Abstract

We investigated surface dark solitons (SDSs) at the interface between a self-defocusing nonlocal nonlinear medium and a linear medium, both theoretically and experimentally. We demonstrate that fundamental and higher-order SDSs can exist when the linear refractive index of the self-defocusing medium is much greater than that of the linear medium. The fundamental and second-order solitons are observed at the interface between air and a weakly absorbing liquid.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. R. Fischer, D. N. Neshev, W. Krolikowski, Y. S. Kivshar, D. Iturbe-Castillo, S. Chavez-Cerda, M. R. Meneghetti, D. P. Caetano, and J. M. Hickman, Opt. Lett. 31, 3010 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2009 (5)

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, and M. Segev, Phys. Rev. A 80, 041808 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Kartashov, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, Opt. Lett. 34, 283 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Ouyang and Q. Guo, Opt. Express 17, 5170 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, A. Fratalocchi, M. Peccianti, G. Ruocco, and S. Trillo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 083902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Armaroli, S. Trillo, and A. Fratalocchi, Phys. Rev. A 80, 053803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

F. Ye, Y. V. Kartashov, and L. Torner, Phys. Rev. A 77, 033829 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Lazarides, G. P. Tsironis, and Y. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. E 77, 065601(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

Y. V. Kartashov, F. Ye, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, Opt. Lett. 32, 2260 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Kartashov, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, Opt. Express 15, 16216 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Kartashov and L. Torner, Opt. Lett. 32, 946 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Ghofraniha, C. Conti, G. Ruocco, and S. Trillo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 043903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

A. Dreischuh, D. N. Neshev, D. E. Petersen, O. Bang, and W. Krolikowski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 043901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Fischer, D. N. Neshev, W. Krolikowski, Y. S. Kivshar, D. Iturbe-Castillo, S. Chavez-Cerda, M. R. Meneghetti, D. P. Caetano, and J. M. Hickman, Opt. Lett. 31, 3010 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Kartashov, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 073901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

1995 (2)

G. S. Garcia Quirino, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. Stepanov, Phys. Rev. A 51, 1571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Cronin-Golomb, Opt. Lett. 20, 2075 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. A 45, 4974 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1989 (1)

D. Mihalachea, M. Bertolottib, and C. Sibiliab, Prog. Opt. 27, 227 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

Alfassi, B.

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, and M. Segev, Phys. Rev. A 80, 041808 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, D. R.

Armaroli, A.

A. Armaroli, S. Trillo, and A. Fratalocchi, Phys. Rev. A 80, 053803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bang, O.

A. Dreischuh, D. N. Neshev, D. E. Petersen, O. Bang, and W. Krolikowski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 043901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Nikolov, D. Neshev, W. Krolikowski, O. Bang, J. J. Rasmussen, and P. L. Christiansen, Opt. Lett. 29, 286 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bertolottib, M.

D. Mihalachea, M. Bertolottib, and C. Sibiliab, Prog. Opt. 27, 227 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Caetano, D. P.

Chavez-Cerda, S.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. A 45, 4974 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Christiansen, P. L.

Christodoulides, D. N.

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Makris, S. Suntsov, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Hache, Opt. Lett. 30, 2466 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Conti, C.

C. Conti, A. Fratalocchi, M. Peccianti, G. Ruocco, and S. Trillo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 083902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Ghofraniha, C. Conti, G. Ruocco, and S. Trillo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 043903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cronin-Golomb, M.

Dreischuh, A.

A. Dreischuh, D. N. Neshev, D. E. Petersen, O. Bang, and W. Krolikowski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 043901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, R.

Fratalocchi, A.

A. Armaroli, S. Trillo, and A. Fratalocchi, Phys. Rev. A 80, 053803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, A. Fratalocchi, M. Peccianti, G. Ruocco, and S. Trillo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 083902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gao, X.

Garcia Quirino, G. S.

G. S. Garcia Quirino, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. Stepanov, Phys. Rev. A 51, 1571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ghofraniha, N.

N. Ghofraniha, C. Conti, G. Ruocco, and S. Trillo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 043903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Q.

Hache, A.

Hickman, J. M.

Hu, W.

Iturbe-Castillo, D.

Kartashov, Y. V.

Kivshar, Y. S.

Krolikowski, W.

Lazarides, N.

N. Lazarides, G. P. Tsironis, and Y. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. E 77, 065601(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, D.

Ma, X.

Makris, K. G.

Manela, O.

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meneghetti, M. R.

Mihalachea, D.

D. Mihalachea, M. Bertolottib, and C. Sibiliab, Prog. Opt. 27, 227 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Neshev, D.

Neshev, D. N.

Nikolov, N. I.

Ouyang, S.

Peccianti, M.

C. Conti, A. Fratalocchi, M. Peccianti, G. Ruocco, and S. Trillo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 083902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, D. E.

A. Dreischuh, D. N. Neshev, D. E. Petersen, O. Bang, and W. Krolikowski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 043901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rasmussen, J. J.

Rotschild, C.

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, and M. Segev, Phys. Rev. A 80, 041808 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ruocco, G.

C. Conti, A. Fratalocchi, M. Peccianti, G. Ruocco, and S. Trillo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 083902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Ghofraniha, C. Conti, G. Ruocco, and S. Trillo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 043903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez-Mondragon, J. J.

G. S. Garcia Quirino, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. Stepanov, Phys. Rev. A 51, 1571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Segev, M.

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, and M. Segev, Phys. Rev. A 80, 041808 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sibiliab, C.

D. Mihalachea, M. Bertolottib, and C. Sibiliab, Prog. Opt. 27, 227 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, S. R.

Stegeman, G. I.

Stepanov, S.

G. S. Garcia Quirino, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. Stepanov, Phys. Rev. A 51, 1571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Suntsov, S.

Tomlinson, W. J.

Torner, L.

Trillo, S.

A. Armaroli, S. Trillo, and A. Fratalocchi, Phys. Rev. A 80, 053803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, A. Fratalocchi, M. Peccianti, G. Ruocco, and S. Trillo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 083902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Ghofraniha, C. Conti, G. Ruocco, and S. Trillo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 043903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsironis, G. P.

N. Lazarides, G. P. Tsironis, and Y. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. E 77, 065601(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vysloukh, V. A.

Yang, Z.

Ye, F.

F. Ye, Y. V. Kartashov, and L. Torner, Phys. Rev. A 77, 033829 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Kartashov, F. Ye, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, Opt. Lett. 32, 2260 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zangwill, A.

A. Zangwill, Physics at Surfaces (Cambridge University, 1998).

Zheng, Y.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (8)

Phys. Rev. A (5)

G. S. Garcia Quirino, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. Stepanov, Phys. Rev. A 51, 1571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. A 45, 4974 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, and M. Segev, Phys. Rev. A 80, 041808 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Ye, Y. V. Kartashov, and L. Torner, Phys. Rev. A 77, 033829 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Armaroli, S. Trillo, and A. Fratalocchi, Phys. Rev. A 80, 053803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

N. Lazarides, G. P. Tsironis, and Y. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. E 77, 065601(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

Y. V. Kartashov, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 073901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Ghofraniha, C. Conti, G. Ruocco, and S. Trillo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 043903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, A. Fratalocchi, M. Peccianti, G. Ruocco, and S. Trillo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 083902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Dreischuh, D. N. Neshev, D. E. Petersen, O. Bang, and W. Krolikowski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 043901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Opt. (1)

D. Mihalachea, M. Bertolottib, and C. Sibiliab, Prog. Opt. 27, 227 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. Zangwill, Physics at Surfaces (Cambridge University, 1998).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Profiles of the fundamental SDSs with (a) wm=1, 3, 5, β=1; (b) wm=3, and β=1, 1.5, 2. Propagation of fundamental SDSs with (c) wm=1, β=1; (d) wm=3, and β=1.5. Purple dashed–dotted lines indicate the interface.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Profiles of the second-order SDSs with wm=3, 5 and β=1. (b) Perturbation growth rate versus propagation constant for wm=3, 5. Propagation of second-order SDS for (c) wm=3, β=1, (d) wm=3 and β=4.5, (e) wm=5 and β=2.1, and (f) wm=5 and β=1.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Profiles of the third-order SDSs with wm=2, 5 and β=1. (b) Profiles of the fourth-order SDSs with wm=2, 5 and β=1. Perturbation growth rate versus propagation constant for (c) the third-order SDSs, and (d) the fourth-order SDSs.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Sketch of the experimental setup.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Observation of the fundamental SDSs. Intensity distribution of the output beam for different input powers: (a) P=2mW, (b) P=1.25W, (c) P=5.24W. Dashed–dotted lines indicate the interface.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Propagation of the fundamental SDSs when the background intensity is 21 times higher than the critical soliton intensity Ic=β=1. (a) wm=2; (d) wm=3. Dashed–dotted lines indicate the interface.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Observation of the second-order SDSs. Intensity distribution of the output beam for different input powers: (a) P=2mW; (b) P=1.28W; and (c) P=1.70W. Dashed–dotted lines indicate the interface.

Equations (3)

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iqz+122qx2+Δnq=0,
Δnwm22Δnx2=|q|2.
iqz+122qx2qnd=0.

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