Abstract

In this study, we investigated the effect of a random nanostructure scattering layer (RSL) on the microcavity and light extraction in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). In the case of the conventional OLED, the optical properties change with the thickness of the hole transporting layer (HTL) because of the presence of a microcavity. However, OLEDs equipped with the an RSL showed similar values of external quantum efficiency and luminous efficacy regardless of the HTL thickness. These phenomena can be understood by the scattering effect because of the RSL, which suppresses the microcavity effect and extracts the light confined in the device. Moreover, OLEDs with the RSL led to reduced spectrum and color changes with the viewing angle.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (2)

J.-W. Kim, J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J.-H. Moon, and J.-I. Lee, Opt. Express 22, 498 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, Org. Electron. 15, 196 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (3)

C. Lee and J.-J. Kim, Small 9, 3858 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Shin, T. H. Park, J. H. Choi, E. H. Song, H. Kim, H. J. Lee, J.-I. Lee, H. Y. Chu, K. B. Lee, Y. W. Park, and B.-K. Ju, Org. Electron. 14, 187 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Han, J. Moon, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, C. W. Joo, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, ETRI J. 35, 559 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

J.-I. Lee, J. Lee, J.-W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, and H. Y. Chu, ETRI J. 34, 690 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J. Hwang, J.-H. Han, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 09MH01 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Han, J. Moon, J.-W. Shin, C. W. Joo, D.-H. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 119 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, Org. Electron. 12, 648 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, Org. Electron. 11, 711 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Yang, Q. Y. Bao, Z. Q. Xu, Y. Q. Li, J. X. Tang, and S. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 223303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T.-W. Koh, J.-M. Choi, S. Lee, and S. Yoo, Adv. Mater. 22, 1849 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

S. Mladenovski, K. Neyts, D. Pavicic, A. Werner, and C. Rothe, Opt. Express 17, 7562 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, Opt. Mater. 32, 221 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. O. Jeon, K. S. Yook, C. W. Joo, and J. Y. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 013301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Nature 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, T. C. Rosenow, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 1319 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, Nature Photonics 2, 483 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, J.-G. Lee, Y.-C. Kim, J. H. Lee, J. Ha, J.-S. Oh, S. Y. Lee, K. H. Hwang, D.-S. Zang, and Y.-H. Lee, Opt. Express 16, 12632 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, N. Chopra, and F. So, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 033303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

E. L. Williams, K. Haavisto, J. Li, and G. E. Jabbour, Adv. Mater. 19, 197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Schwartz, M. Pfeiffer, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, Adv. Mater. 19, 3672 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 263503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

Y.-C. Tsai and J.-H. Jou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 243521 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. Thompson, and S. Forrest, Nature 440, 908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, and Y.-H. Lee, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 7629 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

N. K. Patel, S. Cinà, and J. H. Burroughes, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 346 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ai, N.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, Org. Electron. 12, 648 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Altun, A. O.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, Org. Electron. 11, 711 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Q. Y.

J. P. Yang, Q. Y. Bao, Z. Q. Xu, Y. Q. Li, J. X. Tang, and S. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 223303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Burroughes, J. H.

N. K. Patel, S. Cinà, and J. H. Burroughes, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 346 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, Org. Electron. 12, 648 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cho, D.-H.

J.-W. Kim, J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J.-H. Moon, and J.-I. Lee, Opt. Express 22, 498 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, Org. Electron. 15, 196 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Han, J. Moon, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, C. W. Joo, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, ETRI J. 35, 559 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J.-I. Lee, J. Lee, J.-W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, and H. Y. Chu, ETRI J. 34, 690 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J. Hwang, J.-H. Han, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 09MH01 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Han, J. Moon, J.-W. Shin, C. W. Joo, D.-H. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 119 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Park, B.-K. Kang, J.-W. Shin, C. W. Joo, J. Moon, D.-H. Cho, B. Yu, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Triethylene glycol-titanium oxide hydrate hybrid films with high refractive index and surface evenness,” J. Mater. Chem. C, doi: 10.1039/C3TC32200a (2014).

Cho, N. S.

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, Org. Electron. 15, 196 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. H.

Choi, D.-G.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, Org. Electron. 11, 711 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J. H.

S. J. Shin, T. H. Park, J. H. Choi, E. H. Song, H. Kim, H. J. Lee, J.-I. Lee, H. Y. Chu, K. B. Lee, Y. W. Park, and B.-K. Ju, Org. Electron. 14, 187 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.-H.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, Org. Electron. 11, 711 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.-M.

T.-W. Koh, J.-M. Choi, S. Lee, and S. Yoo, Adv. Mater. 22, 1849 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chopra, N.

J. Lee, N. Chopra, and F. So, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 033303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chu, H. Y.

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, Org. Electron. 15, 196 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Shin, T. H. Park, J. H. Choi, E. H. Song, H. Kim, H. J. Lee, J.-I. Lee, H. Y. Chu, K. B. Lee, Y. W. Park, and B.-K. Ju, Org. Electron. 14, 187 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Han, J. Moon, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, C. W. Joo, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, ETRI J. 35, 559 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J.-I. Lee, J. Lee, J.-W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, and H. Y. Chu, ETRI J. 34, 690 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J. Hwang, J.-H. Han, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 09MH01 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Han, J. Moon, J.-W. Shin, C. W. Joo, D.-H. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 119 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Park, B.-K. Kang, J.-W. Shin, C. W. Joo, J. Moon, D.-H. Cho, B. Yu, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Triethylene glycol-titanium oxide hydrate hybrid films with high refractive index and surface evenness,” J. Mater. Chem. C, doi: 10.1039/C3TC32200a (2014).

Cinà, S.

N. K. Patel, S. Cinà, and J. H. Burroughes, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 346 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Do, Y. R.

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, and Y.-H. Lee, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 7629 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. Thompson, and S. Forrest, Nature 440, 908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, Nature Photonics 2, 483 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 263503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Furno, M.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Giebink, N. C.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. Thompson, and S. Forrest, Nature 440, 908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ha, J.

Haavisto, K.

E. L. Williams, K. Haavisto, J. Li, and G. E. Jabbour, Adv. Mater. 19, 197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Han, J.-H.

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, Org. Electron. 15, 196 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Han, J. Moon, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, C. W. Joo, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, ETRI J. 35, 559 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J.-I. Lee, J. Lee, J.-W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, and H. Y. Chu, ETRI J. 34, 690 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J. Hwang, J.-H. Han, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 09MH01 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Han, J. Moon, J.-W. Shin, C. W. Joo, D.-H. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 119 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, S.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huh, J. W.

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, Org. Electron. 15, 196 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Han, J. Moon, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, C. W. Joo, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, ETRI J. 35, 559 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J. Hwang, J.-H. Han, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 09MH01 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Han, J. Moon, J.-W. Shin, C. W. Joo, D.-H. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 119 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J.

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, Org. Electron. 15, 196 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Han, J. Moon, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, C. W. Joo, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, ETRI J. 35, 559 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Han, J. Moon, J.-W. Shin, C. W. Joo, D.-H. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 119 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J. Hwang, J.-H. Han, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 09MH01 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, K. H.

Jabbour, G. E.

E. L. Williams, K. Haavisto, J. Li, and G. E. Jabbour, Adv. Mater. 19, 197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jain, V. K.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, Opt. Mater. 32, 221 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J.-H.

Jeon, S.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, Org. Electron. 11, 711 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, S. O.

S. O. Jeon, K. S. Yook, C. W. Joo, and J. Y. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 013301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, J.-H.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, Org. Electron. 11, 711 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, Org. Electron. 12, 648 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Joo, C. W.

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, Org. Electron. 15, 196 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Han, J. Moon, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, C. W. Joo, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, ETRI J. 35, 559 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J. Hwang, J.-H. Han, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 09MH01 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Han, J. Moon, J.-W. Shin, C. W. Joo, D.-H. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 119 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. O. Jeon, K. S. Yook, C. W. Joo, and J. Y. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 013301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Park, B.-K. Kang, J.-W. Shin, C. W. Joo, J. Moon, D.-H. Cho, B. Yu, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Triethylene glycol-titanium oxide hydrate hybrid films with high refractive index and surface evenness,” J. Mater. Chem. C, doi: 10.1039/C3TC32200a (2014).

Jou, J.-H.

Y.-C. Tsai and J.-H. Jou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 243521 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ju, B.-K.

S. J. Shin, T. H. Park, J. H. Choi, E. H. Song, H. Kim, H. J. Lee, J.-I. Lee, H. Y. Chu, K. B. Lee, Y. W. Park, and B.-K. Ju, Org. Electron. 14, 187 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kang, B.-K.

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S. J. Shin, T. H. Park, J. H. Choi, E. H. Song, H. Kim, H. J. Lee, J.-I. Lee, H. Y. Chu, K. B. Lee, Y. W. Park, and B.-K. Ju, Org. Electron. 14, 187 (2013).
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Org. Electron. (4)

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, Org. Electron. 11, 711 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, Org. Electron. 12, 648 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Shin, T. H. Park, J. H. Choi, E. H. Song, H. Kim, H. J. Lee, J.-I. Lee, H. Y. Chu, K. B. Lee, Y. W. Park, and B.-K. Ju, Org. Electron. 14, 187 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, Org. Electron. 15, 196 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Small (1)

C. Lee and J.-J. Kim, Small 9, 3858 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. K. Park, B.-K. Kang, J.-W. Shin, C. W. Joo, J. Moon, D.-H. Cho, B. Yu, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Triethylene glycol-titanium oxide hydrate hybrid films with high refractive index and surface evenness,” J. Mater. Chem. C, doi: 10.1039/C3TC32200a (2014).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of the OLED equipped with RSL and (b) the random nanostructure and planarized random nanostructure as the RSL.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulated radiances of green PHOLEDs as a function of HTL thickness.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Angular-dependent luminance and EL spectra characteristics of OLEDs having (a) 160 nm, (b) 200 nm, and (c) 230 nm of HTL thickness with and without the RSL. The EL spectra were measured at a normal direction.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The 1931 Commission internationale del’éclairage (CIE) color coordinates of OLEDs with and without RSL and OLED with the combination of RSL and MLA with viewing angle.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Angular-dependent luminance, (b) CIE color coordinates, and (c),(d) EL spectra of WOLED without and with the RSL.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Absolute Value of the EQE and LE of the OLED with or without the RSL and the OLED with the Combination of RSL and MLA

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