Abstract

We demonstrated a mechanical iris-based fiber optic probe with adjustable spatial offsets for spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS). In the fiber probe, the excitation fiber was fixed at the center of the iris, and the collection fibers were movable with blades of the iris. Moreover, we studied the gap effect between the probe and the sample and demonstrated this fiber optic probe can be used as a platform for surface-enhanced SORS applications. This fiber probe design could potentially provide a design-efficient and cost-effective solution for various Raman applications.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Kallaway, L. Max Almond, H. Barr, J. Wood, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10, 207 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. Stone and C. A. Kendall, Emerging Raman Applications and Techniques in Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Fields (Springer, 2010).
  3. H. Lui, J. Zhao, D. McLean, and H. Zeng, Cancer Res. 72, 2491 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Abramczyk and B. Brozek-Pluska, Chem. Rev. 113, 5766 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Tollefson, J. Magera, T. Sebo, J. Cohen, A. Drauch, J. Maier, and I. Frank, BJU Int. 106, 484 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Matousek and N. Stone, J. Biophotonics 6, 7 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Matousek, Chem. Soc. Rev. 36, 1292 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. A. Macleod and P. Matousek, Appl. Spectrosc. 62, 291A (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. H. Demers, Sc. C. Davis, B. W. Pogue, and M. D. Morris, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2299 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. A. Esmonde-White, F. W. L. Esmonde-White, M. D. Morris, and B. J. Roessler, Analyst 136, 1675 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. D. Morris and G. S. Mandair, Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 469, 2160 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. Stone, K. Faulds, D. Graham, and P. Matousek, Anal. Chem. 82, 3969 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. D. Keller, E. Vargis, N. Granja, R. H. Wilson, M. A. Mycek, M. C. Kelley, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 077006 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Yodh and D. A. Boas, Biomedical Photonics (CRC Press, 2003).
  15. C. Zhou, “In vivo optical imaging and spectroscopy of cerebral hemodynamics,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Pennsylvania, 2007).
  16. B. Sharma, K. Ma, M. R. Glucksberg, and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 17290 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Xie, R. Stevenson, N. Stone, A. Hernandez-Santana, K. Faulds, and D. Graham, Angew. Chem. 124, 8637 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (4)

C. Kallaway, L. Max Almond, H. Barr, J. Wood, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10, 207 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Abramczyk and B. Brozek-Pluska, Chem. Rev. 113, 5766 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Matousek and N. Stone, J. Biophotonics 6, 7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Sharma, K. Ma, M. R. Glucksberg, and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 17290 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

H. Xie, R. Stevenson, N. Stone, A. Hernandez-Santana, K. Faulds, and D. Graham, Angew. Chem. 124, 8637 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Demers, Sc. C. Davis, B. W. Pogue, and M. D. Morris, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2299 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Lui, J. Zhao, D. McLean, and H. Zeng, Cancer Res. 72, 2491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

K. A. Esmonde-White, F. W. L. Esmonde-White, M. D. Morris, and B. J. Roessler, Analyst 136, 1675 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Morris and G. S. Mandair, Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 469, 2160 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Keller, E. Vargis, N. Granja, R. H. Wilson, M. A. Mycek, M. C. Kelley, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 077006 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

N. Stone, K. Faulds, D. Graham, and P. Matousek, Anal. Chem. 82, 3969 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Tollefson, J. Magera, T. Sebo, J. Cohen, A. Drauch, J. Maier, and I. Frank, BJU Int. 106, 484 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

P. Matousek, Chem. Soc. Rev. 36, 1292 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Abramczyk, H.

H. Abramczyk and B. Brozek-Pluska, Chem. Rev. 113, 5766 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Barr, H.

C. Kallaway, L. Max Almond, H. Barr, J. Wood, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10, 207 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Boas, D. A.

G. Yodh and D. A. Boas, Biomedical Photonics (CRC Press, 2003).

Brozek-Pluska, B.

H. Abramczyk and B. Brozek-Pluska, Chem. Rev. 113, 5766 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, J.

M. Tollefson, J. Magera, T. Sebo, J. Cohen, A. Drauch, J. Maier, and I. Frank, BJU Int. 106, 484 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Davis, Sc. C.

Demers, J. H.

Drauch, A.

M. Tollefson, J. Magera, T. Sebo, J. Cohen, A. Drauch, J. Maier, and I. Frank, BJU Int. 106, 484 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Esmonde-White, F. W. L.

K. A. Esmonde-White, F. W. L. Esmonde-White, M. D. Morris, and B. J. Roessler, Analyst 136, 1675 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Esmonde-White, K. A.

K. A. Esmonde-White, F. W. L. Esmonde-White, M. D. Morris, and B. J. Roessler, Analyst 136, 1675 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Faulds, K.

H. Xie, R. Stevenson, N. Stone, A. Hernandez-Santana, K. Faulds, and D. Graham, Angew. Chem. 124, 8637 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Stone, K. Faulds, D. Graham, and P. Matousek, Anal. Chem. 82, 3969 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Frank, I.

M. Tollefson, J. Magera, T. Sebo, J. Cohen, A. Drauch, J. Maier, and I. Frank, BJU Int. 106, 484 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Glucksberg, M. R.

B. Sharma, K. Ma, M. R. Glucksberg, and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 17290 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Graham, D.

H. Xie, R. Stevenson, N. Stone, A. Hernandez-Santana, K. Faulds, and D. Graham, Angew. Chem. 124, 8637 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Stone, K. Faulds, D. Graham, and P. Matousek, Anal. Chem. 82, 3969 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Granja, N.

M. D. Keller, E. Vargis, N. Granja, R. H. Wilson, M. A. Mycek, M. C. Kelley, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 077006 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez-Santana, A.

H. Xie, R. Stevenson, N. Stone, A. Hernandez-Santana, K. Faulds, and D. Graham, Angew. Chem. 124, 8637 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hutchings, J.

C. Kallaway, L. Max Almond, H. Barr, J. Wood, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10, 207 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kallaway, C.

C. Kallaway, L. Max Almond, H. Barr, J. Wood, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10, 207 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Keller, M. D.

M. D. Keller, E. Vargis, N. Granja, R. H. Wilson, M. A. Mycek, M. C. Kelley, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 077006 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kelley, M. C.

M. D. Keller, E. Vargis, N. Granja, R. H. Wilson, M. A. Mycek, M. C. Kelley, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 077006 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kendall, C.

C. Kallaway, L. Max Almond, H. Barr, J. Wood, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10, 207 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kendall, C. A.

N. Stone and C. A. Kendall, Emerging Raman Applications and Techniques in Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Fields (Springer, 2010).

Lui, H.

H. Lui, J. Zhao, D. McLean, and H. Zeng, Cancer Res. 72, 2491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ma, K.

B. Sharma, K. Ma, M. R. Glucksberg, and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 17290 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, N. A.

Magera, J.

M. Tollefson, J. Magera, T. Sebo, J. Cohen, A. Drauch, J. Maier, and I. Frank, BJU Int. 106, 484 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

M. D. Keller, E. Vargis, N. Granja, R. H. Wilson, M. A. Mycek, M. C. Kelley, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 077006 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Maier, J.

M. Tollefson, J. Magera, T. Sebo, J. Cohen, A. Drauch, J. Maier, and I. Frank, BJU Int. 106, 484 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mandair, G. S.

M. D. Morris and G. S. Mandair, Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 469, 2160 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Matousek, P.

P. Matousek and N. Stone, J. Biophotonics 6, 7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Stone, K. Faulds, D. Graham, and P. Matousek, Anal. Chem. 82, 3969 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Macleod and P. Matousek, Appl. Spectrosc. 62, 291A (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Matousek, Chem. Soc. Rev. 36, 1292 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Max Almond, L.

C. Kallaway, L. Max Almond, H. Barr, J. Wood, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10, 207 (2013).
[CrossRef]

McLean, D.

H. Lui, J. Zhao, D. McLean, and H. Zeng, Cancer Res. 72, 2491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Morris, M. D.

J. H. Demers, Sc. C. Davis, B. W. Pogue, and M. D. Morris, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2299 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Esmonde-White, F. W. L. Esmonde-White, M. D. Morris, and B. J. Roessler, Analyst 136, 1675 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Morris and G. S. Mandair, Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 469, 2160 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mycek, M. A.

M. D. Keller, E. Vargis, N. Granja, R. H. Wilson, M. A. Mycek, M. C. Kelley, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 077006 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pogue, B. W.

Roessler, B. J.

K. A. Esmonde-White, F. W. L. Esmonde-White, M. D. Morris, and B. J. Roessler, Analyst 136, 1675 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sebo, T.

M. Tollefson, J. Magera, T. Sebo, J. Cohen, A. Drauch, J. Maier, and I. Frank, BJU Int. 106, 484 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, B.

B. Sharma, K. Ma, M. R. Glucksberg, and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 17290 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, R.

H. Xie, R. Stevenson, N. Stone, A. Hernandez-Santana, K. Faulds, and D. Graham, Angew. Chem. 124, 8637 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stone, N.

C. Kallaway, L. Max Almond, H. Barr, J. Wood, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10, 207 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Matousek and N. Stone, J. Biophotonics 6, 7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Xie, R. Stevenson, N. Stone, A. Hernandez-Santana, K. Faulds, and D. Graham, Angew. Chem. 124, 8637 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Stone, K. Faulds, D. Graham, and P. Matousek, Anal. Chem. 82, 3969 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Stone and C. A. Kendall, Emerging Raman Applications and Techniques in Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Fields (Springer, 2010).

Tollefson, M.

M. Tollefson, J. Magera, T. Sebo, J. Cohen, A. Drauch, J. Maier, and I. Frank, BJU Int. 106, 484 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Van Duyne, R. P.

B. Sharma, K. Ma, M. R. Glucksberg, and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 17290 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Vargis, E.

M. D. Keller, E. Vargis, N. Granja, R. H. Wilson, M. A. Mycek, M. C. Kelley, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 077006 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R. H.

M. D. Keller, E. Vargis, N. Granja, R. H. Wilson, M. A. Mycek, M. C. Kelley, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 077006 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wood, J.

C. Kallaway, L. Max Almond, H. Barr, J. Wood, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10, 207 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xie, H.

H. Xie, R. Stevenson, N. Stone, A. Hernandez-Santana, K. Faulds, and D. Graham, Angew. Chem. 124, 8637 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yodh, G.

G. Yodh and D. A. Boas, Biomedical Photonics (CRC Press, 2003).

Zeng, H.

H. Lui, J. Zhao, D. McLean, and H. Zeng, Cancer Res. 72, 2491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

H. Lui, J. Zhao, D. McLean, and H. Zeng, Cancer Res. 72, 2491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, C.

C. Zhou, “In vivo optical imaging and spectroscopy of cerebral hemodynamics,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Pennsylvania, 2007).

Anal. Chem. (1)

N. Stone, K. Faulds, D. Graham, and P. Matousek, Anal. Chem. 82, 3969 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Analyst (1)

K. A. Esmonde-White, F. W. L. Esmonde-White, M. D. Morris, and B. J. Roessler, Analyst 136, 1675 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. (1)

H. Xie, R. Stevenson, N. Stone, A. Hernandez-Santana, K. Faulds, and D. Graham, Angew. Chem. 124, 8637 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

BJU Int. (1)

M. Tollefson, J. Magera, T. Sebo, J. Cohen, A. Drauch, J. Maier, and I. Frank, BJU Int. 106, 484 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cancer Res. (1)

H. Lui, J. Zhao, D. McLean, and H. Zeng, Cancer Res. 72, 2491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

H. Abramczyk and B. Brozek-Pluska, Chem. Rev. 113, 5766 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

P. Matousek, Chem. Soc. Rev. 36, 1292 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (1)

M. D. Morris and G. S. Mandair, Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 469, 2160 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

B. Sharma, K. Ma, M. R. Glucksberg, and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 17290 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

M. D. Keller, E. Vargis, N. Granja, R. H. Wilson, M. A. Mycek, M. C. Kelley, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 077006 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Biophotonics (1)

P. Matousek and N. Stone, J. Biophotonics 6, 7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. (1)

C. Kallaway, L. Max Almond, H. Barr, J. Wood, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10, 207 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

N. Stone and C. A. Kendall, Emerging Raman Applications and Techniques in Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Fields (Springer, 2010).

G. Yodh and D. A. Boas, Biomedical Photonics (CRC Press, 2003).

C. Zhou, “In vivo optical imaging and spectroscopy of cerebral hemodynamics,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Pennsylvania, 2007).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A–D, Schematic and E–F, photos of the mechanical iris-based fiber optic probe prototype.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of our SORS experimental setup.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Ratio of Delrin peak (918cm1) to Teflon peak (733cm1) as a function of Δs. Inset shows SORS spectra taken by the iris-based fiber probe at Δs=3, 6, 9, 12 mm (upward), pure Teflon (bottom) and pure Delrin (top).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

A, SORS spectra taken by iris-based fiber probe as the gap between fibers and the sample, Δg=0, 3.175, 6.35, 9.525, 12.7 mm (upward) for Δs=3 (black), 5 (red), 7 mm (blue), pure Teflon (top orange), and pure Delrin (bottom green). B, Ratio of Delrin peak (918cm1) to Teflon peak (733cm1) as a function of Δg at Δs=3, 5, 7 mm, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Most-sensitive SORS “banana” region shifts as Δg alters.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

SESORS experimental results of SaNPs (SERS probe) embedded in pork tissue at different depths. A, Normalized SESORS spectra taken by iris-based fiber probe as SaNPs were covered by the tissue top=6, 12, 18, 24 mm thick (downward) at Δs=20mm, SaNPs alone (top black) and tissue alone (bottom green). B, Ratio (solid curves) of SaNPs peak (593cm1) to pork tissue protein peak (1445cm1) as a function of Δs for the tissue top=6mm (blue), 12 mm (green), 18 mm (red) thick and normalized SaNPs signals (dotted curves) by exposure time as a function of Δs for the tissue top=6mm (blue), 12 mm (green), 18 mm (red). Integration time of CCD camera for each data point was shown next to the corresponding point in the same color.

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