Abstract

We illustrate that the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) excitation through the prism coupling method is fundamentally limited by destructive interference of spatial light components. We propose that the destructive interference can be canceled out by tailoring the relative phase for the different wave-vector components. As a numerical demonstration, we show that through the phase modulation the excited SPP field is concentrated to a hot energy spot, and the SPP field intensity is dramatically enhanced about three-fold in comparison with a conventional Gaussian beam illumination. The proposed phase-shaped beam approach provides a new degree of freedom to fundamentally control the SPP excitation and benefits the development of surface-enhanced applications.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. Mosk, Nat. Photonics 4, 320 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Derode, P. Roux, and M. Fink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4206 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Sentenac and P. C. Chaumet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 013901 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Gjonaj, J. Aulbach, and P. M. Johnson, Nat. Photonics 5, 360 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. S. Kao, S. D. Jenkins, J. Ruostekoski, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 085501 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Weinacht, J. Ahn, and P. H. Bucksbaum, Nature 397, 233 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 123004 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. S. Ginsberg, S. R. Garner, and L. V. Hau, Nature 445, 623 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. I. Stockman, S. V. Faleev, and D. J. Bergman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067402 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. I. Stockman, D. J. Bergman, and T. Kobayashi, Phys. Rev. B 69, 054202 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. G. de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, and S. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231108 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).
  14. J. Homola, Chem. Rev. 108, 462 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Liu, S. Xu, X. Xuyang, B. Zhao, and W. Xu, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 2218 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Palomba and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 056802 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Renger, R. Quidant, N. van Hulst, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 046803 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. N. B. Grosse, J. Heckmann, and U. Woggon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 136802 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Volpe, R. Quidant, G. Badenes, and D. Petrov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 238101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Righini, A. S. Zelenina, C. Girard, and R. Quidant, Nat. Phys. 3, 477 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. L. Juan, M. Righini, and R. Quidant, Nat. Photonics 5, 349 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics (Prentice-Hall, 1984).
  23. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  24. W. C. Chew, Waves and Fields in Inhomogenous Media (IEEE, 1995).

2012 (1)

N. B. Grosse, J. Heckmann, and U. Woggon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 136802 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

Y. Liu, S. Xu, X. Xuyang, B. Zhao, and W. Xu, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 2218 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Gjonaj, J. Aulbach, and P. M. Johnson, Nat. Photonics 5, 360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Kao, S. D. Jenkins, J. Ruostekoski, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 085501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Juan, M. Righini, and R. Quidant, Nat. Photonics 5, 349 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

J. Renger, R. Quidant, N. van Hulst, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 046803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. Mosk, Nat. Photonics 4, 320 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, and S. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

J. Homola, Chem. Rev. 108, 462 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Palomba and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 056802 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Sentenac and P. C. Chaumet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 013901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

N. S. Ginsberg, S. R. Garner, and L. V. Hau, Nature 445, 623 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. G. de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Righini, A. S. Zelenina, C. Girard, and R. Quidant, Nat. Phys. 3, 477 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

G. Volpe, R. Quidant, G. Badenes, and D. Petrov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 238101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. I. Stockman, D. J. Bergman, and T. Kobayashi, Phys. Rev. B 69, 054202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. I. Stockman, S. V. Faleev, and D. J. Bergman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 123004 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

T. Weinacht, J. Ahn, and P. H. Bucksbaum, Nature 397, 233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. Derode, P. Roux, and M. Fink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4206 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Aeschlimann, M.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. G. de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, J.

T. Weinacht, J. Ahn, and P. H. Bucksbaum, Nature 397, 233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aulbach, J.

B. Gjonaj, J. Aulbach, and P. M. Johnson, Nat. Photonics 5, 360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Badenes, G.

G. Volpe, R. Quidant, G. Badenes, and D. Petrov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 238101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, M.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. G. de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bayer, D.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. G. de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, D. J.

M. I. Stockman, D. J. Bergman, and T. Kobayashi, Phys. Rev. B 69, 054202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Stockman, S. V. Faleev, and D. J. Bergman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brixner, T.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. G. de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

T. Weinacht, J. Ahn, and P. H. Bucksbaum, Nature 397, 233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chaumet, P. C.

A. Sentenac and P. C. Chaumet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 013901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chew, W. C.

W. C. Chew, Waves and Fields in Inhomogenous Media (IEEE, 1995).

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

de Abajo, F. J. G.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. G. de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Derode, A.

A. Derode, P. Roux, and M. Fink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4206 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dudovich, N.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 123004 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Faleev, S. V.

M. I. Stockman, S. V. Faleev, and D. J. Bergman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, and S. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fink, M.

A. Derode, P. Roux, and M. Fink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4206 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Garner, S. R.

N. S. Ginsberg, S. R. Garner, and L. V. Hau, Nature 445, 623 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ginsberg, N. S.

N. S. Ginsberg, S. R. Garner, and L. V. Hau, Nature 445, 623 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Girard, C.

M. Righini, A. S. Zelenina, C. Girard, and R. Quidant, Nat. Phys. 3, 477 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gjonaj, B.

B. Gjonaj, J. Aulbach, and P. M. Johnson, Nat. Photonics 5, 360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Grosse, N. B.

N. B. Grosse, J. Heckmann, and U. Woggon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 136802 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hau, L. V.

N. S. Ginsberg, S. R. Garner, and L. V. Hau, Nature 445, 623 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H.

H. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics (Prentice-Hall, 1984).

Heckmann, J.

N. B. Grosse, J. Heckmann, and U. Woggon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 136802 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, Chem. Rev. 108, 462 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, S. D.

T. S. Kao, S. D. Jenkins, J. Ruostekoski, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 085501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. M.

B. Gjonaj, J. Aulbach, and P. M. Johnson, Nat. Photonics 5, 360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Juan, M. L.

M. L. Juan, M. Righini, and R. Quidant, Nat. Photonics 5, 349 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kao, T. S.

T. S. Kao, S. D. Jenkins, J. Ruostekoski, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 085501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

M. I. Stockman, D. J. Bergman, and T. Kobayashi, Phys. Rev. B 69, 054202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lagendijk, A.

I. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. Mosk, Nat. Photonics 4, 320 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, S. Xu, X. Xuyang, B. Zhao, and W. Xu, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 2218 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

Mosk, A.

I. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. Mosk, Nat. Photonics 4, 320 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

J. Renger, R. Quidant, N. van Hulst, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 046803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Palomba and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 056802 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oron, D.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 123004 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Palomba, S.

S. Palomba and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 056802 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, D.

G. Volpe, R. Quidant, G. Badenes, and D. Petrov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 238101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, W.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. G. de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Povinelli, M. L.

S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, and S. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Quidant, R.

M. L. Juan, M. Righini, and R. Quidant, Nat. Photonics 5, 349 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Renger, R. Quidant, N. van Hulst, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 046803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Righini, A. S. Zelenina, C. Girard, and R. Quidant, Nat. Phys. 3, 477 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Volpe, R. Quidant, G. Badenes, and D. Petrov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 238101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Renger, J.

J. Renger, R. Quidant, N. van Hulst, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 046803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Righini, M.

M. L. Juan, M. Righini, and R. Quidant, Nat. Photonics 5, 349 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Righini, A. S. Zelenina, C. Girard, and R. Quidant, Nat. Phys. 3, 477 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rohmer, M.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. G. de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roux, P.

A. Derode, P. Roux, and M. Fink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4206 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ruostekoski, J.

T. S. Kao, S. D. Jenkins, J. Ruostekoski, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 085501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sandhu, S.

S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, and S. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sentenac, A.

A. Sentenac and P. C. Chaumet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 013901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 123004 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Spindler, C.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. G. de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Steeb, F.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. G. de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, M. I.

M. I. Stockman, D. J. Bergman, and T. Kobayashi, Phys. Rev. B 69, 054202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Stockman, S. V. Faleev, and D. J. Bergman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N.

J. Renger, R. Quidant, N. van Hulst, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 046803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vellekoop, I.

I. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. Mosk, Nat. Photonics 4, 320 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Volpe, G.

G. Volpe, R. Quidant, G. Badenes, and D. Petrov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 238101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weinacht, T.

T. Weinacht, J. Ahn, and P. H. Bucksbaum, Nature 397, 233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Woggon, U.

N. B. Grosse, J. Heckmann, and U. Woggon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 136802 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S.

Y. Liu, S. Xu, X. Xuyang, B. Zhao, and W. Xu, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 2218 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, W.

Y. Liu, S. Xu, X. Xuyang, B. Zhao, and W. Xu, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 2218 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xuyang, X.

Y. Liu, S. Xu, X. Xuyang, B. Zhao, and W. Xu, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 2218 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zelenina, A. S.

M. Righini, A. S. Zelenina, C. Girard, and R. Quidant, Nat. Phys. 3, 477 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, B.

Y. Liu, S. Xu, X. Xuyang, B. Zhao, and W. Xu, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 2218 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

T. S. Kao, S. D. Jenkins, J. Ruostekoski, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 085501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, and S. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

J. Homola, Chem. Rev. 108, 462 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Lett. (1)

Y. Liu, S. Xu, X. Xuyang, B. Zhao, and W. Xu, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 2218 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (3)

I. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. Mosk, Nat. Photonics 4, 320 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Gjonaj, J. Aulbach, and P. M. Johnson, Nat. Photonics 5, 360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Juan, M. Righini, and R. Quidant, Nat. Photonics 5, 349 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

M. Righini, A. S. Zelenina, C. Girard, and R. Quidant, Nat. Phys. 3, 477 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

T. Weinacht, J. Ahn, and P. H. Bucksbaum, Nature 397, 233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Ginsberg, S. R. Garner, and L. V. Hau, Nature 445, 623 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. G. de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

M. I. Stockman, D. J. Bergman, and T. Kobayashi, Phys. Rev. B 69, 054202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (9)

S. Palomba and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 056802 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Renger, R. Quidant, N. van Hulst, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 046803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. B. Grosse, J. Heckmann, and U. Woggon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 136802 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Volpe, R. Quidant, G. Badenes, and D. Petrov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 238101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Stockman, S. V. Faleev, and D. J. Bergman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 123004 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Kao, S. D. Jenkins, J. Ruostekoski, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 085501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Derode, P. Roux, and M. Fink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4206 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Sentenac and P. C. Chaumet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 013901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

W. C. Chew, Waves and Fields in Inhomogenous Media (IEEE, 1995).

H. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics (Prentice-Hall, 1984).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of a SPP excitation with the Kretschmann configuration. The thickness of the silver layer is 58.3 nm, and the dielectric constant of the quartz prism is εd=2.25. (b),(c) Distribution of the electric field intensity |E|2 under the illumination of a Gaussian beam (b) and the phase-shaped beam (c). Here the white dashed lines outline the interfaces of the metal layer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Amplitude and phase spectra of the reflection coefficient in the Kretschmann configuration [Fig. 1(a)]. The solid line corresponds to the numerical calculation. The dotted line is the fitting result of the CMT Eq. (2b) with the parameters: ϕ=0.97009, βspp=1.0301k0, αspp=4.5062×104k0, and αl=6.6990×104k0.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a),(b) Amplitude and phase spectra of the spatial components for the Gaussian beam (solid) and the phase-shaped beam Eq. (3) (dashed), respectively. (c) The magnetic field amplitude of the Gaussian beam (solid) and the phase-shaped beam (dashed) at the metal-quartz interface. (d) The electric intensity of the excitation SPP. The blue solid and green dashed lines correspond to Figs. 1(b) and 1(c) at x=0.06μm, respectively. The red and cyan dotted lines are computed by the CMT Eq. (2a) with the fitting parameters.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Distribution of the electric field intensity |E|2 under the illumination of (a) the 3D p-polarization Gaussian beam and (b) the phase-shaped beam with the phase modulation of Eq. (3). The Gaussian beam has a 2.652 μm radius waist and focuses at the quartz-metal surface.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dadz=(iβsppαlαspp)a+ieiϕ2αlSin(z),
Sout=eiϕSin+ieiϕ2αla.
a(z)=2αleiϕsin(kz)exp(ikzz)(kzβspp)i(αl+αspp)dkz,
Rsoutsin=eiϕ(kzβspp)+iαliαspp(kzβspp)iαliαspp.
s˜in=sin(kz)exp(iarg[(kzβspp)i(αl+αspp)]).

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