Abstract

Bragg waveguides are fundamental components in photonic integrated circuits and are particularly interesting for mid-IR applications in high index, highly nonlinear materials. In this work, we present Bragg waveguides fabricated in bulk chalcogenide glass using an ultrafast laser. Waveguides with near circularly symmetric cross sections and low propagation loss are obtained through spatial and temporal beam shaping. Using a single-pass technique, the waveguide and Bragg structure are formed at the same time. First through sixth order gratings with strengths of up to 25 dB are realized, and performance is evaluated based on the modulation duty cycle of the writing beam.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

2006 (3)

H. Zhang, S. M. Eaton, J. Li, and P. R. Herman, Opt. Lett. 31, 3495 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Marshall, M. Ams, and M. J. Withford, Opt. Lett. 31, 2690 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Ta’eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. B. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, Y. L. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

R. J. Curry, S. W. Birtwell, A. K. Mairaj, X. Feng, and D. W. Hewak, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 477 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2001 (1)

C. Quemard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthelemy, and J. Lucas, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62, 1435 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. M. Weiner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Erdogan, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. B. Seddon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 44 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ams, M.

Baker, N. J.

Barthelemy, A.

C. Quemard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthelemy, and J. Lucas, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62, 1435 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Benayas, A.

Birtwell, S. W.

R. J. Curry, S. W. Birtwell, A. K. Mairaj, X. Feng, and D. W. Hewak, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 477 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bookey, H. T.

Brown, G.

Bulla, D. A.

Cerullo, G.

Chen, K. P.

Choi, D. Y.

Choi, D.-Y.

Clausen, A. T.

Couderc, V.

C. Quemard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthelemy, and J. Lucas, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62, 1435 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Curry, R. J.

R. J. Curry, S. W. Birtwell, A. K. Mairaj, X. Feng, and D. W. Hewak, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 477 (2005).
[CrossRef]

De Silvestri, S.

de Sterke, C. M.

H. C. Nguyen, T. Grujic, K. Finsterbusch, E. C. Magi, F. Libin, B. T. Kuhlmey, C. M. de Sterke, and B. J. Eggleton, in Joint International Conference on Optical Internet, 2007 and the 2007 32nd Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (COIN-ACOFT) (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1–3.

Eaton, S. M.

Eggleton, B. J.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).

M. Galili, J. Xu, H. C. Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, A. T. Clausen, P. Jeppesen, B. Luther-Dayvies, S. Madden, A. Rode, D.-Y. Choi, M. Pelusi, F. Luan, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 17, 2182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, L. Fu, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, Opt. Express 15, 9205 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 15, 14414 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Ta’eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. B. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, Y. L. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Nguyen, T. Grujic, K. Finsterbusch, E. C. Magi, F. Libin, B. T. Kuhlmey, C. M. de Sterke, and B. J. Eggleton, in Joint International Conference on Optical Internet, 2007 and the 2007 32nd Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (COIN-ACOFT) (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1–3.

Elliott, S. R.

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

R. J. Curry, S. W. Birtwell, A. K. Mairaj, X. Feng, and D. W. Hewak, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 477 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Finsterbusch, K.

V. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, L. Fu, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, Opt. Express 15, 9205 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Nguyen, T. Grujic, K. Finsterbusch, E. C. Magi, F. Libin, B. T. Kuhlmey, C. M. de Sterke, and B. J. Eggleton, in Joint International Conference on Optical Internet, 2007 and the 2007 32nd Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (COIN-ACOFT) (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1–3.

Fu, L.

Fu, L. B.

V. G. Ta’eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. B. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, Y. L. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Galili, M.

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grujic, T.

H. C. Nguyen, T. Grujic, K. Finsterbusch, E. C. Magi, F. Libin, B. T. Kuhlmey, C. M. de Sterke, and B. J. Eggleton, in Joint International Conference on Optical Internet, 2007 and the 2007 32nd Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (COIN-ACOFT) (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1–3.

Herman, P. R.

Hewak, D.

M. Hughes, W. Yang, and D. Hewak, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 131113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hewak, D. W.

R. J. Curry, S. W. Birtwell, A. K. Mairaj, X. Feng, and D. W. Hewak, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 477 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.

Hughes, M.

M. Hughes, W. Yang, and D. Hewak, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 131113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jaque, D.

Jeppesen, P.

Kar, A. K.

Kuhlmey, B. T.

H. C. Nguyen, T. Grujic, K. Finsterbusch, E. C. Magi, F. Libin, B. T. Kuhlmey, C. M. de Sterke, and B. J. Eggleton, in Joint International Conference on Optical Internet, 2007 and the 2007 32nd Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (COIN-ACOFT) (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1–3.

Lamont, M. R. E.

Laporta, P.

Li, J.

Li, M.

Libin, F.

H. C. Nguyen, T. Grujic, K. Finsterbusch, E. C. Magi, F. Libin, B. T. Kuhlmey, C. M. de Sterke, and B. J. Eggleton, in Joint International Conference on Optical Internet, 2007 and the 2007 32nd Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (COIN-ACOFT) (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1–3.

Littler, I. C. M.

V. G. Ta’eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. B. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, Y. L. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luan, F.

Lucas, J.

C. Quemard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthelemy, and J. Lucas, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62, 1435 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).

V. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, L. Fu, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, Opt. Express 15, 9205 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 15, 14414 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Ta’eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. B. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, Y. L. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Dayvies, B.

Madden, S.

Madden, S. J.

Magi, E. C.

H. C. Nguyen, T. Grujic, K. Finsterbusch, E. C. Magi, F. Libin, B. T. Kuhlmey, C. M. de Sterke, and B. J. Eggleton, in Joint International Conference on Optical Internet, 2007 and the 2007 32nd Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (COIN-ACOFT) (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1–3.

Mairaj, A. K.

R. J. Curry, S. W. Birtwell, A. K. Mairaj, X. Feng, and D. W. Hewak, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 477 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marangoni, M.

Marshall, G. D.

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McMillen, B.

Moss, D. J.

V. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, L. Fu, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, Opt. Express 15, 9205 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Ta’eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. B. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, Y. L. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mulvad, H. C.

Nguyen, H. C.

V. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, L. Fu, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, Opt. Express 15, 9205 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Nguyen, T. Grujic, K. Finsterbusch, E. C. Magi, F. Libin, B. T. Kuhlmey, C. M. de Sterke, and B. J. Eggleton, in Joint International Conference on Optical Internet, 2007 and the 2007 32nd Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (COIN-ACOFT) (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1–3.

Osellame, R.

Oxenløwe, L. K.

Pelusi, M.

Pelusi, M. D.

Petek, H.

Polli, D.

Psaila, N. D.

Quemard, C.

C. Quemard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthelemy, and J. Lucas, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62, 1435 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

Richardson, K.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).

Rochette, M.

V. G. Ta’eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. B. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, Y. L. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rode, A.

Rode, A. V.

Ruan, Y. L.

V. G. Ta’eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. B. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, Y. L. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seddon, A. B.

A. B. Seddon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 44 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shokooh-Saremi, M.

V. G. Ta’eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. B. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, Y. L. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smektala, F.

C. Quemard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthelemy, and J. Lucas, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62, 1435 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ta’eed, V.

Ta’eed, V. G.

S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 15, 14414 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Ta’eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. B. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, Y. L. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taccheo, S.

Thomson, R. R.

Valle, G. D.

G. D. Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, J. Opt. A 11, 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

Weiner, A. M.

A. M. Weiner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Withford, M. J.

Xu, J.

Yang, W.

M. Hughes, W. Yang, and D. Hewak, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 131113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zakery, A.

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

Zhang, H.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Hughes, W. Yang, and D. Hewak, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 131113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. G. Ta’eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. B. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, Y. L. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

T. Erdogan, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (3)

A. B. Seddon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 44 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Curry, S. W. Birtwell, A. K. Mairaj, X. Feng, and D. W. Hewak, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 477 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

G. D. Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, J. Opt. A 11, 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

C. Quemard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthelemy, and J. Lucas, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62, 1435 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. M. Weiner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. C. Nguyen, T. Grujic, K. Finsterbusch, E. C. Magi, F. Libin, B. T. Kuhlmey, C. M. de Sterke, and B. J. Eggleton, in Joint International Conference on Optical Internet, 2007 and the 2007 32nd Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (COIN-ACOFT) (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1–3.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Top view of laser written Bragg waveguides in GLS ChG glass for 25% and 50% duty cycle. First through sixth order gratings are shown with a zero-order (no grating) waveguide for comparison. All features were written at 300nJ/pulse, 1mm/s, and 1.5 ps pulse width. The writing beam was incident into the figure (k), with the writing direction (S) from right to left.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

End facet view of laser-written Bragg waveguides in GLS ChG glass and the corresponding normalized near field mode profiles at 1560 nm. The writing beam was incident from the top of the figure.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission and reflection spectra of a fourth order, 20 mm long Bragg waveguide written with 25% duty cycle.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Strength of the transmission peak and width for first through sixth order Bragg waveguides written with duty cycles of 25% and 50%. The grating length is 20 mm.

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