Abstract

Long period grating was UV inscribed into a multicore fiber consisting of 120 single mode cores. The multicore fiber that hosts the grating was fusion spliced into a single mode fiber at both ends. The splice creates a taper transition between the two types of fiber that produces a nonadiabatic mode evolution; this results in the illumination of all the modes in the multicore fiber. The spectral characteristics of this fiber device as a function of curvature were investigated. The device yielded a significant spectral sensitivity as high as 1.23nm/m1 and 3.57dB/m1 to the ultra-low curvature values from 0 to 1m1. This fiber device can also distinguish the orientation of curvature experienced by the fiber as the long period grating attenuation bands producing either a blue or red wavelength shift. The finite element method (FEM) model was used to investigate the modal behavior in multicore fiber and to predict the phase-matching curves of the long period grating inscribed into multicore fiber.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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X. F. Chen, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and G. D. Peng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 850 (2010).
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L. Y. Shao, L. Y. Xiong, C. K. Chen, A. Laronche, and J. Albert, J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 2681 (2010).
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2009

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T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, Y. Lai, G. Smith, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, Opt. Commun. 281, 5092 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 59 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, F. Floreani, K. Jedrzejewski, R. Marquez, R. Romero, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 471 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Zhao, X. F. Chen, K. M. Zhou, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, and J. D. C. Jones, Appl. Opt. 43, 5425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2001

F. M. Araujo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 829 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. Vasilev and O. Medvedkov, Proc. SPIE 4083, 212 (2000).

H. J. Patrick, Electron. Lett. 36, 1763 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 531 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, Electron. Lett. 34, 1773 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

1990

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, K. Vineberg, F. Bilodeau, D. Johnson, and I. Skinner, Electron. Lett. 26, 1270 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthie, Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. 133, 337 (1986).

R. J. Black and R. Bourbonnais, Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. 133, 377 (1986).

Albert, J.

Allsop, T.

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, Y. Lai, G. Smith, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, Opt. Commun. 281, 5092 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 59 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, F. Floreani, K. Jedrzejewski, R. Marquez, R. Romero, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 471 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Araujo, F. M.

F. M. Araujo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 829 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J. S.

Bennion, I.

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, Y. Lai, G. Smith, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, Opt. Commun. 281, 5092 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 59 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, F. Floreani, K. Jedrzejewski, R. Marquez, R. Romero, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 471 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Zhao, X. F. Chen, K. M. Zhou, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, and J. D. C. Jones, Appl. Opt. 43, 5425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 531 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, V.

Bilodeau, F.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, K. Vineberg, F. Bilodeau, D. Johnson, and I. Skinner, Electron. Lett. 26, 1270 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Black, R. J.

R. J. Black and R. Bourbonnais, Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. 133, 377 (1986).

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthie, Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. 133, 337 (1986).

Bourbonnais, R.

R. J. Black and R. Bourbonnais, Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. 133, 377 (1986).

Chang, C. C.

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, Electron. Lett. 34, 1773 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. K.

Chen, X. F.

X. F. Chen, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and G. D. Peng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 850 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Zhao, X. F. Chen, K. M. Zhou, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, and J. D. C. Jones, Appl. Opt. 43, 5425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ding, J. F.

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dubov, M.

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, Y. Lai, G. Smith, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, Opt. Commun. 281, 5092 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 59 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Earthgrowl-Gould, T.

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Farahi, F.

F. M. Araujo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 829 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, L. A.

F. M. Araujo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 829 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Floreani, F.

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 59 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, F. Floreani, K. Jedrzejewski, R. Marquez, R. Romero, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 471 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gao, S. C.

Geng, P. C.

Gillooly, A.

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gonthie, F.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthie, Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. 133, 337 (1986).

He, S.

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Henry, W. M.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthie, Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. 133, 337 (1986).

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, K. Vineberg, F. Bilodeau, D. Johnson, and I. Skinner, Electron. Lett. 26, 1270 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jedrzejewski, K.

T. Allsop, F. Floreani, K. Jedrzejewski, R. Marquez, R. Romero, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 471 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jin, L.

Jin, W.

Johnson, D.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, K. Vineberg, F. Bilodeau, D. Johnson, and I. Skinner, Electron. Lett. 26, 1270 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jones, J. D. C.

Ju, J.

Kalli, K.

X. F. Chen, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and G. D. Peng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 850 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, Y. Lai, G. Smith, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, Opt. Commun. 281, 5092 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Khrushchev, I.

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 59 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lacroix, S.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthie, Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. 133, 337 (1986).

Lai, Y.

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, Y. Lai, G. Smith, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, Opt. Commun. 281, 5092 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laronche, A.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 531 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Love, J. D.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthie, Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. 133, 337 (1986).

A. W. Synder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, 1983).

Ma, J.

MacPherson, W. N.

Malo, B.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, K. Vineberg, F. Bilodeau, D. Johnson, and I. Skinner, Electron. Lett. 26, 1270 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marquez, R.

T. Allsop, F. Floreani, K. Jedrzejewski, R. Marquez, R. Romero, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 471 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, A.

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 59 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Medvedkov, O.

S. Vasilev and O. Medvedkov, Proc. SPIE 4083, 212 (2000).

Mezentsev, V.

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neal, R.

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

H. J. Patrick, Electron. Lett. 36, 1763 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, Electron. Lett. 34, 1773 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peng, G. D.

X. F. Chen, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and G. D. Peng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 850 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ran, Z. L.

Rao, Y. J.

Romero, R.

T. Allsop, F. Floreani, K. Jedrzejewski, R. Marquez, R. Romero, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 471 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Santos, J. L.

F. M. Araujo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 829 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shao, L. Y.

L. Y. Shao, L. Y. Xiong, C. K. Chen, A. Laronche, and J. Albert, J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 2681 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, I.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, K. Vineberg, F. Bilodeau, D. Johnson, and I. Skinner, Electron. Lett. 26, 1270 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G.

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, Y. Lai, G. Smith, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, Opt. Commun. 281, 5092 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W. J.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthie, Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. 133, 337 (1986).

Synder, A. W.

A. W. Synder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, 1983).

Tang, W.

Vasilev, S.

S. Vasilev and O. Medvedkov, Proc. SPIE 4083, 212 (2000).

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Vineberg, K.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, K. Vineberg, F. Bilodeau, D. Johnson, and I. Skinner, Electron. Lett. 26, 1270 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vohra, S. T.

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, Electron. Lett. 34, 1773 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. P.

Webb, D. J.

X. F. Chen, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and G. D. Peng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 850 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, Y. Lai, G. Smith, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, Opt. Commun. 281, 5092 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 59 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, F. Floreani, K. Jedrzejewski, R. Marquez, R. Romero, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 471 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J. A. R.

Y. Liu, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 531 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, L. Y.

Xue, X. L.

Yan, J. H.

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, A. P.

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

X. F. Chen, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and G. D. Peng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 850 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, S.

Zhang, W. G.

Zhao, D. H.

Zhou, K.

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, Y. Lai, G. Smith, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, Opt. Commun. 281, 5092 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, K. M.

Zhou, W.

Zhu, T.

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

T. Allsop, F. Floreani, K. Jedrzejewski, R. Marquez, R. Romero, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 471 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, K. Vineberg, F. Bilodeau, D. Johnson, and I. Skinner, Electron. Lett. 26, 1270 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Patrick, Electron. Lett. 36, 1763 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 59 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, Electron. Lett. 34, 1773 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Y. Liu, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 531 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Chen, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and G. D. Peng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 850 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Meas. Sci. Technol.

F. M. Araujo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 829 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, Y. Lai, G. Smith, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, Opt. Commun. 281, 5092 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthie, Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. 133, 337 (1986).

R. J. Black and R. Bourbonnais, Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. 133, 377 (1986).

Proc. SPIE

S. Vasilev and O. Medvedkov, Proc. SPIE 4083, 212 (2000).

Other

A. W. Synder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, 1983).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Images of modes constructed from FEM modeling: (a) core mode with effective index of 1.44709, (b) core mode with effective index of 1.44788, (c) cladding modes with effective index of 1.44261, and (d) cladding modes effective index of 1.44003 at a wavelength of 1500 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Phase matching curve for LPG written in MCF using core mode (0) over the wavelength range of interest. (b) Experimental transmission profile of LPG written in MCF.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Typical measured geometric profile of a conical taper/splice between the SMF and MCF. (b) The ratio of taper’s radius to beat lengths of the modes along the taper length [three slowness criterion-limit curves for the largest beat lengths calculated for three wavelengths: 1400 nm (dotted line), 1500 nm (dashed line), and 1650 nm (solid line)].

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup for bending measurements.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transmission spectra of the proposed sensor while it was subjected to a range of (a) convex and (b) concave bending curvature from 0 to 1m-1.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Response of the proposed sensor to convex and concave curvatures in the form of (a) wavelength shift and (b) optical strength variation of the LPG peak.

Equations (3)

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β01βcl(n)=2πΛ,
|rzb|rzb,zb=2πβ1β2,
R=2d(d2+L2),

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