Abstract

We report that by using 800 nm femtosecond pulses and the phase-mask technique, first-order fiber Bragg gratings with refractive index modulation in excess of 1×103 can be written through both the acrylate and polyimide coatings of unloaded standard silica fibers without noticeable degradation of mechanical strength. We also demonstrate that the same experimental conditions can be applied for efficient FBG writing through the polyimide coating of pure silica core fibers, opening significant opportunities in the field of fiber sensors.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. R. P. Espindola, R. M. Atkins, N. P. Wang, D. A. Simoff, M. A. Paczkowski, R. S. Windeler, D. L. Brownlow, D. S. Shenk, P. A. Glodis, T. A. Strasser, J. J. DeMarco, and P. J. Chandonnet, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 833 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

2011 (2)

2008 (2)

D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, and R. T. Ramos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 973 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, R. B. Walker, C. W. Smelser, G. Cuglietta, T. Graver, and A. Mendez, Opt. Commun. 281, 5344 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

A. Rosenthal and M. Horowitz, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1018 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

L. Chao, L. Reekie, and M. Ibsen, Electron. Lett. 35, 924 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Espindola, R. M. Atkins, N. P. Wang, D. A. Simoff, M. A. Paczkowski, R. S. Windeler, D. L. Brownlow, D. S. Shenk, P. A. Glodis, T. A. Strasser, J. J. DeMarco, and P. J. Chandonnet, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 833 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

M. J. Matthewson, C. R. Kurkjian, and J. R. Hamblin, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 490 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, and J. Feinberg, Electron. Lett. 33, 1331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, K. L. Walker, K. S. Kranz, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

B. Costa, D. Mazzoni, M. Puleo, and E. Vezzoni, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1509 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Androz, G.

Atkins, R. M.

R. P. Espindola, R. M. Atkins, N. P. Wang, D. A. Simoff, M. A. Paczkowski, R. S. Windeler, D. L. Brownlow, D. S. Shenk, P. A. Glodis, T. A. Strasser, J. J. DeMarco, and P. J. Chandonnet, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 833 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, K. L. Walker, K. S. Kranz, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

A. Martinez, I. Y. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Opt. Lett. 31, 1603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 1170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, Y. M. E. Shazly, S. N. Kukureka, K. Sudgen, I. Y. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, in European Conference on Optical Communications, Cannes, France (2006), paper We3.P.13.

Bernier, M.

Bilodeau, F.

C. W. Smelser, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, D. Grobnic, and S. J. Mihailov, in Advanced Photonics & Renewable Energy, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper BThD3.

Brownlow, D. L.

R. P. Espindola, R. M. Atkins, N. P. Wang, D. A. Simoff, M. A. Paczkowski, R. S. Windeler, D. L. Brownlow, D. S. Shenk, P. A. Glodis, T. A. Strasser, J. J. DeMarco, and P. J. Chandonnet, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 833 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chandonnet, P. J.

R. P. Espindola, R. M. Atkins, N. P. Wang, D. A. Simoff, M. A. Paczkowski, R. S. Windeler, D. L. Brownlow, D. S. Shenk, P. A. Glodis, T. A. Strasser, J. J. DeMarco, and P. J. Chandonnet, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 833 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chao, L.

L. Chao, L. Reekie, and M. Ibsen, Electron. Lett. 35, 924 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

Costa, B.

B. Costa, D. Mazzoni, M. Puleo, and E. Vezzoni, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1509 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Costantini, D. M.

Couillard, J. F.

Cuglietta, G.

S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, R. B. Walker, C. W. Smelser, G. Cuglietta, T. Graver, and A. Mendez, Opt. Commun. 281, 5344 (2008).
[CrossRef]

DeMarco, J. J.

R. P. Espindola, R. M. Atkins, N. P. Wang, D. A. Simoff, M. A. Paczkowski, R. S. Windeler, D. L. Brownlow, D. S. Shenk, P. A. Glodis, T. A. Strasser, J. J. DeMarco, and P. J. Chandonnet, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 833 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ding, H.

Dubov, M.

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 1170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

El-Amraoui, M.

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Espindola, R. P.

R. P. Espindola, R. M. Atkins, N. P. Wang, D. A. Simoff, M. A. Paczkowski, R. S. Windeler, D. L. Brownlow, D. S. Shenk, P. A. Glodis, T. A. Strasser, J. J. DeMarco, and P. J. Chandonnet, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 833 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Faucher, D.

Feinberg, J.

D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, and J. Feinberg, Electron. Lett. 33, 1331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, Y.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Gagnon, S.

Glodis, P. A.

R. P. Espindola, R. M. Atkins, N. P. Wang, D. A. Simoff, M. A. Paczkowski, R. S. Windeler, D. L. Brownlow, D. S. Shenk, P. A. Glodis, T. A. Strasser, J. J. DeMarco, and P. J. Chandonnet, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 833 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Graver, T.

S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, R. B. Walker, C. W. Smelser, G. Cuglietta, T. Graver, and A. Mendez, Opt. Commun. 281, 5344 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grobnic, D.

S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, P. Lu, R. B. Walker, and H. Ding, Opt. Mater. Express 1, 754 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, and R. T. Ramos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 973 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, R. B. Walker, C. W. Smelser, G. Cuglietta, T. Graver, and A. Mendez, Opt. Commun. 281, 5344 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, and C. W. Smelser, Electron. Lett. 43, 442 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, D. Grobnic, R. B. Walker, P. Lu, H. Ding, and J. Unruh, J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 94 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Smelser, D. Grobnic, and S. J. Mihailov, Opt. Lett. 29, 1730 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Smelser, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, D. Grobnic, and S. J. Mihailov, in Advanced Photonics & Renewable Energy, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper BThD3.

Grubsky, V.

D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, and J. Feinberg, Electron. Lett. 33, 1331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hamblin, J. R.

M. J. Matthewson, C. R. Kurkjian, and J. R. Hamblin, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 490 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Horowitz, M.

A. Rosenthal and M. Horowitz, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1018 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ibsen, M.

L. Chao, L. Reekie, and M. Ibsen, Electron. Lett. 35, 924 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. C.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings, 2nd ed. (Academic, 2009).

Kawasaki, B. S.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Khrushchev, I.

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 1170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Khrushchev, I. Y.

A. Martinez, I. Y. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Opt. Lett. 31, 1603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, Y. M. E. Shazly, S. N. Kukureka, K. Sudgen, I. Y. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, in European Conference on Optical Communications, Cannes, France (2006), paper We3.P.13.

Kranz, K. S.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, K. L. Walker, K. S. Kranz, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kukureka, S. N.

A. Martinez, Y. M. E. Shazly, S. N. Kukureka, K. Sudgen, I. Y. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, in European Conference on Optical Communications, Cannes, France (2006), paper We3.P.13.

Kurkjian, C. R.

M. J. Matthewson, C. R. Kurkjian, and J. R. Hamblin, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 490 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, P. J.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, K. L. Walker, K. S. Kranz, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Limberger, H. G.

Lu, P.

Malo, B.

C. W. Smelser, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, D. Grobnic, and S. J. Mihailov, in Advanced Photonics & Renewable Energy, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper BThD3.

Martinez, A.

A. Martinez, I. Y. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Opt. Lett. 31, 1603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 1170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, Y. M. E. Shazly, S. N. Kukureka, K. Sudgen, I. Y. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, in European Conference on Optical Communications, Cannes, France (2006), paper We3.P.13.

Matthewson, M. J.

M. J. Matthewson, C. R. Kurkjian, and J. R. Hamblin, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 490 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoni, D.

B. Costa, D. Mazzoni, M. Puleo, and E. Vezzoni, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1509 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Mendez, A.

S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, R. B. Walker, C. W. Smelser, G. Cuglietta, T. Graver, and A. Mendez, Opt. Commun. 281, 5344 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Messaddeq, Y.

Mihailov, S. J.

S. J. Mihailov, Sensors 12, 1898 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, P. Lu, R. B. Walker, and H. Ding, Opt. Mater. Express 1, 754 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, R. B. Walker, C. W. Smelser, G. Cuglietta, T. Graver, and A. Mendez, Opt. Commun. 281, 5344 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, and R. T. Ramos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 973 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, and C. W. Smelser, Electron. Lett. 43, 442 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Smelser, D. Grobnic, and S. J. Mihailov, Opt. Lett. 29, 1730 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, D. Grobnic, R. B. Walker, P. Lu, H. Ding, and J. Unruh, J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 94 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Smelser, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, D. Grobnic, and S. J. Mihailov, in Advanced Photonics & Renewable Energy, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper BThD3.

Mizrahi, V.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, K. L. Walker, K. S. Kranz, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Monroe, D.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Paczkowski, M. A.

R. P. Espindola, R. M. Atkins, N. P. Wang, D. A. Simoff, M. A. Paczkowski, R. S. Windeler, D. L. Brownlow, D. S. Shenk, P. A. Glodis, T. A. Strasser, J. J. DeMarco, and P. J. Chandonnet, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 833 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Puleo, M.

B. Costa, D. Mazzoni, M. Puleo, and E. Vezzoni, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1509 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ramos, R. T.

D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, and R. T. Ramos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 973 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reed, W. A.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, K. L. Walker, K. S. Kranz, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

L. Chao, L. Reekie, and M. Ibsen, Electron. Lett. 35, 924 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rosenthal, A.

A. Rosenthal and M. Horowitz, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1018 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Salathé, R. P.

Saliminia, A.

Shazly, Y. M. E.

A. Martinez, Y. M. E. Shazly, S. N. Kukureka, K. Sudgen, I. Y. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, in European Conference on Optical Communications, Cannes, France (2006), paper We3.P.13.

Sheng, Y.

Shenk, D. S.

R. P. Espindola, R. M. Atkins, N. P. Wang, D. A. Simoff, M. A. Paczkowski, R. S. Windeler, D. L. Brownlow, D. S. Shenk, P. A. Glodis, T. A. Strasser, J. J. DeMarco, and P. J. Chandonnet, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 833 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Simoff, D. A.

R. P. Espindola, R. M. Atkins, N. P. Wang, D. A. Simoff, M. A. Paczkowski, R. S. Windeler, D. L. Brownlow, D. S. Shenk, P. A. Glodis, T. A. Strasser, J. J. DeMarco, and P. J. Chandonnet, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 833 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smelser, C. W.

S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, P. Lu, R. B. Walker, and H. Ding, Opt. Mater. Express 1, 754 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, and R. T. Ramos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 973 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, R. B. Walker, C. W. Smelser, G. Cuglietta, T. Graver, and A. Mendez, Opt. Commun. 281, 5344 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, and C. W. Smelser, Electron. Lett. 43, 442 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, D. Grobnic, R. B. Walker, P. Lu, H. Ding, and J. Unruh, J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 94 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Smelser, D. Grobnic, and S. J. Mihailov, Opt. Lett. 29, 1730 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Smelser, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, D. Grobnic, and S. J. Mihailov, in Advanced Photonics & Renewable Energy, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper BThD3.

Starodubov, D. S.

D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, and J. Feinberg, Electron. Lett. 33, 1331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, T. A.

R. P. Espindola, R. M. Atkins, N. P. Wang, D. A. Simoff, M. A. Paczkowski, R. S. Windeler, D. L. Brownlow, D. S. Shenk, P. A. Glodis, T. A. Strasser, J. J. DeMarco, and P. J. Chandonnet, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 833 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sudgen, K.

A. Martinez, Y. M. E. Shazly, S. N. Kukureka, K. Sudgen, I. Y. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, in European Conference on Optical Communications, Cannes, France (2006), paper We3.P.13.

Unruh, J.

Vallée, R.

Varelas, D.

Vezzoni, E.

B. Costa, D. Mazzoni, M. Puleo, and E. Vezzoni, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1509 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Walker, K. L.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, K. L. Walker, K. S. Kranz, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Walker, R. B.

Wang, N. P.

R. P. Espindola, R. M. Atkins, N. P. Wang, D. A. Simoff, M. A. Paczkowski, R. S. Windeler, D. L. Brownlow, D. S. Shenk, P. A. Glodis, T. A. Strasser, J. J. DeMarco, and P. J. Chandonnet, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 833 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

R. P. Espindola, R. M. Atkins, N. P. Wang, D. A. Simoff, M. A. Paczkowski, R. S. Windeler, D. L. Brownlow, D. S. Shenk, P. A. Glodis, T. A. Strasser, J. J. DeMarco, and P. J. Chandonnet, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 833 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (5)

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, K. L. Walker, K. S. Kranz, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Chao, L. Reekie, and M. Ibsen, Electron. Lett. 35, 924 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, and J. Feinberg, Electron. Lett. 33, 1331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 1170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, and C. W. Smelser, Electron. Lett. 43, 442 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

B. Costa, D. Mazzoni, M. Puleo, and E. Vezzoni, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1509 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Rosenthal and M. Horowitz, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1018 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) WTC FBG transmission and reflectivity spectra in an unloaded acrylate-coated SMF28 fiber (75 μJ, 60 s). (b) Corresponding refractive index modulation reconstruction.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Weibull plot of the SMF28 fiber.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) WTC FBG transmission and reflectivity spectra in unloaded polyimide-coated OFS fiber (75 μJ, 65 s). (b) Corresponding refractive index modulation reconstruction.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Weibull plot of the OFS Polyimide fiber.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

WTC FBG transmission and reflectivity spectra in a polyimide-coated pure silica core fiber (90 μJ, 600 s).

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