Abstract

We present an optically encoded photoacoustic (PA) flow imaging method based on optical-resolution PA microscopy. An intensity-modulated continuous-wave laser photothermally encodes the flowing medium, and a pulsed laser generates PA waves to image the encoded heat pattern. Flow speeds can be calculated by cross correlation. The method was validated in phantoms at flow speeds ranging from 0.23 to 11mm/s. Venous blood flow speed in a mouse ear was also measured.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 11, 301 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. K. Shung, Diagnostic Ultrasound: Imaging and Blood Flow Measurements (CRC, 2005).
  3. A. P. Shepherd and P. Å. Öberg, Laser-Doppler Blood Flowmetry (Springer, 1990), Vol. 107.
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    [CrossRef]
  5. L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Fang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 264103 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Brunker and P. Beard, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 1780 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Shi, L. A. Taber, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 35, 1419 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Beard, Int. Focus 1, 602 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Sheinfeld and A. Eyal, Proc. SPIE 8581, 85811O (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Wang, J. Xia, J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 204301 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Wang, J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, W. Xing, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 117003 (2013).
  13. L. V. Wang and H.-I. Wu, Biomedical Optics: Principles and Imaging (Wiley, 2012).
  14. S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 36, 1134 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Yao, C.-H. Huang, L. Wang, J.-M. Yang, L. Gao, K. I. Maslov, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 080505 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2014 (1)

C. Yeh, B. Soetikno, S. Hu, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Proc. SPIE 8943, 894351 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (3)

A. Sheinfeld and A. Eyal, Proc. SPIE 8581, 85811O (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, J. Xia, J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 204301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, W. Xing, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 117003 (2013).

2012 (4)

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 11, 301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Brunker and P. Beard, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 1780 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, C.-H. Huang, L. Wang, J.-M. Yang, L. Gao, K. I. Maslov, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 080505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

2007 (1)

H. Fang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 264103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Beard, P.

J. Brunker and P. Beard, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 1780 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Beard, Int. Focus 1, 602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brunker, J.

J. Brunker and P. Beard, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 1780 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Eyal, A.

A. Sheinfeld and A. Eyal, Proc. SPIE 8581, 85811O (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fang, H.

H. Fang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 264103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gao, L.

J. Yao, C.-H. Huang, L. Wang, J.-M. Yang, L. Gao, K. I. Maslov, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 080505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hu, S.

C. Yeh, B. Soetikno, S. Hu, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Proc. SPIE 8943, 894351 (2014).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 36, 1134 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.-H.

J. Yao, C.-H. Huang, L. Wang, J.-M. Yang, L. Gao, K. I. Maslov, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 080505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Malekafzali, A.

Maslov, K.

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 36, 1134 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Fang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 264103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maslov, K. I.

C. Yeh, B. Soetikno, S. Hu, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Proc. SPIE 8943, 894351 (2014).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, W. Xing, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 117003 (2013).

L. Wang, J. Xia, J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 204301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 11, 301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, C.-H. Huang, L. Wang, J.-M. Yang, L. Gao, K. I. Maslov, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 080505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Shi, L. A. Taber, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 35, 1419 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Milner, T. E.

Nelson, J. S.

Öberg, P. Å.

A. P. Shepherd and P. Å. Öberg, Laser-Doppler Blood Flowmetry (Springer, 1990), Vol. 107.

Sheinfeld, A.

A. Sheinfeld and A. Eyal, Proc. SPIE 8581, 85811O (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, A. P.

A. P. Shepherd and P. Å. Öberg, Laser-Doppler Blood Flowmetry (Springer, 1990), Vol. 107.

Shi, Y.

Shung, K. K.

K. K. Shung, Diagnostic Ultrasound: Imaging and Blood Flow Measurements (CRC, 2005).

Soetikno, B.

C. Yeh, B. Soetikno, S. Hu, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Proc. SPIE 8943, 894351 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Srinivas, S.

Taber, L. A.

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Wang, L.

L. Wang, J. Xia, J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 204301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, W. Xing, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 117003 (2013).

J. Yao, C.-H. Huang, L. Wang, J.-M. Yang, L. Gao, K. I. Maslov, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 080505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. V.

C. Yeh, B. Soetikno, S. Hu, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Proc. SPIE 8943, 894351 (2014).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, W. Xing, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 117003 (2013).

L. Wang, J. Xia, J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 204301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 11, 301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, C.-H. Huang, L. Wang, J.-M. Yang, L. Gao, K. I. Maslov, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 080505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 36, 1134 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Shi, L. A. Taber, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 35, 1419 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Fang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 264103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Wang and H.-I. Wu, Biomedical Optics: Principles and Imaging (Wiley, 2012).

Wang, X.

Wu, H.-I.

L. V. Wang and H.-I. Wu, Biomedical Optics: Principles and Imaging (Wiley, 2012).

Xia, J.

L. Wang, J. Xia, J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 204301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xing, W.

L. Wang, J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, W. Xing, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 117003 (2013).

Yang, J.-M.

J. Yao, C.-H. Huang, L. Wang, J.-M. Yang, L. Gao, K. I. Maslov, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 080505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

L. Wang, J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, W. Xing, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 117003 (2013).

L. Wang, J. Xia, J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 204301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 11, 301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, C.-H. Huang, L. Wang, J.-M. Yang, L. Gao, K. I. Maslov, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 080505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Shi, L. A. Taber, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 35, 1419 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, C.

C. Yeh, B. Soetikno, S. Hu, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Proc. SPIE 8943, 894351 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Zou, J.

J. Yao, C.-H. Huang, L. Wang, J.-M. Yang, L. Gao, K. I. Maslov, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 080505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Fang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 264103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Int. Focus (1)

P. Beard, Int. Focus 1, 602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Brunker and P. Beard, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 1780 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

L. Wang, J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, W. Xing, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 117003 (2013).

J. Yao, C.-H. Huang, L. Wang, J.-M. Yang, L. Gao, K. I. Maslov, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 080505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

L. Wang, J. Xia, J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 204301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

C. Yeh, B. Soetikno, S. Hu, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Proc. SPIE 8943, 894351 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. Sheinfeld and A. Eyal, Proc. SPIE 8581, 85811O (2013).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. (1)

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 11, 301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

K. K. Shung, Diagnostic Ultrasound: Imaging and Blood Flow Measurements (CRC, 2005).

A. P. Shepherd and P. Å. Öberg, Laser-Doppler Blood Flowmetry (Springer, 1990), Vol. 107.

L. V. Wang and H.-I. Wu, Biomedical Optics: Principles and Imaging (Wiley, 2012).

Supplementary Material (2)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the OE-PAF. (a) Schematic of second-generation OR-PAM system. BS, beam splitter; CCD, charge-coupled device; ConL, condenser lens; CorL, correction lens; CW, continuous wave; PD, photodiode; RAP, right-angle prism; RhP, rhomboid prism; SO, silicone oil; US, ultrasonic transducer. (b) Schematic of OR-PAM scan for thermal flow measurement in a tube.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

PA flow images of ink solution in a tube with a modulated heating frequency of 0.5 Hz. (a) Maximum-amplitude projection (MAP) image of a silicone tube filled with red ink solution. Dashed line: B-scan range. (b) Representative space–time images of a tube along the dashed line in (a) at different flow speeds (Media 1).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured flow speeds based on OE-PAF in a silicone tube. Modulated heating frequency: 0.5 Hz. Error bars represent standard errors. N=10 for each flow speed.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

In vivo flow measurement in a mouse ear with a modulated heating frequency of 0.5 Hz. (a) PA image of vessels in a mouse ear. A, starting point for B-scan following the curvature of the vessel. B, ending point of B-scan. Dashed line, B-scan range. (b) Space–time image along the dashed line in (a). (c) PA signal change with time at point A and B (Media 2).

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

H(t)=H0sin(2πf0t),
ΔT(x,tb)=ΔT0(x)sin{2πf0[tbt0x/(vfcosθ)]},
V(x,tb)[γ0+γ0ΔT(x,tb)]μa(x)F(x),
V˜(x,tb)=γ1(x)μa(x)F(x)sin{2πf0[tbt0x/(vfcosθ)]},
V˜(x,tb)=γ1(x)μa(x)F(x)sin{2πf0tb[1vm/(vfcosθ)]2πf0t0}.
Δf=vmvfcosθf0.
V˜(x,tb)=γ1(x)μa(x)F(x)sin(2πf0t0).
V˜(x,t)=γ1(x)μa(x)F(x)sin{2πf0[tt0x/(vfcosθ)]}.
Δt=arg maxΔt0tmeasV˜(x1,t)V˜(x2,t+Δt)dt,
Δt=ΔxvfcosθΔxvm,
vf=ΔxΔt.

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