRSPabs+Vbi,
Id1,2=Ioeq(Vd1,2+Vbi)/kT+Iph1,2

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