Abstract

In this Letter, a novel silica microsphere resonator (MSR) embedded with iron-oxide nanoparticles, which possesses broadband all-optical wavelength tunability, is demonstrated. It is generated by using in-line 1550 nm laser ablation of a microfiber with the assistance of magnetic fluid. To the best of our knowledge, this simple method of fabricating such MSRs is reported for the first time. Prominent photothermal effect is realized by the iron-oxide nanoparticles absorbing light pumped via the fiber stem, leading to a wavelength shift of over 13 nm (1.6 THz). Moreover, a linear tuning efficiency up to 0.2nm/mW is realized. With excellent robustness and being fiberized, the spheres can be attractive elements in building up novel micro-illuminators, point heaters, optical sensors, and fiber communication modules.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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J. Ward and O. Benson, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 553 (2011).
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J. M. Ward and S. N. Chormaic, Appl. Phys. B 100, 847 (2010).
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2007

K. Totsuka, N. Kobayashi, and M. Tomita, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213904 (2007).
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2005

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, C. Yuping, and Y. Xia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021901 (2005).
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2004

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J. Tang, M. Myers, K. A. Bosnick, and L. E. Brus, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 7501 (2003).
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L. N. Ng, B. J. Luff, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, Opt. Commun. 208, 117 (2002).
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H. C. Tapalian, J. P. Laine, and P. A. Lane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1118 (2002).
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J. Tang, M. Myers, K. A. Bosnick, and L. E. Brus, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 7501 (2003).
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Brus, L. E.

J. Tang, M. Myers, K. A. Bosnick, and L. E. Brus, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 7501 (2003).
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M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74 (2000).
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Z. Cai, A. Chardon, H. Xu, P. Féron, and G. Michel Stéphan, Opt. Commun. 203, 301 (2002).
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Z. Cai, A. Chardon, H. Xu, P. Féron, and G. Michel Stéphan, Opt. Commun. 203, 301 (2002).
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S. Pu, X. Chen, C. Yuping, Y. Xu, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093516 (2006).
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S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, C. Yuping, and Y. Xia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021901 (2005).
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Chen, X.

S. Pu, X. Chen, C. Yuping, Y. Xu, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093516 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, C. Yuping, and Y. Xia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, G.

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A. Watkins, J. Ward, and S. N. Chormaic, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 052501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Madugani, Y. Yang, J. M. Ward, J. D. Riordan, S. Coppola, V. Vespini, S. Grilli, A. Finizio, P. Ferraro, and S. N. Chormaic, Opt. Lett. 37, 4762 (2012).
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J. M. Ward and S. N. Chormaic, Appl. Phys. B 100, 847 (2010).
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U. Haken, O. Humbach, S. Ortner, and H. Fabian, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 265, 9 (2000).
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Z. Cai, A. Chardon, H. Xu, P. Féron, and G. Michel Stéphan, Opt. Commun. 203, 301 (2002).
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Finazzi, V.

Finizio, A.

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Gaeta, A. L.

Georgiades, N. P.

D. W. Vernooy, A. Furusawa, N. P. Georgiades, V. S. Ilchenko, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. A 57, R2293 (1998).
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Grilli, S.

Haken, U.

U. Haken, O. Humbach, S. Ortner, and H. Fabian, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 265, 9 (2000).
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Hare, J.

Haroche, S.

V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Opt. Commun. 145, 86 (1998).
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Huang, J.

Humbach, O.

U. Haken, O. Humbach, S. Ortner, and H. Fabian, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 265, 9 (2000).
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Ilchenko, V. S.

V. S. Ilchenko and A. B. Matsko, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 15 (2006).
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W. von Klitzing, R. Long, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Hare, and V. Lefèvre-Seguin, Opt. Lett. 26, 166 (2001).
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V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Maleki, Proc. SPIE 3611, 190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Opt. Commun. 145, 86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Vernooy, A. Furusawa, N. P. Georgiades, V. S. Ilchenko, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. A 57, R2293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ioppolo, T.

M. Manzo, T. Ioppolo, U. K. Ayaz, V. LaPenna, and M. V. Otugen, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 105003 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Ioppolo, U. Ayaz, and M. V. Ötügen, Opt. Express 17, 16465 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, F.

Kimble, H. J.

D. W. Vernooy, A. Furusawa, N. P. Georgiades, V. S. Ilchenko, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. A 57, R2293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

Kobayashi, N.

K. Totsuka, N. Kobayashi, and M. Tomita, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laine, J. P.

H. C. Tapalian, J. P. Laine, and P. A. Lane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1118 (2002).
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Lane, P. A.

H. C. Tapalian, J. P. Laine, and P. A. Lane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1118 (2002).
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LaPenna, V.

M. Manzo, T. Ioppolo, U. K. Ayaz, V. LaPenna, and M. V. Otugen, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 105003 (2012).
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Lefèvre-Seguin, V.

W. von Klitzing, R. Long, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Hare, and V. Lefèvre-Seguin, Opt. Lett. 26, 166 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Opt. Commun. 145, 86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liao, W.

S. Pu, X. Chen, C. Yuping, Y. Xu, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093516 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, C. Yuping, and Y. Xia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Long, R.

Luff, B. J.

L. N. Ng, B. J. Luff, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, Opt. Commun. 208, 117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Madugani, R.

Maleki, L.

V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Maleki, Proc. SPIE 3611, 190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Manzo, M.

M. Manzo, T. Ioppolo, U. K. Ayaz, V. LaPenna, and M. V. Otugen, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 105003 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Matsko, A. B.

V. S. Ilchenko and A. B. Matsko, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Michel Stéphan, G.

Z. Cai, A. Chardon, H. Xu, P. Féron, and G. Michel Stéphan, Opt. Commun. 203, 301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Myers, M.

J. Tang, M. Myers, K. A. Bosnick, and L. E. Brus, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 7501 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ng, L. N.

L. N. Ng, B. J. Luff, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, Opt. Commun. 208, 117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Okawachi, Y.

Ortner, S.

U. Haken, O. Humbach, S. Ortner, and H. Fabian, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 265, 9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Otugen, M. V.

M. Manzo, T. Ioppolo, U. K. Ayaz, V. LaPenna, and M. V. Otugen, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 105003 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ötügen, M. V.

Painter, O.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pu, S.

H. Wang, S. Pu, N. Wang, S. Dong, and J. Huang, Opt. Lett. 38, 3765 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, H. Wang, N. Wang, and X. Zeng, Appl. Phys. B 112, 223 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, C. Yuping, Y. Xu, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093516 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, C. Yuping, and Y. Xia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Raimond, J. M.

V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Opt. Commun. 145, 86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

Riordan, J. D.

Schlegel, A.

A. Schlegel, S. F. Alvarado, and P. Wachter, J. Phys. C 12, 1157 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Shi, L.

Tang, J.

J. Tang, M. Myers, K. A. Bosnick, and L. E. Brus, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 7501 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tapalian, H. C.

H. C. Tapalian, J. P. Laine, and P. A. Lane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, M.

K. Totsuka, N. Kobayashi, and M. Tomita, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Totsuka, K.

K. Totsuka, N. Kobayashi, and M. Tomita, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Treussart, F.

V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Opt. Commun. 145, 86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Velichansky, V. L.

V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Opt. Commun. 145, 86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vernooy, D. W.

D. W. Vernooy, A. Furusawa, N. P. Georgiades, V. S. Ilchenko, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. A 57, R2293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vespini, V.

Volikov, P. S.

V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Opt. Commun. 145, 86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

von Klitzing, W.

Wachter, P.

A. Schlegel, S. F. Alvarado, and P. Wachter, J. Phys. C 12, 1157 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, S. Pu, N. Wang, S. Dong, and J. Huang, Opt. Lett. 38, 3765 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, H. Wang, N. Wang, and X. Zeng, Appl. Phys. B 112, 223 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, N.

S. Pu, H. Wang, N. Wang, and X. Zeng, Appl. Phys. B 112, 223 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, S. Pu, N. Wang, S. Dong, and J. Huang, Opt. Lett. 38, 3765 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ward, J.

A. Watkins, J. Ward, and S. N. Chormaic, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 052501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Ward and O. Benson, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 553 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ward, J. M.

Watkins, A.

A. Watkins, J. Ward, and S. N. Chormaic, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 052501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, Handbook of Optical Materials (CRC Press, 2002).

Wilkinson, J. S.

L. N. Ng, B. J. Luff, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, Opt. Commun. 208, 117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

S. Pu, X. Chen, C. Yuping, Y. Xu, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093516 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, C. Yuping, and Y. Xia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.

Z. Cai, A. Chardon, H. Xu, P. Féron, and G. Michel Stéphan, Opt. Commun. 203, 301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

S. Pu, X. Chen, C. Yuping, Y. Xu, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093516 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Yao, X. S.

V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Maleki, Proc. SPIE 3611, 190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y.

Yuping, C.

S. Pu, X. Chen, C. Yuping, Y. Xu, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093516 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, C. Yuping, and Y. Xia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, X.

S. Pu, H. Wang, N. Wang, and X. Zeng, Appl. Phys. B 112, 223 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zervas, M. N.

L. N. Ng, B. J. Luff, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, Opt. Commun. 208, 117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, X.

Zhao, P.

Appl. Phys. B

J. M. Ward and S. N. Chormaic, Appl. Phys. B 100, 847 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, H. Wang, N. Wang, and X. Zeng, Appl. Phys. B 112, 223 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, C. Yuping, and Y. Xia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

V. S. Ilchenko and A. B. Matsko, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

H. C. Tapalian, J. P. Laine, and P. A. Lane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. Pu, X. Chen, C. Yuping, Y. Xu, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093516 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Watkins, J. Ward, and S. N. Chormaic, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 052501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

U. Haken, O. Humbach, S. Ortner, and H. Fabian, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 265, 9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. C

A. Schlegel, S. F. Alvarado, and P. Wachter, J. Phys. C 12, 1157 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

J. Tang, M. Myers, K. A. Bosnick, and L. E. Brus, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 7501 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev.

J. Ward and O. Benson, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 553 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Opt. Commun. 145, 86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Cai, A. Chardon, H. Xu, P. Féron, and G. Michel Stéphan, Opt. Commun. 203, 301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. N. Ng, B. J. Luff, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, Opt. Commun. 208, 117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

D. W. Vernooy, A. Furusawa, N. P. Georgiades, V. S. Ilchenko, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. A 57, R2293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

K. Totsuka, N. Kobayashi, and M. Tomita, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213904 (2007).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Fabrication process of microspheres. (a) A microfiber is immerged into a drop of magnetic fluid. SMF, single-mode fiber. (b) The microfiber is melted and snapped under in-line magnetic-fluid-assisted laser ablation. (c) The pump power is increased up to 200 mW. An iron-oxide nanoparticles embedded silica microsphere with a smooth surface is generated after the further ablation. The inset is a scanning electron microscope image of the resulting microsphere. The scale bar is 10 μm. (d) 2 mL magnetic fluid sample.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical microscope images of an iron-oxide nanoparticles embedded silica microsphere (a) without and (b) with pump. (c) Corresponding fluorescence spectrum of the microsphere under the pump.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Transmission spectra of a MSR. The blue and green curves were recorded under 0 and 15 mW 1550 nm pump, respectively. (b) Local transmission spectra of the MSR near 1540 nm when the pump power (P) continuously increases from 0 to 100 mW. (c) Resonance wavelengths near 1540 nm varying with the pump power. The square-dotted solid and circle-dotted dashed lines are for increasing and decreasing the pump power, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Scanning electron microscope images of microfiber ends after first-stage ablation. (a) The initial ablation power was 20 mW. (Inset) Close-up image of the end with a scale bar of 5 μm. (b) The initial ablation power was 400 mW.

Equations (1)

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δλ0=λ0(1n·nT+1R·RT)T,

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