Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate that a graded-index plastic optical fiber (GI POF) can significantly reduce reflection noise in a multimode fiber link with a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). By directly observing beams backreflected to the VCSEL, we show that the noise reduction effect is closely related to random mode coupling because of light scattering by microscopic heterogeneities in the GI POF core material. This suggests that intrinsic mode coupling can lower the self-coupling efficiency of the light backreflected to the VCSEL cavity through beam quality degradation. Using GI POFs, low-cost radio-over-fiber systems for indoor networks can be realized without optical isolators or fiber end-face polishing.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Polley, R. J. Gandhi, and S. E. Ralph, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC2007), OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper OMR5.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. R. E. Epworth, in Proceedings of the 4th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC’78) (IIC, 1978), 492.

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

2010 (1)

R. Gaudino, D. Cardenas, M. Bellec, B. Charbonnier, N. Evanno, P. Guignard, S. Meyer, A. Pizzinat, I. Mollers, and D. Jager, IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

M. Sauer, A. Kobyakov, and J. George, J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 3301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Polley and S. E. Ralph, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1254 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

1997 (1)

R. F. Shi, C. Koeppen, G. Jiang, J. Wang, and A. F. Garito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. W. Bae, H. Temkin, S. E. Swirhun, W. E. Quinn, P. Brusenbach, C. Parsons, M. Kim, and T. Uchida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1480 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Maeda and M. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1257 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

O. Hirota, Y. Suematsu, and K. Kwok, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1014 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

Y. C. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 587 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

O. Hirota and Y. Suematsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 142 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bae, J. W.

J. W. Bae, H. Temkin, S. E. Swirhun, W. E. Quinn, P. Brusenbach, C. Parsons, M. Kim, and T. Uchida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1480 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bellec, M.

R. Gaudino, D. Cardenas, M. Bellec, B. Charbonnier, N. Evanno, P. Guignard, S. Meyer, A. Pizzinat, I. Mollers, and D. Jager, IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brusenbach, P.

J. W. Bae, H. Temkin, S. E. Swirhun, W. E. Quinn, P. Brusenbach, C. Parsons, M. Kim, and T. Uchida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1480 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cardenas, D.

R. Gaudino, D. Cardenas, M. Bellec, B. Charbonnier, N. Evanno, P. Guignard, S. Meyer, A. Pizzinat, I. Mollers, and D. Jager, IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Charbonnier, B.

R. Gaudino, D. Cardenas, M. Bellec, B. Charbonnier, N. Evanno, P. Guignard, S. Meyer, A. Pizzinat, I. Mollers, and D. Jager, IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. C.

Y. C. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 587 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Christen, L.

S. R. Nuccio, L. Christen, X. Wu, S. Khaleghi, O. Yilmaz, A. E. Willner, and Y. Koike, in Proceedings of the 34th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC2008) (IEEE, 2008), paper We.2.A.4.

Epworth, R. E.

R. E. Epworth, in Proceedings of the 4th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC’78) (IIC, 1978), 492.

Evanno, N.

R. Gaudino, D. Cardenas, M. Bellec, B. Charbonnier, N. Evanno, P. Guignard, S. Meyer, A. Pizzinat, I. Mollers, and D. Jager, IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, R.

Gandhi, R. J.

A. Polley, R. J. Gandhi, and S. E. Ralph, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC2007), OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper OMR5.

García Larrodé, M.

Garito, A. F.

R. F. Shi, C. Koeppen, G. Jiang, J. Wang, and A. F. Garito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gaudino, R.

R. Gaudino, D. Cardenas, M. Bellec, B. Charbonnier, N. Evanno, P. Guignard, S. Meyer, A. Pizzinat, I. Mollers, and D. Jager, IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

George, J.

Golowich, S. E.

Gomes, N. J.

Guignard, P.

R. Gaudino, D. Cardenas, M. Bellec, B. Charbonnier, N. Evanno, P. Guignard, S. Meyer, A. Pizzinat, I. Mollers, and D. Jager, IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hirota, O.

O. Hirota, Y. Suematsu, and K. Kwok, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1014 (1981).
[CrossRef]

O. Hirota and Y. Suematsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 142 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, A.

Jager, D.

R. Gaudino, D. Cardenas, M. Bellec, B. Charbonnier, N. Evanno, P. Guignard, S. Meyer, A. Pizzinat, I. Mollers, and D. Jager, IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, G.

R. F. Shi, C. Koeppen, G. Jiang, J. Wang, and A. F. Garito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Khaleghi, S.

S. R. Nuccio, L. Christen, X. Wu, S. Khaleghi, O. Yilmaz, A. E. Willner, and Y. Koike, in Proceedings of the 34th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC2008) (IEEE, 2008), paper We.2.A.4.

Kim, M.

J. W. Bae, H. Temkin, S. E. Swirhun, W. E. Quinn, P. Brusenbach, C. Parsons, M. Kim, and T. Uchida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1480 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Knudsen, E.

Kobyakov, A.

Koeppen, C.

R. F. Shi, C. Koeppen, G. Jiang, J. Wang, and A. F. Garito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koike, Y.

A. Inoue, T. Sassa, R. Furukawa, K. Makino, A. Kondo, and Y. Koike, Opt. Express 21, 17379 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Inoue, T. Sassa, K. Makino, A. Kondo, and Y. Koike, Opt. Lett. 37, 2583 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Nuccio, L. Christen, X. Wu, S. Khaleghi, O. Yilmaz, A. E. Willner, and Y. Koike, in Proceedings of the 34th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC2008) (IEEE, 2008), paper We.2.A.4.

Kondo, A.

Koonen, A. M. J.

Kwok, K.

O. Hirota, Y. Suematsu, and K. Kwok, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1014 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, M.

M. Maeda and M. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1257 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Makino, K.

Meyer, S.

R. Gaudino, D. Cardenas, M. Bellec, B. Charbonnier, N. Evanno, P. Guignard, S. Meyer, A. Pizzinat, I. Mollers, and D. Jager, IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mollers, I.

R. Gaudino, D. Cardenas, M. Bellec, B. Charbonnier, N. Evanno, P. Guignard, S. Meyer, A. Pizzinat, I. Mollers, and D. Jager, IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nkansah, A.

Nuccio, S. R.

S. R. Nuccio, L. Christen, X. Wu, S. Khaleghi, O. Yilmaz, A. E. Willner, and Y. Koike, in Proceedings of the 34th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC2008) (IEEE, 2008), paper We.2.A.4.

Parsons, C.

J. W. Bae, H. Temkin, S. E. Swirhun, W. E. Quinn, P. Brusenbach, C. Parsons, M. Kim, and T. Uchida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1480 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Peterman, K.

K. Peterman, Laser Diode Modulation and Noise (Kluwer Academic, 1991).

Pizzinat, A.

R. Gaudino, D. Cardenas, M. Bellec, B. Charbonnier, N. Evanno, P. Guignard, S. Meyer, A. Pizzinat, I. Mollers, and D. Jager, IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Polley, A.

A. Polley and S. E. Ralph, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1254 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Polley, R. J. Gandhi, and S. E. Ralph, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC2007), OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper OMR5.

Quinn, W. E.

J. W. Bae, H. Temkin, S. E. Swirhun, W. E. Quinn, P. Brusenbach, C. Parsons, M. Kim, and T. Uchida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1480 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ralph, S. E.

A. Polley and S. E. Ralph, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1254 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Polley, R. J. Gandhi, and S. E. Ralph, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC2007), OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper OMR5.

Reed, W. A.

Sassa, T.

Sauer, M.

Shi, R. F.

R. F. Shi, C. Koeppen, G. Jiang, J. Wang, and A. F. Garito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Suematsu, Y.

O. Hirota, Y. Suematsu, and K. Kwok, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1014 (1981).
[CrossRef]

O. Hirota and Y. Suematsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 142 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Swirhun, S. E.

J. W. Bae, H. Temkin, S. E. Swirhun, W. E. Quinn, P. Brusenbach, C. Parsons, M. Kim, and T. Uchida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1480 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Temkin, H.

J. W. Bae, H. Temkin, S. E. Swirhun, W. E. Quinn, P. Brusenbach, C. Parsons, M. Kim, and T. Uchida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1480 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, T.

J. W. Bae, H. Temkin, S. E. Swirhun, W. E. Quinn, P. Brusenbach, C. Parsons, M. Kim, and T. Uchida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1480 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wake, D.

Wang, J.

R. F. Shi, C. Koeppen, G. Jiang, J. Wang, and A. F. Garito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

White, W.

Willner, A. E.

S. R. Nuccio, L. Christen, X. Wu, S. Khaleghi, O. Yilmaz, A. E. Willner, and Y. Koike, in Proceedings of the 34th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC2008) (IEEE, 2008), paper We.2.A.4.

Wu, X.

S. R. Nuccio, L. Christen, X. Wu, S. Khaleghi, O. Yilmaz, A. E. Willner, and Y. Koike, in Proceedings of the 34th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC2008) (IEEE, 2008), paper We.2.A.4.

Yamamoto, M.

M. Maeda and M. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1257 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yilmaz, O.

S. R. Nuccio, L. Christen, X. Wu, S. Khaleghi, O. Yilmaz, A. E. Willner, and Y. Koike, in Proceedings of the 34th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC2008) (IEEE, 2008), paper We.2.A.4.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. F. Shi, C. Koeppen, G. Jiang, J. Wang, and A. F. Garito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 587 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Bae, H. Temkin, S. E. Swirhun, W. E. Quinn, P. Brusenbach, C. Parsons, M. Kim, and T. Uchida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1480 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

R. Gaudino, D. Cardenas, M. Bellec, B. Charbonnier, N. Evanno, P. Guignard, S. Meyer, A. Pizzinat, I. Mollers, and D. Jager, IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

O. Hirota, Y. Suematsu, and K. Kwok, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1014 (1981).
[CrossRef]

O. Hirota and Y. Suematsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 142 (1979).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

M. Maeda and M. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1257 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Polley and S. E. Ralph, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1254 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (4)

R. E. Epworth, in Proceedings of the 4th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC’78) (IIC, 1978), 492.

A. Polley, R. J. Gandhi, and S. E. Ralph, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC2007), OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper OMR5.

S. R. Nuccio, L. Christen, X. Wu, S. Khaleghi, O. Yilmaz, A. E. Willner, and Y. Koike, in Proceedings of the 34th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC2008) (IEEE, 2008), paper We.2.A.4.

K. Peterman, Laser Diode Modulation and Noise (Kluwer Academic, 1991).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup. DM and NBS are the dichroic mirror and nonpolarizing beam splitter, respectively. The inset shows a microscopic image of an incident beam on an end-face of the GI POF.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Photograph of the output beam pattern of (a) a 2 m GI POF and (b) a 2 m glass GI MMF imaged on the Si PIN PD.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Noise floor spectra of optical links with the 2 m GI POF and 2 m glass GI MMFs under the center-launching condition. The input faces of all the fibers are polished flat.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Noise floor spectra for a GI POF, a glass GI MMF, and a glass GI MMF with 2 dB attenuators. All the fibers have flat-polished input and output faces.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Microscopic images of backreflected beam patterns for the center-launching condition (top) and off-axis launching condition (bottom). (a) and (d) GI POF with a flat-polished output face. (b) and (e) Glass MMF with a flat-polished output face. (c) and (f) Glass MMF with an obliquely polished output face.

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