Abstract

In this work, we demonstrate all-electronically tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers (THz QCLs) with MEMS tuner structures. A two-stage MEMS tuner device is fabricated by a commercial open-foundry process performed by the company MEMSCAP. This provides an inexpensive, rapid, and reliable approach for MEMS tuner fabrication for THz QCLs with a high-precision alignment scheme. In order to electronically actuate the MEMS tuner device, an open-loop cryogenic piezo nanopositioning stage is integrated with the device chip. Our experimental result shows that at least 240 GHz of single-mode continuous electronic tuning can be achieved in cryogenic environments (4K) without mode hopping. This provides an important step toward realizing turn-key bench-top tunable THz coherent sources for spectroscopic and coherent tomography applications.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. S. Williams, Nat. Photonics 1, 517 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Brandstetter, C. Deutsch, M. Krall, H. Detz, D. C. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 171113 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. Mátyás, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, and H. C. Liu, Opt. Express 20, 3866 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Q. Qin, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, Nat. Photonics 3, 732 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Q. Qin, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, Opt. Lett. 36, 692 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Nat. Photonics 3, 586 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Opt. Lett. 37, 2070 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, I. C. W. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J. R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, Nat. Photonics8, doi: 10.1038/nphoton.2014.85 (2014).
  10. B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 1, 26 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Wei Min Lee, T.-Y. Kao, D. Burghoff, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Opt. Lett. 37, 217 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, Nat. Commun. 4, 2021 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. S. Vitiello and A. Tredicucci, IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 76 (2011).
  14. Q. Qin and Q. Hu, J. Micromech. Microeng. 21, 075004 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Cowen, G. Hames, D. Monk, S. Wilcenski, and B. Hardy, SOIMUMPs Design Handbook, (MEMSCAP Inc., 2011), Revision 8.0.
  16. Q. Qin, N. Han, T. Kao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, Opt. Lett. 38, 407 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (3)

M. Brandstetter, C. Deutsch, M. Krall, H. Detz, D. C. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 171113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, Nat. Commun. 4, 2021 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Q. Qin, N. Han, T. Kao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, Opt. Lett. 38, 407 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

2011 (3)

Q. Qin, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, Opt. Lett. 36, 692 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello and A. Tredicucci, IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 76 (2011).

Q. Qin and Q. Hu, J. Micromech. Microeng. 21, 075004 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

Q. Qin, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, Nat. Photonics 3, 732 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Nat. Photonics 3, 586 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

B. S. Williams, Nat. Photonics 1, 517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 1, 26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Amann, M. C.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, Nat. Commun. 4, 2021 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Amanti, M. I.

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Nat. Photonics 3, 586 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, A. M.

M. Brandstetter, C. Deutsch, M. Krall, H. Detz, D. C. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 171113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ban, D.

Beck, M.

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Nat. Photonics 3, 586 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H. E.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Belkin, M. A.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, Nat. Commun. 4, 2021 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Beltram, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boehm, G.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, Nat. Commun. 4, 2021 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Brandstetter, M.

M. Brandstetter, C. Deutsch, M. Krall, H. Detz, D. C. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 171113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Burghoff, D.

A. Wei Min Lee, T.-Y. Kao, D. Burghoff, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Opt. Lett. 37, 217 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, I. C. W. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J. R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, Nat. Photonics8, doi: 10.1038/nphoton.2014.85 (2014).

Cai, X.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, I. C. W. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J. R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, Nat. Photonics8, doi: 10.1038/nphoton.2014.85 (2014).

Chan, C. W. I.

Chan, I. C. W.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, I. C. W. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J. R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, Nat. Photonics8, doi: 10.1038/nphoton.2014.85 (2014).

Choutagunta, K.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, Nat. Commun. 4, 2021 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cowen, A.

A. Cowen, G. Hames, D. Monk, S. Wilcenski, and B. Hardy, SOIMUMPs Design Handbook, (MEMSCAP Inc., 2011), Revision 8.0.

Davies, A. G.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Demmerle, F.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, Nat. Commun. 4, 2021 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Detz, H.

M. Brandstetter, C. Deutsch, M. Krall, H. Detz, D. C. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 171113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Deutsch, C.

M. Brandstetter, C. Deutsch, M. Krall, H. Detz, D. C. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 171113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dupont, E.

Faist, J.

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Nat. Photonics 3, 586 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fathololoumi, S.

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 1, 26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, M.

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Nat. Photonics 3, 586 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J. R.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, I. C. W. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J. R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, Nat. Photonics8, doi: 10.1038/nphoton.2014.85 (2014).

Hames, G.

A. Cowen, G. Hames, D. Monk, S. Wilcenski, and B. Hardy, SOIMUMPs Design Handbook, (MEMSCAP Inc., 2011), Revision 8.0.

Han, N.

Q. Qin, N. Han, T. Kao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, Opt. Lett. 38, 407 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, I. C. W. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J. R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, Nat. Photonics8, doi: 10.1038/nphoton.2014.85 (2014).

Hardy, B.

A. Cowen, G. Hames, D. Monk, S. Wilcenski, and B. Hardy, SOIMUMPs Design Handbook, (MEMSCAP Inc., 2011), Revision 8.0.

Hayton, D. J.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, I. C. W. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J. R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, Nat. Photonics8, doi: 10.1038/nphoton.2014.85 (2014).

Hu, Q.

Iotti, R. C.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jang, M.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, Nat. Commun. 4, 2021 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, A.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, Nat. Commun. 4, 2021 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, Nat. Commun. 4, 2021 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jirauschek, C.

Kao, T.

Kao, T.-Y.

T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Opt. Lett. 37, 2070 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Wei Min Lee, T.-Y. Kao, D. Burghoff, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Opt. Lett. 37, 217 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, I. C. W. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J. R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, Nat. Photonics8, doi: 10.1038/nphoton.2014.85 (2014).

Köhler, R.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krall, M.

M. Brandstetter, C. Deutsch, M. Krall, H. Detz, D. C. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 171113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

Q. Qin, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, Nat. Photonics 3, 732 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laframboise, S. R.

Linfield, E. H.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. C.

MacFarland, D. C.

M. Brandstetter, C. Deutsch, M. Krall, H. Detz, D. C. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 171113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mátyás, A.

Monk, D.

A. Cowen, G. Hames, D. Monk, S. Wilcenski, and B. Hardy, SOIMUMPs Design Handbook, (MEMSCAP Inc., 2011), Revision 8.0.

Qin, Q.

Q. Qin, N. Han, T. Kao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, Opt. Lett. 38, 407 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Q. Qin and Q. Hu, J. Micromech. Microeng. 21, 075004 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Qin, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, Opt. Lett. 36, 692 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Qin, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, Nat. Photonics 3, 732 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J. L.

Q. Qin, N. Han, T. Kao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, Opt. Lett. 38, 407 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Opt. Lett. 37, 2070 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Wei Min Lee, T.-Y. Kao, D. Burghoff, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Opt. Lett. 37, 217 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Qin, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, Opt. Lett. 36, 692 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Qin, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, Nat. Photonics 3, 732 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, I. C. W. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J. R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, Nat. Photonics8, doi: 10.1038/nphoton.2014.85 (2014).

Ritchie, D. A.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scalari, G.

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Nat. Photonics 3, 586 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schrenk, W.

M. Brandstetter, C. Deutsch, M. Krall, H. Detz, D. C. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 171113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, G.

M. Brandstetter, C. Deutsch, M. Krall, H. Detz, D. C. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 171113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tredicucci, A.

M. S. Vitiello and A. Tredicucci, IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 76 (2011).

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Unterrainer, K.

M. Brandstetter, C. Deutsch, M. Krall, H. Detz, D. C. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 171113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Vijayraghavan, K.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, Nat. Commun. 4, 2021 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Vitiello, M. S.

M. S. Vitiello and A. Tredicucci, IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 76 (2011).

Vizbaras, A.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, Nat. Commun. 4, 2021 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wasilewski, Z. R.

Wei Min Lee, A.

Wilcenski, S.

A. Cowen, G. Hames, D. Monk, S. Wilcenski, and B. Hardy, SOIMUMPs Design Handbook, (MEMSCAP Inc., 2011), Revision 8.0.

Williams, B. S.

Q. Qin, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, Nat. Photonics 3, 732 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, Nat. Photonics 1, 517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, I. C. W. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J. R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, Nat. Photonics8, doi: 10.1038/nphoton.2014.85 (2014).

Zederbauer, T.

M. Brandstetter, C. Deutsch, M. Krall, H. Detz, D. C. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 171113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 1, 26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Brandstetter, C. Deutsch, M. Krall, H. Detz, D. C. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 171113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (1)

M. S. Vitiello and A. Tredicucci, IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 76 (2011).

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

Q. Qin and Q. Hu, J. Micromech. Microeng. 21, 075004 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun. (1)

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, Nat. Commun. 4, 2021 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 1, 26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (3)

Q. Qin, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, Nat. Photonics 3, 732 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Nat. Photonics 3, 586 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, Nat. Photonics 1, 517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (2)

A. Cowen, G. Hames, D. Monk, S. Wilcenski, and B. Hardy, SOIMUMPs Design Handbook, (MEMSCAP Inc., 2011), Revision 8.0.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, I. C. W. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J. R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, Nat. Photonics8, doi: 10.1038/nphoton.2014.85 (2014).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Top view of the wire laser connected to the bonding pad through finger-like mode selectors. (b) SEM image showing the fabricated THz wire laser with first-order sinusoidal corrugations on one side. (c) and (d) Alignment illustration for the tuner and QCL chips. (e) and (f) SEM images showing the alignment between the tuner and the QCL chip, which indicate no visual misalignment. The tuner object is suspended around 1 to 2 μm above the QCL chip bottom surface as designed.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) and (b) Top view schematics showing the dicing marks along which a wafer-dicing saw tool is used for chip separation and finishing. (c) Closer look at the alignment feature on the tuner chip, which shows the two metal layers deposited within the SOIMUMPs platform. The metal layers serve as the 1.2μm thick buffer layer in between the tuner and QCL chip. (d) and (e) SEM images showing the two-stage folded-beam flexure tuner chip fabricated from the SOIMUMPs platform.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Performance characterization plots for a standalone THz wire laser chip in pulsed operation (1% duty cycle). The V-J and L-J curves are both measured at liquid helium temperature of around 4.2 K. The left inset shows the lasing spectra measured with FTIR across different bias points. This wire laser lases at around 3.72 THz without the presence of the MEMS tuner chip. The right inset shows the simulated cavity mode threshold gain plot. The mode encircled in red is the designed lasing mode. The dotted curve indicates the estimated gain spectrum.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

L-J plots for a THz wire laser under CW operation and pulsed operation at 35 K. The light outputs at different duty cycles (DCs) are scaled by the ratio of the corresponding DC compared to 100% (CW mode).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Schematic illustration showing the mounted device with the piezo nano-positioning actuator. A copper arm is attached to the piezo actuator in order to physically contact the tuner actuation shaft during the tuning process. (b) Normalized spectrum for the electronically tunable THz QCL characterized in Fig. 3. The tuning starts from 3.72 THz and ends at 3.96 THz with a range of 240 GHz with single-mode continuous tuning behavior.

Metrics