Abstract

It is shown that the sensitivity of a highly sensitive homodyne timing measurement scheme with femtosecond (fs) lasers [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 123601 (2008).] is limited by carrier-envelope-phase (CEO) noise. We describe the use of a broadband passive cavity to analyze the phase noise of a Ti:Sapphire oscillator relative to the standard quantum limit. This cavity also filters the lowest levels of classical noise at sidebands above 100 kHz detection frequency. Leading to quantum-limited CEO-phase noise at millisecond time scales, it can improve the sensitivity of the homodyne pulse timing measurement by 10 dB.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2013 (1)

D. Sutyrin, N. Poli, N. Beverini, S. Chepurov, M. Prevedelli, M. Schioppo, F. Sorrentino, M. Tarallo, and G. Tino, Opt. Commun. 291, 291 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

2009 (1)

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

M. Cui, R. Schouten, N. Bhattacharya, and S. Berg, J. Euro. Opt. Soc. 3, 08003 (2008).

B. Lamine, C. Fabre, and N. Treps, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 123601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2002 (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. P. Scott, C. Langrock, and B. H. Kolner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 641 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

H. A. Haus and A. Mecozzi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 983 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

Berg, S.

M. Cui, R. Schouten, N. Bhattacharya, and S. Berg, J. Euro. Opt. Soc. 3, 08003 (2008).

Bernhardt, B.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beverini, N.

D. Sutyrin, N. Poli, N. Beverini, S. Chepurov, M. Prevedelli, M. Schioppo, F. Sorrentino, M. Tarallo, and G. Tino, Opt. Commun. 291, 291 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, N.

M. Cui, R. Schouten, N. Bhattacharya, and S. Berg, J. Euro. Opt. Soc. 3, 08003 (2008).

Chepurov, S.

D. Sutyrin, N. Poli, N. Beverini, S. Chepurov, M. Prevedelli, M. Schioppo, F. Sorrentino, M. Tarallo, and G. Tino, Opt. Commun. 291, 291 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cui, M.

M. Cui, R. Schouten, N. Bhattacharya, and S. Berg, J. Euro. Opt. Soc. 3, 08003 (2008).

Fabre, C.

P. Jian, O. Pinel, C. Fabre, B. Lamine, and N. Treps, Opt. Express 20, 27133 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Lamine, C. Fabre, and N. Treps, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 123601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gohle, C.

Guelachvili, G.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hald, J.

Hänsch, T.

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Vernaleken, B. Schmidt, M. Wolferstetter, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and P. Hommelhoff, Opt. Express 20, 18387 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus and A. Mecozzi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 983 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, Electromagnetic Noise and Quantum Optical Measurements (Springer, 2000).

Holzwarth, R.

A. Vernaleken, B. Schmidt, M. Wolferstetter, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and P. Hommelhoff, Opt. Express 20, 18387 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hommelhoff, P.

Jacquet, P.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jacquey, M.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jian, P.

Kobayashi, Y.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kolner, B. H.

R. P. Scott, C. Langrock, and B. H. Kolner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 641 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lamine, B.

P. Jian, O. Pinel, C. Fabre, B. Lamine, and N. Treps, Opt. Express 20, 27133 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Lamine, C. Fabre, and N. Treps, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 123601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Langrock, C.

R. P. Scott, C. Langrock, and B. H. Kolner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 641 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mecozzi, A.

H. A. Haus and A. Mecozzi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 983 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ozawa, A.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Picqué, N.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pinel, O.

Poli, N.

D. Sutyrin, N. Poli, N. Beverini, S. Chepurov, M. Prevedelli, M. Schioppo, F. Sorrentino, M. Tarallo, and G. Tino, Opt. Commun. 291, 291 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Prevedelli, M.

D. Sutyrin, N. Poli, N. Beverini, S. Chepurov, M. Prevedelli, M. Schioppo, F. Sorrentino, M. Tarallo, and G. Tino, Opt. Commun. 291, 291 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ruseva, V.

Schioppo, M.

D. Sutyrin, N. Poli, N. Beverini, S. Chepurov, M. Prevedelli, M. Schioppo, F. Sorrentino, M. Tarallo, and G. Tino, Opt. Commun. 291, 291 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schliesser, A.

Schmidt, B.

Schouten, R.

M. Cui, R. Schouten, N. Bhattacharya, and S. Berg, J. Euro. Opt. Soc. 3, 08003 (2008).

Schumaker, B. L.

Scott, R. P.

R. P. Scott, C. Langrock, and B. H. Kolner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 641 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sorrentino, F.

D. Sutyrin, N. Poli, N. Beverini, S. Chepurov, M. Prevedelli, M. Schioppo, F. Sorrentino, M. Tarallo, and G. Tino, Opt. Commun. 291, 291 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sutyrin, D.

D. Sutyrin, N. Poli, N. Beverini, S. Chepurov, M. Prevedelli, M. Schioppo, F. Sorrentino, M. Tarallo, and G. Tino, Opt. Commun. 291, 291 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tarallo, M.

D. Sutyrin, N. Poli, N. Beverini, S. Chepurov, M. Prevedelli, M. Schioppo, F. Sorrentino, M. Tarallo, and G. Tino, Opt. Commun. 291, 291 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tino, G.

D. Sutyrin, N. Poli, N. Beverini, S. Chepurov, M. Prevedelli, M. Schioppo, F. Sorrentino, M. Tarallo, and G. Tino, Opt. Commun. 291, 291 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Treps, N.

P. Jian, O. Pinel, C. Fabre, B. Lamine, and N. Treps, Opt. Express 20, 27133 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Lamine, C. Fabre, and N. Treps, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 123601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Udem, T.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Schliesser, C. Gohle, T. Udem, and T. Hänsch, Opt. Express 14, 5975 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vernaleken, A.

Weiner, A.

A. Weiner, Ultrafast Optics (Wiley, 2011).

Wolferstetter, M.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. A. Haus and A. Mecozzi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 983 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. P. Scott, C. Langrock, and B. H. Kolner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 641 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Euro. Opt. Soc. (1)

M. Cui, R. Schouten, N. Bhattacharya, and S. Berg, J. Euro. Opt. Soc. 3, 08003 (2008).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Sutyrin, N. Poli, N. Beverini, S. Chepurov, M. Prevedelli, M. Schioppo, F. Sorrentino, M. Tarallo, and G. Tino, Opt. Commun. 291, 291 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

B. Lamine, C. Fabre, and N. Treps, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 123601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. Weiner, Ultrafast Optics (Wiley, 2011).

H. A. Haus, Electromagnetic Noise and Quantum Optical Measurements (Springer, 2000).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental scheme. 1. Mode-locked Ti-Sapphire oscillator. 2. Selection of measurement type using a flip 50/50 beam splitter: amplitude noise measurement if released, interference measurement if set. 3. Passive cavity in a mbar vacuum chamber. 4. PDH-locking scheme. 5. Balanced (homodyne) detection. 6. Lock of the relative phase of the interfering beams. 7. f–2f interferometer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Noise of a free-running, mode-locked Ti:Sapphire oscillator. ① Measured CEO phase-noise SSB power spectral density. The noise floor of detection is at 125dBc, excess noise from detection is present up to 120dBc. ② Ti:Sapphire relative intensity noise detected with 20 kHz high-pass filters. ③ SQL for both intensity and phase noise at 8 mW detected signal. ④ Calculated SQL.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Cavity transmission spectrum showing broadband simultaneous resonance. ① A typical seed spectrum of the mode-locked Ti:Sapphire oscillator. ② Transmitted spectrum at p=68mbar and fCEO=45MHz, dotted simulation at p=30mbar. At optimized conditions, 38% of the seed power are transmitted.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Relative phase noise after filtering with the cavity. ① SSB power spectral density of CEO phase noise from f–2f measurement (not normalized to SQL), dotted f4.5 power law. ② Phase quadrature of the homodyne beating signal between the laser (LO) and the cavity-output (signal), dotted f2.5 power law. ④ Ti:Sapphire RIN. ④ SQL for 8 mW detected signal.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Predicted realistic sensitivity of a projective timing measurement using mode-locked Ti:Sapphire lasers [4], using an unfiltered ① and a cavity-filtered ② oscillator. Dashed lines indicate the extrapolation of available data. ③ Quantum limit for phase and amplitude noise at the SQL for 8 mW detected signal at 1 s integration time.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δumin(f)=12N[ω02σP,I2(f)+(Δω)2σQ,II2(f)]1/2ω02+(Δω)2.
σPI/QII2(f)=σPI/QII2(f)σSQL2=SPCEO/Qrep(f)SSQL.
Δumin(f)12τSCEO(f)ω0.
S=δH2(ω0)2A1410(ω0)2δϕ2.
δϕ2min=5ω0P2SSQL.

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