Abstract

The responsivity of optical fibers to refractive index can be enhanced using high-order skew rays compared with using meridional rays. Skew rays can have a much higher number of reflections with increased interaction length along the core–cladding interface, which gives rise to stronger interactions with the external medium. Reflection/transmission-type refractometric sensors based on twin-coupled-core and multimode fibers showed one/two orders of magnitude increase in responsivity with skew ray excitation. The responsivity and sensitivity for the two types are 2000%/RIU, 1400%/RIU, and 4.9×105RIU, 7.0×105RIU, respectively.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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K. Yla-Jarkko, S. Alam, P. W. Turner, J. Moore, J. Nilsson, R. Selvas, D. B. Soh, C. A. Codemard, and J. K. Sahu, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Otaru, July6, 2003, paper TuC1.

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K. Yla-Jarkko, S. Alam, P. W. Turner, J. Moore, J. Nilsson, R. Selvas, D. B. Soh, C. A. Codemard, and J. K. Sahu, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Otaru, July6, 2003, paper TuC1.

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K. Yla-Jarkko, S. Alam, P. W. Turner, J. Moore, J. Nilsson, R. Selvas, D. B. Soh, C. A. Codemard, and J. K. Sahu, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Otaru, July6, 2003, paper TuC1.

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K. Yla-Jarkko, S. Alam, P. W. Turner, J. Moore, J. Nilsson, R. Selvas, D. B. Soh, C. A. Codemard, and J. K. Sahu, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Otaru, July6, 2003, paper TuC1.

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Sun, Q.

Tan, Y.

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Turner, P. W.

K. Yla-Jarkko, S. Alam, P. W. Turner, J. Moore, J. Nilsson, R. Selvas, D. B. Soh, C. A. Codemard, and J. K. Sahu, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Otaru, July6, 2003, paper TuC1.

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[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

Yao, J.

Yla-Jarkko, K.

K. Yla-Jarkko, S. Alam, P. W. Turner, J. Moore, J. Nilsson, R. Selvas, D. B. Soh, C. A. Codemard, and J. K. Sahu, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Otaru, July6, 2003, paper TuC1.

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[CrossRef]

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Anal. Chem. (1)

W. R. Seitz, Anal. Chem. 56, 16A (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. Li, S. Qiu, Y. Chen, F. Xu, and Y. Lu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1771 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

R. J. Potter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 51, 1079 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. N. Zervas, A. Marshall, and J. Kim, Proc. SPIE 7914, 79141T (2011).
[CrossRef]

Scholarpedia (1)

P. R. Berman, Scholarpedia 7, 11584 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (1)

M. Archenault, H. Gagnaire, and J. P. Goure, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 5, 173 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

K. Yla-Jarkko, S. Alam, P. W. Turner, J. Moore, J. Nilsson, R. Selvas, D. B. Soh, C. A. Codemard, and J. K. Sahu, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Otaru, July6, 2003, paper TuC1.

A. Leung, P. M. Shankar, and R. Mutharasan, Optical Fibers Research Advances (Nova Science, 2008), Sect. 2.0.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, 1984), Sect. 2–4.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Illustration of skew ray generation using angular planar-wave excitation. Note: the multimode fiber cladding is not shown.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Photograph of the reflection-type RI sensor.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic of the experimental setup for the reflection-type RI sensor.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Reflection-type RI sensor: corrected power versus θ for different next.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Reflection-type RI sensor: normalized power versus next for different θ (negative range). A running average of 4 was applied. Dashed lines represent polynomial fits.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Photograph of the transmission-type RI sensor (a) under lighting, and (b) in darkness.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Schematic of the experimental setup for the transmission-type RI sensor.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Transmission-type RI sensor: corrected power versus θ for different next.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Transmission-type RI sensor: normalized power versus next for different θ (positive range). Dashed lines represent polynomial fits.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

θacc=sin1(nco2ncl2).
M=N·L=cotθzDcosθϕ·Dcosθϕcosθz=1sinθz,
S=λπ·sinγsin2γ(nclnco)2,
S=(nclnco)2sin2γ·[1+(nclnco)2](nclnco)2·S,
D=λ2π·nco2sin2γncl2,

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