Abstract

The voltage transfer function is a rapid and visually effective method to determine the electrical response of liquid crystal (LC) systems using optical measurements. This method relies on crosspolarized intensity measurements as a function of the frequency and amplitude of the voltage applied to the device. Coupled with a mathematical model of the device it can be used to determine the device time constants and electrical properties. We validate the method using photorefractive LC cells and determine the main time constants and the voltage dropped across the layers using a simple nonlinear filter model.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2012 (3)

2011 (2)

M. Herrington, K. Daly, O. Buchnev, G. D’Alessandro, and M. Kaczmarek, Europhys. Lett. 95, 14003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, and P. J. M. Vanbrabant, Opt. Eng. 50, 081202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

A. Alex-Ionescu, G. Barbero, F. Ciuchi, A. Mazzulla, and N. Scaramuzza, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 044508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

P. D’Angelo, M. Barra, A. Cassinese, M. Maglione, P. Vacca, C. Minarini, and A. Rubino, Solid State Electron. 51, 123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

G. Barbero, G. Cipparrone, O. G. Martins, P. Pagliusi, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 132901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

L. Komitov, B. Helgee, J. Felix, and A. Matharu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 023502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Residori, Phys. Rep. 416, 201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

P. Pagliusi, B. Zappone, G. Cipparrone, and G. Barbero, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Miniewicz, F. Michelotti, and A. Belardini, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 168 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Sawada, K. Tarumi, and S. Naemura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 1418 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

M. G. Clark and F. M. Leslie, Proc. R. Soc. A 361, 463 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, S. B.

Alex-Ionescu, A.

A. Alex-Ionescu, G. Barbero, F. Ciuchi, A. Mazzulla, and N. Scaramuzza, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 044508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barbero, G.

A. Alex-Ionescu, G. Barbero, F. Ciuchi, A. Mazzulla, and N. Scaramuzza, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 044508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Barbero, G. Cipparrone, O. G. Martins, P. Pagliusi, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 132901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Pagliusi, B. Zappone, G. Cipparrone, and G. Barbero, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barra, M.

P. D’Angelo, M. Barra, A. Cassinese, M. Maglione, P. Vacca, C. Minarini, and A. Rubino, Solid State Electron. 51, 123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beeckman, J.

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, and P. J. M. Vanbrabant, Opt. Eng. 50, 081202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Belardini, A.

A. Miniewicz, F. Michelotti, and A. Belardini, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Buchnev, O.

M. Herrington, K. Daly, O. Buchnev, G. D’Alessandro, and M. Kaczmarek, Europhys. Lett. 95, 14003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cassinese, A.

P. D’Angelo, M. Barra, A. Cassinese, M. Maglione, P. Vacca, C. Minarini, and A. Rubino, Solid State Electron. 51, 123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chigrinov, V. G.

Cipparrone, G.

G. Barbero, G. Cipparrone, O. G. Martins, P. Pagliusi, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 132901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Pagliusi, B. Zappone, G. Cipparrone, and G. Barbero, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 168 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ciuchi, F.

A. Alex-Ionescu, G. Barbero, F. Ciuchi, A. Mazzulla, and N. Scaramuzza, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 044508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Clark, M. G.

M. G. Clark and F. M. Leslie, Proc. R. Soc. A 361, 463 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Cook, G.

D’Alessandro, G.

S. B. Abbott, K. R. Daly, G. D’Alessandro, M. Kaczmarek, and D. C. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 1947 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Herrington, K. Daly, O. Buchnev, G. D’Alessandro, and M. Kaczmarek, Europhys. Lett. 95, 14003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D’Angelo, P.

P. D’Angelo, M. Barra, A. Cassinese, M. Maglione, P. Vacca, C. Minarini, and A. Rubino, Solid State Electron. 51, 123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Daly, K.

M. Herrington, K. Daly, O. Buchnev, G. D’Alessandro, and M. Kaczmarek, Europhys. Lett. 95, 14003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Daly, K. R.

de Gennes, P. G.

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals, 2nd ed. (Clarendon, 1993).

Evans, D.

Fan, F.

Felix, J.

L. Komitov, B. Helgee, J. Felix, and A. Matharu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 023502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Figueiredo Neto, A. M.

G. Barbero, G. Cipparrone, O. G. Martins, P. Pagliusi, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 132901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Glushchenko, A.

Griffith, A.

Han, H.

Helgee, B.

L. Komitov, B. Helgee, J. Felix, and A. Matharu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 023502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Herrington, M.

M. Herrington, K. Daly, O. Buchnev, G. D’Alessandro, and M. Kaczmarek, Europhys. Lett. 95, 14003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Herrington, “Electrical and optical effects in hybrid liquid crystal cells,” Ph.D. thesis (School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, 2011).

Kaczmarek, M.

S. B. Abbott, K. R. Daly, G. D’Alessandro, M. Kaczmarek, and D. C. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 1947 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Herrington, K. Daly, O. Buchnev, G. D’Alessandro, and M. Kaczmarek, Europhys. Lett. 95, 14003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Komitov, L.

L. Komitov, B. Helgee, J. Felix, and A. Matharu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 023502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kovalchuk, O.

S. Tomylko, O. Yaroshchuk, O. Kovalchuk, U. Maschke, and R. Yamaguchi, Ukr. Fiz. Zh. 57, 239 (2012).

Leslie, F. M.

M. G. Clark and F. M. Leslie, Proc. R. Soc. A 361, 463 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Lim, M.

Maglione, M.

P. D’Angelo, M. Barra, A. Cassinese, M. Maglione, P. Vacca, C. Minarini, and A. Rubino, Solid State Electron. 51, 123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martins, O. G.

G. Barbero, G. Cipparrone, O. G. Martins, P. Pagliusi, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 132901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maschke, U.

S. Tomylko, O. Yaroshchuk, O. Kovalchuk, U. Maschke, and R. Yamaguchi, Ukr. Fiz. Zh. 57, 239 (2012).

Matharu, A.

L. Komitov, B. Helgee, J. Felix, and A. Matharu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 023502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mazzulla, A.

A. Alex-Ionescu, G. Barbero, F. Ciuchi, A. Mazzulla, and N. Scaramuzza, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 044508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Michelotti, F.

A. Miniewicz, F. Michelotti, and A. Belardini, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Minarini, C.

P. D’Angelo, M. Barra, A. Cassinese, M. Maglione, P. Vacca, C. Minarini, and A. Rubino, Solid State Electron. 51, 123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miniewicz, A.

A. Miniewicz, F. Michelotti, and A. Belardini, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Naemura, S.

A. Sawada, K. Tarumi, and S. Naemura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 1418 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Neyts, K.

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, and P. J. M. Vanbrabant, Opt. Eng. 50, 081202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pagliusi, P.

G. Barbero, G. Cipparrone, O. G. Martins, P. Pagliusi, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 132901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Pagliusi, B. Zappone, G. Cipparrone, and G. Barbero, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 168 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

Parrott, E. P. J.

Pickwell-MacPherson, E.

Prost, J.

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals, 2nd ed. (Clarendon, 1993).

Reshetnyak, V.

Residori, S.

S. Residori, Phys. Rep. 416, 201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rubino, A.

P. D’Angelo, M. Barra, A. Cassinese, M. Maglione, P. Vacca, C. Minarini, and A. Rubino, Solid State Electron. 51, 123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, M.

Sawada, A.

A. Sawada, K. Tarumi, and S. Naemura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 1418 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scaramuzza, N.

A. Alex-Ionescu, G. Barbero, F. Ciuchi, A. Mazzulla, and N. Scaramuzza, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 044508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. C.

Tarumi, K.

A. Sawada, K. Tarumi, and S. Naemura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 1418 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tomylko, S.

S. Tomylko, O. Yaroshchuk, O. Kovalchuk, U. Maschke, and R. Yamaguchi, Ukr. Fiz. Zh. 57, 239 (2012).

Vacca, P.

P. D’Angelo, M. Barra, A. Cassinese, M. Maglione, P. Vacca, C. Minarini, and A. Rubino, Solid State Electron. 51, 123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vanbrabant, P. J. M.

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, and P. J. M. Vanbrabant, Opt. Eng. 50, 081202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wasserman, L. A.

L. A. Wasserman, All of Statistics: a Concise Course in Statistical Inference (Springer-Verlag, 2003).

Yamaguchi, R.

S. Tomylko, O. Yaroshchuk, O. Kovalchuk, U. Maschke, and R. Yamaguchi, Ukr. Fiz. Zh. 57, 239 (2012).

Yaroshchuk, O.

S. Tomylko, O. Yaroshchuk, O. Kovalchuk, U. Maschke, and R. Yamaguchi, Ukr. Fiz. Zh. 57, 239 (2012).

Zappone, B.

P. Pagliusi, B. Zappone, G. Cipparrone, and G. Barbero, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

L. Komitov, B. Helgee, J. Felix, and A. Matharu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 023502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Barbero, G. Cipparrone, O. G. Martins, P. Pagliusi, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 132901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 168 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

M. Herrington, K. Daly, O. Buchnev, G. D’Alessandro, and M. Kaczmarek, Europhys. Lett. 95, 14003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

P. Pagliusi, B. Zappone, G. Cipparrone, and G. Barbero, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Miniewicz, F. Michelotti, and A. Belardini, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Alex-Ionescu, G. Barbero, F. Ciuchi, A. Mazzulla, and N. Scaramuzza, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 044508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Sawada, K. Tarumi, and S. Naemura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 1418 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, and P. J. M. Vanbrabant, Opt. Eng. 50, 081202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rep. (1)

S. Residori, Phys. Rep. 416, 201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. A (1)

M. G. Clark and F. M. Leslie, Proc. R. Soc. A 361, 463 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Electron. (1)

P. D’Angelo, M. Barra, A. Cassinese, M. Maglione, P. Vacca, C. Minarini, and A. Rubino, Solid State Electron. 51, 123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ukr. Fiz. Zh. (1)

S. Tomylko, O. Yaroshchuk, O. Kovalchuk, U. Maschke, and R. Yamaguchi, Ukr. Fiz. Zh. 57, 239 (2012).

Other (4)

Merck KGaA, “Technical data sheet for nematic liquid crystals” (2005).

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals, 2nd ed. (Clarendon, 1993).

L. A. Wasserman, All of Statistics: a Concise Course in Statistical Inference (Springer-Verlag, 2003).

M. Herrington, “Electrical and optical effects in hybrid liquid crystal cells,” Ph.D. thesis (School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, 2011).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup for measuring the crosspolarized intensity and, hence, the VTF. The solid arrows indicate rubbing direction, and the dashed arrows indicate polarizer axis direction.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Comparison of measured (left column) crosspolarized intensity as a function of voltage and frequency for the E7 cell with that (right column) given by the nonlinear filter model in Eq. (3), with τVTF=1.2s and τLC=0.7s. The top row shows the average intensity while the bottom row shows the range. The green line indicates the voltage threshold as described in the text.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison of measured and modeled crosspolarized intensity for TL205, arranged as in Fig. 2, with ωVTF=0Hz and τLC=0.7s.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

VL(ω)=11+(ωVTF/ω)2V0.
Ueff=U0(ω)+U2(ω)cos(2ωt)
U0(ω)=VL2(ω)2,U2(ω)=U0(ω)1+(2ω/ωLC)2,

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