Abstract

We introduce 3D optical antennas based on winged nanocones. The antennas support particle plasmon oscillations with current distributions that facilitate transformation of transverse far-field radiation to strong longitudinal local fields near the cone apices. We characterize the optical responses of the antennas by their extinction spectra and by second-harmonic generation microscopy with cylindrical vector beams. The results demonstrate a new 3D polarization-controllable optical antenna for applications in apertureless near-field microscopy, spectroscopy, and plasmonic sensing.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  22. R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
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  24. D. Heinemann, M. Schomaker, S. Kalies, M. Schieck, R. Carlson, H. M. Escobar, T. Ripken, H. Meyer, and A. Heisterkamp, PLoS ONE 8, e58604 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

D. Heinemann, M. Schomaker, S. Kalies, M. Schieck, R. Carlson, H. M. Escobar, T. Ripken, H. Meyer, and A. Heisterkamp, PLoS ONE 8, e58604 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Butet, B. Gallinet, K. Thyagarajan, and O. J. Martin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 2970 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

J. Baumgart, L. Humbert, É. Boulais, R. Lachaine, J.-J. Lebrun, and M. Meunier, Biomaterials 33, 2345 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Wackenhut, A. V. Failla, T. Zuchner, M. Steiner, and A. J. Meixner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 263102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, F. Niesler, J. Förstner, Y. Grynko, T. Meier, and M. Wegener, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 15502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, Nano Lett. 12, 3207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (6)

M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, and M. Kauranen, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 20, 415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, M. L. Tang, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and A. P. Alivisatos, Nat. Mater. 10, 631 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Schumacher, K. Kratzer, D. Molnar, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and M. Lippitz, Nat. Commun. 2, 333 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, Nat. Photonics 5, 83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Mäkitalo, S. Suuriniemi, and M. Kauranen, Opt. Express 19, 23386 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

H. Husu, J. Mäkitalo, J. Laukkanen, M. Kuittinen, and M. Kauranen, Opt. Express 18, 16601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Curto, G. Volpe, T. Taminiau, M. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. van Hulst, Science 329, 930 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

C. Ropers, C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. Raschke, and C. Lienau, Nano Lett. 7, 2784 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

P. Mühlschlegel, H. Eisler, O. J. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

K. S. Youngworth and T. G. Brown, Opt. Express 7, 77 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, O. Glöckl, and G. Leuchs, Opt. Commun. 179, 1 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

L. Novotny, R. Bian, and X. Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, M.

C. Ropers, C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. Raschke, and C. Lienau, Nano Lett. 7, 2784 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Alivisatos, A. P.

N. Liu, M. L. Tang, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and A. P. Alivisatos, Nat. Mater. 10, 631 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bade, K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baumgart, J.

J. Baumgart, L. Humbert, É. Boulais, R. Lachaine, J.-J. Lebrun, and M. Meunier, Biomaterials 33, 2345 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bautista, G.

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, Nano Lett. 12, 3207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bian, R.

L. Novotny, R. Bian, and X. Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boulais, É.

J. Baumgart, L. Humbert, É. Boulais, R. Lachaine, J.-J. Lebrun, and M. Meunier, Biomaterials 33, 2345 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Braun, K.

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brown, T. G.

Butet, J.

Carlson, R.

D. Heinemann, M. Schomaker, S. Kalies, M. Schieck, R. Carlson, H. M. Escobar, T. Ripken, H. Meyer, and A. Heisterkamp, PLoS ONE 8, e58604 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Curto, A.

A. Curto, G. Volpe, T. Taminiau, M. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. van Hulst, Science 329, 930 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Decker, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dorfmüller, J.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dorn, R.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, O. Glöckl, and G. Leuchs, Opt. Commun. 179, 1 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dregely, D.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Eisler, H.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. Eisler, O. J. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Elsaesser, T.

C. Ropers, C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. Raschke, and C. Lienau, Nano Lett. 7, 2784 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Escobar, H. M.

D. Heinemann, M. Schomaker, S. Kalies, M. Schieck, R. Carlson, H. M. Escobar, T. Ripken, H. Meyer, and A. Heisterkamp, PLoS ONE 8, e58604 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Failla, A. V.

F. Wackenhut, A. V. Failla, T. Zuchner, M. Steiner, and A. J. Meixner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 263102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fleischer, M.

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Förstner, J.

S. Linden, F. Niesler, J. Förstner, Y. Grynko, T. Meier, and M. Wegener, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 15502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gallinet, B.

Gansel, J. K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Schumacher, K. Kratzer, D. Molnar, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and M. Lippitz, Nat. Commun. 2, 333 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, M. L. Tang, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and A. P. Alivisatos, Nat. Mater. 10, 631 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Glöckl, O.

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, O. Glöckl, and G. Leuchs, Opt. Commun. 179, 1 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grynko, Y.

S. Linden, F. Niesler, J. Förstner, Y. Grynko, T. Meier, and M. Wegener, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 15502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Häffner, M.

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. Eisler, O. J. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heeren, A.

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heinemann, D.

D. Heinemann, M. Schomaker, S. Kalies, M. Schieck, R. Carlson, H. M. Escobar, T. Ripken, H. Meyer, and A. Heisterkamp, PLoS ONE 8, e58604 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Heisterkamp, A.

D. Heinemann, M. Schomaker, S. Kalies, M. Schieck, R. Carlson, H. M. Escobar, T. Ripken, H. Meyer, and A. Heisterkamp, PLoS ONE 8, e58604 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hentschel, M.

N. Liu, M. L. Tang, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and A. P. Alivisatos, Nat. Mater. 10, 631 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Schumacher, K. Kratzer, D. Molnar, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and M. Lippitz, Nat. Commun. 2, 333 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Humbert, L.

J. Baumgart, L. Humbert, É. Boulais, R. Lachaine, J.-J. Lebrun, and M. Meunier, Biomaterials 33, 2345 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Husu, H.

Huttunen, M. J.

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, Nano Lett. 12, 3207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, and M. Kauranen, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 20, 415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Kontio, H. Husu, J. Simonen, M. J. Huttunen, J. Tommila, M. Pessa, and M. Kauranen, Opt. Lett. 34, 1979 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kalies, S.

D. Heinemann, M. Schomaker, S. Kalies, M. Schieck, R. Carlson, H. M. Escobar, T. Ripken, H. Meyer, and A. Heisterkamp, PLoS ONE 8, e58604 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kauranen, M.

Kern, A. M.

Kern, D. P.

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kern, K.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kontio, J. M.

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, Nano Lett. 12, 3207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Kontio, H. Husu, J. Simonen, M. J. Huttunen, J. Tommila, M. Pessa, and M. Kauranen, Opt. Lett. 34, 1979 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kratzer, K.

T. Schumacher, K. Kratzer, D. Molnar, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and M. Lippitz, Nat. Commun. 2, 333 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kreuzer, M.

A. Curto, G. Volpe, T. Taminiau, M. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. van Hulst, Science 329, 930 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuittinen, M.

Lachaine, R.

J. Baumgart, L. Humbert, É. Boulais, R. Lachaine, J.-J. Lebrun, and M. Meunier, Biomaterials 33, 2345 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Laukkanen, J.

Lebrun, J.-J.

J. Baumgart, L. Humbert, É. Boulais, R. Lachaine, J.-J. Lebrun, and M. Meunier, Biomaterials 33, 2345 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Leuchs, G.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, O. Glöckl, and G. Leuchs, Opt. Commun. 179, 1 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lienau, C.

C. Ropers, C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. Raschke, and C. Lienau, Nano Lett. 7, 2784 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

S. Linden, F. Niesler, J. Förstner, Y. Grynko, T. Meier, and M. Wegener, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 15502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lippitz, M.

T. Schumacher, K. Kratzer, D. Molnar, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and M. Lippitz, Nat. Commun. 2, 333 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, M. L. Tang, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and A. P. Alivisatos, Nat. Mater. 10, 631 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mäkitalo, J.

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, Nano Lett. 12, 3207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mäkitalo, S. Suuriniemi, and M. Kauranen, Opt. Express 19, 23386 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, and M. Kauranen, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 20, 415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Husu, J. Mäkitalo, J. Laukkanen, M. Kuittinen, and M. Kauranen, Opt. Express 18, 16601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J.

Meier, T.

S. Linden, F. Niesler, J. Förstner, Y. Grynko, T. Meier, and M. Wegener, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 15502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Meixner, A. J.

F. Wackenhut, A. V. Failla, T. Zuchner, M. Steiner, and A. J. Meixner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 263102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meunier, M.

J. Baumgart, L. Humbert, É. Boulais, R. Lachaine, J.-J. Lebrun, and M. Meunier, Biomaterials 33, 2345 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, H.

D. Heinemann, M. Schomaker, S. Kalies, M. Schieck, R. Carlson, H. M. Escobar, T. Ripken, H. Meyer, and A. Heisterkamp, PLoS ONE 8, e58604 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Molnar, D.

T. Schumacher, K. Kratzer, D. Molnar, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and M. Lippitz, Nat. Commun. 2, 333 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mühlschlegel, P.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. Eisler, O. J. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Neacsu, C.

C. Ropers, C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. Raschke, and C. Lienau, Nano Lett. 7, 2784 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Niesler, F.

S. Linden, F. Niesler, J. Förstner, Y. Grynko, T. Meier, and M. Wegener, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 15502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, Nat. Photonics 5, 83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, R. Bian, and X. Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pessa, M.

Pohl, D.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. Eisler, O. J. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Quabis, S.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, O. Glöckl, and G. Leuchs, Opt. Commun. 179, 1 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Quidant, R.

A. Curto, G. Volpe, T. Taminiau, M. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. van Hulst, Science 329, 930 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Raschke, M.

C. Ropers, C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. Raschke, and C. Lienau, Nano Lett. 7, 2784 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rill, M. S.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ripken, T.

D. Heinemann, M. Schomaker, S. Kalies, M. Schieck, R. Carlson, H. M. Escobar, T. Ripken, H. Meyer, and A. Heisterkamp, PLoS ONE 8, e58604 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ropers, C.

C. Ropers, C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. Raschke, and C. Lienau, Nano Lett. 7, 2784 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saile, V.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schieck, M.

D. Heinemann, M. Schomaker, S. Kalies, M. Schieck, R. Carlson, H. M. Escobar, T. Ripken, H. Meyer, and A. Heisterkamp, PLoS ONE 8, e58604 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schomaker, M.

D. Heinemann, M. Schomaker, S. Kalies, M. Schieck, R. Carlson, H. M. Escobar, T. Ripken, H. Meyer, and A. Heisterkamp, PLoS ONE 8, e58604 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schumacher, T.

T. Schumacher, K. Kratzer, D. Molnar, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and M. Lippitz, Nat. Commun. 2, 333 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Simonen, J.

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, Nano Lett. 12, 3207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Kontio, H. Husu, J. Simonen, M. J. Huttunen, J. Tommila, M. Pessa, and M. Kauranen, Opt. Lett. 34, 1979 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stade, F.

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stadler, J.

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stanciu, C.

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111114 (2008).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Winged nanocone antenna: (a) 3D structure of the antenna allows coupling of normally incident planar optical fields (wave vector k and polarization E0) to a localized hot spot at the apex of the nanocone. (b) Scanning electron micrograph of the sample shows the realized antennas. The scale bar is 500 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Extinction spectra of an array of winged nanocone antennas: (a) The measured data (solid line) shows a strong (weak) resonance at 1270 nm (710 nm) wavelength for incident light polarized along the long axis of the wing. For light polarized orthogonal to the wing, the resonance occurs near the 630 nm wavelength. (b) The resonance at 710 nm wavelength is excited more efficiently with oblique angles of incidence. The calculated spectra (dashed lines) agree well with experiment. Simulated spectra are scaled to the maximum measured extinction. The dashed arrow in (a) marks the wavelength used in second-harmonic microscopy (see Fig. 4).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Surface charge densities associated with the measured resonances of the WNCs. Unlike the resonance at 630 nm, the resonances at 1270 and 710 nm result in strongly localized fields near the cone apices. The field enhancement factor f near the tip (normalized to the incident field amplitude) was calculated to be 14 and 11, respectively. The associated dipole moments, μ, dictate the coupling of light into the WNCs: the resonance at 1270 nm (710 nm) wavelength is strongly (weakly) excited using normal incidence excitation.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

SHG microscopy of WNCs using radial and azimuthal input polarizations. The measured and simulated scanning images show strong SHG signals in locations a to d where the local polarization is mostly along the wing. For radial polarization, a clear asymmetry between the peaks a and b can be seen, while for azimuthal polarization the corresponding peaks are symmetric (peaks c and d). This agrees well with the surface charge density calculations shown at the bottom, where the normalized field enhancement factors f near the tip also reflect the position dependent coupling. The scale bar is 500 nm.

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