Abstract

We make use of the color sensitivity of the naked human eye to solve the inverse grating problem. We conduct color-matching experiments between simulated colors and the color of the zero diffraction order, and show that human color vision may reveal structure dimensions at an accuracy in the order of ten nanometers, which is comparable to the precision of destructive methods such as scanning electron microscopy. Our results suggest that for a wide range of structures, the color observation may help to get quick, but still accurate, results, without any sophisticated instrumentation.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. J. Raymond, Handbook of Silicon Semiconductor Metrology, A. C. Diebold, ed. (CRC Press, 2001), pp. 477–513.
  2. R. M. Silver, B. M. Barnes, R. Attota, J. Jun, M. Stocker, E. Marx, and H. J. Patrick, Appl. Opt. 46, 4248 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. O. Manzardo, R. Michaely, F. Schdelin, W. Noell, T. Overstolz, N. De Rooij, and H. P. Herzig, Opt. Lett. 29, 1437 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. L. Schattenburg, K. A. Flanagan, M. A. Hamnett, K. S. K. Lum, R. Manikkalingam, T. H. Markert, A. M. Levine, C. R. Canizares, D. Dewey, and H. I. Smith, Opt. Eng. 30, 1590 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. de Groot, X. C. de Lega, and J. Liesener, Proceedings of Fringe 2009: 6th International Workshop on Advanced Optical Metrology, W. Osten, ed. (Springer, 2009), pp. 236–243.
  6. V. Ferreras Paz, S. Peterhänsel, K. Frenner, and W. Osten, Light: Sci. Appl. 1, e36 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Vukusic and J. R. Sambles, Nature 424, 852 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Kinoshita, Structural Colors in the Realm of Nature (World Scientific, 2008).
  9. S. Vignolinia, P. J. Rudallb, A. V. Rowlandb, A. Reedc, E. Moyroudc, R. B. Fadend, J. J. Baumberga, B. J. Gloverc, and U. Steine, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A 109, 15712 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. N. Klupp Taylor, F. Seifrt, O. Zhuromskyy, U. Peschel, G. Leugering, and W. Peuk, Adv. Mater. 23, 2554 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Xu, H. Shi, Y. K. Wu, A. F. Kaplan, J. G. Ok, and L. J. Guo, Small 7, 3128 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, Fourier Modal Method and Its Applications in Computational Nanophotonics (CRC Press, 2012).
  13. http://sensing.konicaminolta.asia/products/cs-2000-spectroradiometer/ (Link valid 7.11.2013).
  14. CIE International Commission on Illumination, CIE 15:2004 Colorimetry, 3rd ed., Vienna (2004).
  15. CIE International Commission on Illumination, CIE 159:2004 A Colour Appearance Model for Colour Management Systems: CIECAM02, Vienna (2004).
  16. P. R. Kinnear and A. Sahraie, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 1408 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and C. Li, Color Res. Appl. 31, 320 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Wang, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, and H. Xu, Color Res. Appl. 37, 316 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. R. Kang, Color Technology for Electronic Imaging Devices (SPIE, 1997).

2012 (3)

S. Vignolinia, P. J. Rudallb, A. V. Rowlandb, A. Reedc, E. Moyroudc, R. B. Fadend, J. J. Baumberga, B. J. Gloverc, and U. Steine, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A 109, 15712 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Ferreras Paz, S. Peterhänsel, K. Frenner, and W. Osten, Light: Sci. Appl. 1, e36 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, and H. Xu, Color Res. Appl. 37, 316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

R. N. Klupp Taylor, F. Seifrt, O. Zhuromskyy, U. Peschel, G. Leugering, and W. Peuk, Adv. Mater. 23, 2554 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Xu, H. Shi, Y. K. Wu, A. F. Kaplan, J. G. Ok, and L. J. Guo, Small 7, 3128 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and C. Li, Color Res. Appl. 31, 320 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

P. Vukusic and J. R. Sambles, Nature 424, 852 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

P. R. Kinnear and A. Sahraie, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 1408 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

M. L. Schattenburg, K. A. Flanagan, M. A. Hamnett, K. S. K. Lum, R. Manikkalingam, T. H. Markert, A. M. Levine, C. R. Canizares, D. Dewey, and H. I. Smith, Opt. Eng. 30, 1590 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Attota, R.

Barnes, B. M.

Baumberga, J. J.

S. Vignolinia, P. J. Rudallb, A. V. Rowlandb, A. Reedc, E. Moyroudc, R. B. Fadend, J. J. Baumberga, B. J. Gloverc, and U. Steine, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A 109, 15712 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Canizares, C. R.

M. L. Schattenburg, K. A. Flanagan, M. A. Hamnett, K. S. K. Lum, R. Manikkalingam, T. H. Markert, A. M. Levine, C. R. Canizares, D. Dewey, and H. I. Smith, Opt. Eng. 30, 1590 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cui, G.

H. Wang, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, and H. Xu, Color Res. Appl. 37, 316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and C. Li, Color Res. Appl. 31, 320 (2006).
[CrossRef]

de Groot, P.

P. de Groot, X. C. de Lega, and J. Liesener, Proceedings of Fringe 2009: 6th International Workshop on Advanced Optical Metrology, W. Osten, ed. (Springer, 2009), pp. 236–243.

de Lega, X. C.

P. de Groot, X. C. de Lega, and J. Liesener, Proceedings of Fringe 2009: 6th International Workshop on Advanced Optical Metrology, W. Osten, ed. (Springer, 2009), pp. 236–243.

De Rooij, N.

Dewey, D.

M. L. Schattenburg, K. A. Flanagan, M. A. Hamnett, K. S. K. Lum, R. Manikkalingam, T. H. Markert, A. M. Levine, C. R. Canizares, D. Dewey, and H. I. Smith, Opt. Eng. 30, 1590 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fadend, R. B.

S. Vignolinia, P. J. Rudallb, A. V. Rowlandb, A. Reedc, E. Moyroudc, R. B. Fadend, J. J. Baumberga, B. J. Gloverc, and U. Steine, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A 109, 15712 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ferreras Paz, V.

V. Ferreras Paz, S. Peterhänsel, K. Frenner, and W. Osten, Light: Sci. Appl. 1, e36 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Flanagan, K. A.

M. L. Schattenburg, K. A. Flanagan, M. A. Hamnett, K. S. K. Lum, R. Manikkalingam, T. H. Markert, A. M. Levine, C. R. Canizares, D. Dewey, and H. I. Smith, Opt. Eng. 30, 1590 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Frenner, K.

V. Ferreras Paz, S. Peterhänsel, K. Frenner, and W. Osten, Light: Sci. Appl. 1, e36 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gloverc, B. J.

S. Vignolinia, P. J. Rudallb, A. V. Rowlandb, A. Reedc, E. Moyroudc, R. B. Fadend, J. J. Baumberga, B. J. Gloverc, and U. Steine, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A 109, 15712 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L. J.

T. Xu, H. Shi, Y. K. Wu, A. F. Kaplan, J. G. Ok, and L. J. Guo, Small 7, 3128 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hamnett, M. A.

M. L. Schattenburg, K. A. Flanagan, M. A. Hamnett, K. S. K. Lum, R. Manikkalingam, T. H. Markert, A. M. Levine, C. R. Canizares, D. Dewey, and H. I. Smith, Opt. Eng. 30, 1590 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Herzig, H. P.

Jun, J.

Kang, H. R.

H. R. Kang, Color Technology for Electronic Imaging Devices (SPIE, 1997).

Kaplan, A. F.

T. Xu, H. Shi, Y. K. Wu, A. F. Kaplan, J. G. Ok, and L. J. Guo, Small 7, 3128 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, Fourier Modal Method and Its Applications in Computational Nanophotonics (CRC Press, 2012).

Kinnear, P. R.

P. R. Kinnear and A. Sahraie, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 1408 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, S.

S. Kinoshita, Structural Colors in the Realm of Nature (World Scientific, 2008).

Klupp Taylor, R. N.

R. N. Klupp Taylor, F. Seifrt, O. Zhuromskyy, U. Peschel, G. Leugering, and W. Peuk, Adv. Mater. 23, 2554 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, Fourier Modal Method and Its Applications in Computational Nanophotonics (CRC Press, 2012).

Leugering, G.

R. N. Klupp Taylor, F. Seifrt, O. Zhuromskyy, U. Peschel, G. Leugering, and W. Peuk, Adv. Mater. 23, 2554 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Levine, A. M.

M. L. Schattenburg, K. A. Flanagan, M. A. Hamnett, K. S. K. Lum, R. Manikkalingam, T. H. Markert, A. M. Levine, C. R. Canizares, D. Dewey, and H. I. Smith, Opt. Eng. 30, 1590 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and C. Li, Color Res. Appl. 31, 320 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liesener, J.

P. de Groot, X. C. de Lega, and J. Liesener, Proceedings of Fringe 2009: 6th International Workshop on Advanced Optical Metrology, W. Osten, ed. (Springer, 2009), pp. 236–243.

Lum, K. S. K.

M. L. Schattenburg, K. A. Flanagan, M. A. Hamnett, K. S. K. Lum, R. Manikkalingam, T. H. Markert, A. M. Levine, C. R. Canizares, D. Dewey, and H. I. Smith, Opt. Eng. 30, 1590 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Luo, M. R.

H. Wang, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, and H. Xu, Color Res. Appl. 37, 316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and C. Li, Color Res. Appl. 31, 320 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Manikkalingam, R.

M. L. Schattenburg, K. A. Flanagan, M. A. Hamnett, K. S. K. Lum, R. Manikkalingam, T. H. Markert, A. M. Levine, C. R. Canizares, D. Dewey, and H. I. Smith, Opt. Eng. 30, 1590 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Manzardo, O.

Markert, T. H.

M. L. Schattenburg, K. A. Flanagan, M. A. Hamnett, K. S. K. Lum, R. Manikkalingam, T. H. Markert, A. M. Levine, C. R. Canizares, D. Dewey, and H. I. Smith, Opt. Eng. 30, 1590 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Marx, E.

Michaely, R.

Moyroudc, E.

S. Vignolinia, P. J. Rudallb, A. V. Rowlandb, A. Reedc, E. Moyroudc, R. B. Fadend, J. J. Baumberga, B. J. Gloverc, and U. Steine, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A 109, 15712 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Noell, W.

Ok, J. G.

T. Xu, H. Shi, Y. K. Wu, A. F. Kaplan, J. G. Ok, and L. J. Guo, Small 7, 3128 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Osten, W.

V. Ferreras Paz, S. Peterhänsel, K. Frenner, and W. Osten, Light: Sci. Appl. 1, e36 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Overstolz, T.

Park, J.

H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, Fourier Modal Method and Its Applications in Computational Nanophotonics (CRC Press, 2012).

Patrick, H. J.

Peschel, U.

R. N. Klupp Taylor, F. Seifrt, O. Zhuromskyy, U. Peschel, G. Leugering, and W. Peuk, Adv. Mater. 23, 2554 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Peterhänsel, S.

V. Ferreras Paz, S. Peterhänsel, K. Frenner, and W. Osten, Light: Sci. Appl. 1, e36 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Peuk, W.

R. N. Klupp Taylor, F. Seifrt, O. Zhuromskyy, U. Peschel, G. Leugering, and W. Peuk, Adv. Mater. 23, 2554 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Raymond, C. J.

C. J. Raymond, Handbook of Silicon Semiconductor Metrology, A. C. Diebold, ed. (CRC Press, 2001), pp. 477–513.

Reedc, A.

S. Vignolinia, P. J. Rudallb, A. V. Rowlandb, A. Reedc, E. Moyroudc, R. B. Fadend, J. J. Baumberga, B. J. Gloverc, and U. Steine, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A 109, 15712 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rowlandb, A. V.

S. Vignolinia, P. J. Rudallb, A. V. Rowlandb, A. Reedc, E. Moyroudc, R. B. Fadend, J. J. Baumberga, B. J. Gloverc, and U. Steine, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A 109, 15712 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rudallb, P. J.

S. Vignolinia, P. J. Rudallb, A. V. Rowlandb, A. Reedc, E. Moyroudc, R. B. Fadend, J. J. Baumberga, B. J. Gloverc, and U. Steine, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A 109, 15712 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sahraie, A.

P. R. Kinnear and A. Sahraie, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 1408 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

P. Vukusic and J. R. Sambles, Nature 424, 852 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schattenburg, M. L.

M. L. Schattenburg, K. A. Flanagan, M. A. Hamnett, K. S. K. Lum, R. Manikkalingam, T. H. Markert, A. M. Levine, C. R. Canizares, D. Dewey, and H. I. Smith, Opt. Eng. 30, 1590 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schdelin, F.

Seifrt, F.

R. N. Klupp Taylor, F. Seifrt, O. Zhuromskyy, U. Peschel, G. Leugering, and W. Peuk, Adv. Mater. 23, 2554 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shi, H.

T. Xu, H. Shi, Y. K. Wu, A. F. Kaplan, J. G. Ok, and L. J. Guo, Small 7, 3128 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Silver, R. M.

Smith, H. I.

M. L. Schattenburg, K. A. Flanagan, M. A. Hamnett, K. S. K. Lum, R. Manikkalingam, T. H. Markert, A. M. Levine, C. R. Canizares, D. Dewey, and H. I. Smith, Opt. Eng. 30, 1590 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Steine, U.

S. Vignolinia, P. J. Rudallb, A. V. Rowlandb, A. Reedc, E. Moyroudc, R. B. Fadend, J. J. Baumberga, B. J. Gloverc, and U. Steine, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A 109, 15712 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stocker, M.

Vignolinia, S.

S. Vignolinia, P. J. Rudallb, A. V. Rowlandb, A. Reedc, E. Moyroudc, R. B. Fadend, J. J. Baumberga, B. J. Gloverc, and U. Steine, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A 109, 15712 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vukusic, P.

P. Vukusic and J. R. Sambles, Nature 424, 852 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, and H. Xu, Color Res. Appl. 37, 316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. K.

T. Xu, H. Shi, Y. K. Wu, A. F. Kaplan, J. G. Ok, and L. J. Guo, Small 7, 3128 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.

H. Wang, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, and H. Xu, Color Res. Appl. 37, 316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, T.

T. Xu, H. Shi, Y. K. Wu, A. F. Kaplan, J. G. Ok, and L. J. Guo, Small 7, 3128 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhuromskyy, O.

R. N. Klupp Taylor, F. Seifrt, O. Zhuromskyy, U. Peschel, G. Leugering, and W. Peuk, Adv. Mater. 23, 2554 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

R. N. Klupp Taylor, F. Seifrt, O. Zhuromskyy, U. Peschel, G. Leugering, and W. Peuk, Adv. Mater. 23, 2554 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

P. R. Kinnear and A. Sahraie, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 1408 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Color Res. Appl. (2)

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and C. Li, Color Res. Appl. 31, 320 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, and H. Xu, Color Res. Appl. 37, 316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Light: Sci. Appl. (1)

V. Ferreras Paz, S. Peterhänsel, K. Frenner, and W. Osten, Light: Sci. Appl. 1, e36 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

P. Vukusic and J. R. Sambles, Nature 424, 852 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. L. Schattenburg, K. A. Flanagan, M. A. Hamnett, K. S. K. Lum, R. Manikkalingam, T. H. Markert, A. M. Levine, C. R. Canizares, D. Dewey, and H. I. Smith, Opt. Eng. 30, 1590 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A (1)

S. Vignolinia, P. J. Rudallb, A. V. Rowlandb, A. Reedc, E. Moyroudc, R. B. Fadend, J. J. Baumberga, B. J. Gloverc, and U. Steine, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A 109, 15712 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Small (1)

T. Xu, H. Shi, Y. K. Wu, A. F. Kaplan, J. G. Ok, and L. J. Guo, Small 7, 3128 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, Fourier Modal Method and Its Applications in Computational Nanophotonics (CRC Press, 2012).

http://sensing.konicaminolta.asia/products/cs-2000-spectroradiometer/ (Link valid 7.11.2013).

CIE International Commission on Illumination, CIE 15:2004 Colorimetry, 3rd ed., Vienna (2004).

CIE International Commission on Illumination, CIE 159:2004 A Colour Appearance Model for Colour Management Systems: CIECAM02, Vienna (2004).

P. de Groot, X. C. de Lega, and J. Liesener, Proceedings of Fringe 2009: 6th International Workshop on Advanced Optical Metrology, W. Osten, ed. (Springer, 2009), pp. 236–243.

S. Kinoshita, Structural Colors in the Realm of Nature (World Scientific, 2008).

H. R. Kang, Color Technology for Electronic Imaging Devices (SPIE, 1997).

C. J. Raymond, Handbook of Silicon Semiconductor Metrology, A. C. Diebold, ed. (CRC Press, 2001), pp. 477–513.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Sketch of the experimental setup (left) and a photo of the experiment taken from the actual viewing position (right). The LCD shows a simulated color, which is compared to the grating in the sample holder. The sample is placed at a distance l1 from the display to prevent undesired diffraction orders from reaching the eye. The viewing distance l2 is chosen such that the squares appear to have the same size from the viewing position. The photo is a combination of three exposures, taken from the same position, but with different foci.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Each column corresponds to one measured grating. The colors in each subfigure mimic the appearance of the transmitted light with the corresponding depth–linewidth pairs. The parameter combinations chosen by the test subjects are marked with dots and their mean with a circle. The square and the cross denote the estimate of the profile geometry given by the SEM and spectroradiometer measurements, respectively. The contour lines correspond to the color differences of 5, 10, and 15 CAM02-UCS units between the illustrated color and the spectroradiometer measurement.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Results of all Measuring Methodsa

Metrics