Abstract

Circular surface-relief diffraction gratings with a constant pitch were photo-inscribed on thin films of a disperse red 1 functionalized glass-forming compound using a novel holographic technique. Various light-interfering metallic fixtures, which consisted of annular rings with a sloped and polished inner surface, were designed and fabricated. Each of them allowed the inscription of stable and high-quality circular diffraction gratings with pitches ranging from approximately 600–1400 nm and depths up to 250 nm. This was accomplished by exposure to a collimated laser beam with an irradiance of 604mW/cm2 for 350 s. The resulting gratings had a diameter of 11.4 mm and had the advantage of being produced in a simple single-step procedure with no postprocessing or specialized equipment. The pitch and diameter of these circular gratings were dependent on the fixture geometry, while the depth was related to the exposure time.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, Appl. Surf. Sci. 164, 111 (2000).
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2014 (3)

A. Priimagi and A. Shevchenko, J. Polym. Sci. B 52, 163 (2014).

R. Kirby, R. G. Sabat, J. Nunzi, and O. Lebel, J. Mater. Chem.C 2, 841 (2014).

J. Zhu, H. Zhang, Z. Zhu, Q. Li, and G. Jin, Opt. Commun. 322, 66 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (1)

J. P. Vernon, S. V. Serak, R. S. Hakobyan, A. K. Aleksanyan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. White, T. J. Bunning, and N. V. Tabiryan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 201101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

M. Saphiannikova, V. Toshchevikov, and J. Ilnytskyi, Nonlinear Opt. Quantum Opt. 41, 27 (2010).

2009 (2)

H. Audorff, R. Walker, L. Kador, and H. Schmidt, Proc. SPIE 7233, 72330O (2009).

Y. Chen, Z. Li, M. D. Henry, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 031109 (2009).

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

J. K. Kim, Y. Jung, B. H. Lee, K. Oh, C. Chun, and D. Kim, Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 240 (2007).

Y. Chen, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. Psaltis, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Lasagni, D. Acevedo, C. Barbero, and F. Mücklich, Adv. Eng. Mater. 9, 99 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2004 (1)

D. Moss, V. Ta’eed, B. Eggleton, D. Freeman, S. Madden, M. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, S. Janz, and D. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4860 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

H. M. Shang, S. L. Toh, Y. Fu, C. Quan, and C. J. Tay, Opt. Lasers Eng. 36, 487 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, Appl. Surf. Sci. 164, 111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136 (1995).
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1991 (1)

Acevedo, D.

A. Lasagni, D. Acevedo, C. Barbero, and F. Mücklich, Adv. Eng. Mater. 9, 99 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aleksanyan, A. K.

J. P. Vernon, S. V. Serak, R. S. Hakobyan, A. K. Aleksanyan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. White, T. J. Bunning, and N. V. Tabiryan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 201101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Audorff, H.

H. Audorff, R. Walker, L. Kador, and H. Schmidt, Proc. SPIE 7233, 72330O (2009).

Barbero, C.

A. Lasagni, D. Acevedo, C. Barbero, and F. Mücklich, Adv. Eng. Mater. 9, 99 (2007).
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Barty, C. P.

Batalla, E.

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, R. D.

Brueck, S. R.

Bunning, T. J.

J. P. Vernon, S. V. Serak, R. S. Hakobyan, A. K. Aleksanyan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. White, T. J. Bunning, and N. V. Tabiryan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 201101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Carcenac, F.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, Appl. Surf. Sci. 164, 111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, Z. Li, M. D. Henry, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 031109 (2009).

Y. Chen, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. Psaltis, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, Appl. Surf. Sci. 164, 111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chun, C.

J. K. Kim, Y. Jung, B. H. Lee, K. Oh, C. Chun, and D. Kim, Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 240 (2007).

Couraud, L.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, Appl. Surf. Sci. 164, 111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Courjon, D.

Dawson, J. W.

Eggleton, B.

D. Moss, V. Ta’eed, B. Eggleton, D. Freeman, S. Madden, M. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, S. Janz, and D. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4860 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fermann, M. E.

Freeman, D.

D. Moss, V. Ta’eed, B. Eggleton, D. Freeman, S. Madden, M. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, S. Janz, and D. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4860 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y.

H. M. Shang, S. L. Toh, Y. Fu, C. Quan, and C. J. Tay, Opt. Lasers Eng. 36, 487 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gilchrist, H.

Grosjean, T.

Habiby, S. F.

Hakobyan, R. S.

J. P. Vernon, S. V. Serak, R. S. Hakobyan, A. K. Aleksanyan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. White, T. J. Bunning, and N. V. Tabiryan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 201101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Henry, M. D.

Y. Chen, Z. Li, M. D. Henry, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 031109 (2009).

Hubbard, W. M.

Ilnytskyi, J.

M. Saphiannikova, V. Toshchevikov, and J. Ilnytskyi, Nonlinear Opt. Quantum Opt. 41, 27 (2010).

Jabbour, G.

B. Janjua and G. Jabbour, in 2013 IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC) (IEEE, 2013), pp. 578–579.

Janjua, B.

B. Janjua and G. Jabbour, in 2013 IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC) (IEEE, 2013), pp. 578–579.

Janz, S.

D. Moss, V. Ta’eed, B. Eggleton, D. Freeman, S. Madden, M. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, S. Janz, and D. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4860 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jin, G.

J. Zhu, H. Zhang, Z. Zhu, Q. Li, and G. Jin, Opt. Commun. 322, 66 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Jung, Y.

J. K. Kim, Y. Jung, B. H. Lee, K. Oh, C. Chun, and D. Kim, Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 240 (2007).

Kador, L.

H. Audorff, R. Walker, L. Kador, and H. Schmidt, Proc. SPIE 7233, 72330O (2009).

Kim, D.

J. K. Kim, Y. Jung, B. H. Lee, K. Oh, C. Chun, and D. Kim, Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 240 (2007).

Kim, J. K.

J. K. Kim, Y. Jung, B. H. Lee, K. Oh, C. Chun, and D. Kim, Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 240 (2007).

Kirby, R.

R. Kirby, R. G. Sabat, J. Nunzi, and O. Lebel, J. Mater. Chem.C 2, 841 (2014).

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A. Lasagni, D. Acevedo, C. Barbero, and F. Mücklich, Adv. Eng. Mater. 9, 99 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Launois, H.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, Appl. Surf. Sci. 164, 111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lebel, O.

R. Kirby, R. G. Sabat, J. Nunzi, and O. Lebel, J. Mater. Chem.C 2, 841 (2014).

Lebib, A.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, Appl. Surf. Sci. 164, 111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. H.

J. K. Kim, Y. Jung, B. H. Lee, K. Oh, C. Chun, and D. Kim, Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 240 (2007).

Li, Q.

J. Zhu, H. Zhang, Z. Zhu, Q. Li, and G. Jin, Opt. Commun. 322, 66 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Y. Chen, Z. Li, M. D. Henry, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 031109 (2009).

Y. Chen, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. Psaltis, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Luther-Davies, B.

D. Moss, V. Ta’eed, B. Eggleton, D. Freeman, S. Madden, M. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, S. Janz, and D. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4860 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Madden, S.

D. Moss, V. Ta’eed, B. Eggleton, D. Freeman, S. Madden, M. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, S. Janz, and D. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4860 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Manin-Ferlazzo, L.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, Appl. Surf. Sci. 164, 111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Marrakchi, A.

Mejias, M.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, Appl. Surf. Sci. 164, 111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moss, D.

D. Moss, V. Ta’eed, B. Eggleton, D. Freeman, S. Madden, M. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, S. Janz, and D. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4860 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mücklich, F.

A. Lasagni, D. Acevedo, C. Barbero, and F. Mücklich, Adv. Eng. Mater. 9, 99 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nahory, R. E.

Natansohn, A.

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nunzi, J.

R. Kirby, R. G. Sabat, J. Nunzi, and O. Lebel, J. Mater. Chem.C 2, 841 (2014).

Oh, K.

J. K. Kim, Y. Jung, B. H. Lee, K. Oh, C. Chun, and D. Kim, Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 240 (2007).

Osgood, R. M.

Panoiu, N. C.

Pepin, A.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, Appl. Surf. Sci. 164, 111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Priimagi, A.

A. Priimagi and A. Shevchenko, J. Polym. Sci. B 52, 163 (2014).

Psaltis, D.

Y. Chen, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. Psaltis, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Quan, C.

H. M. Shang, S. L. Toh, Y. Fu, C. Quan, and C. J. Tay, Opt. Lasers Eng. 36, 487 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rastani, K.

Rochon, P.

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sabat, R. G.

R. Kirby, R. G. Sabat, J. Nunzi, and O. Lebel, J. Mater. Chem.C 2, 841 (2014).

Samoc, M.

D. Moss, V. Ta’eed, B. Eggleton, D. Freeman, S. Madden, M. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, S. Janz, and D. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4860 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saphiannikova, M.

M. Saphiannikova, V. Toshchevikov, and J. Ilnytskyi, Nonlinear Opt. Quantum Opt. 41, 27 (2010).

Scherer, A.

Y. Chen, Z. Li, M. D. Henry, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 031109 (2009).

Y. Chen, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. Psaltis, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, H.

H. Audorff, R. Walker, L. Kador, and H. Schmidt, Proc. SPIE 7233, 72330O (2009).

Serak, S. V.

J. P. Vernon, S. V. Serak, R. S. Hakobyan, A. K. Aleksanyan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. White, T. J. Bunning, and N. V. Tabiryan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 201101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shah, L.

Shang, H. M.

H. M. Shang, S. L. Toh, Y. Fu, C. Quan, and C. J. Tay, Opt. Lasers Eng. 36, 487 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shevchenko, A.

A. Priimagi and A. Shevchenko, J. Polym. Sci. B 52, 163 (2014).

Steele, J. M.

Ta’eed, V.

D. Moss, V. Ta’eed, B. Eggleton, D. Freeman, S. Madden, M. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, S. Janz, and D. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4860 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tabiryan, N. V.

J. P. Vernon, S. V. Serak, R. S. Hakobyan, A. K. Aleksanyan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. White, T. J. Bunning, and N. V. Tabiryan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 201101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tay, C. J.

H. M. Shang, S. L. Toh, Y. Fu, C. Quan, and C. J. Tay, Opt. Lasers Eng. 36, 487 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Toh, S. L.

H. M. Shang, S. L. Toh, Y. Fu, C. Quan, and C. J. Tay, Opt. Lasers Eng. 36, 487 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tondiglia, V. P.

J. P. Vernon, S. V. Serak, R. S. Hakobyan, A. K. Aleksanyan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. White, T. J. Bunning, and N. V. Tabiryan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 201101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Toshchevikov, V.

M. Saphiannikova, V. Toshchevikov, and J. Ilnytskyi, Nonlinear Opt. Quantum Opt. 41, 27 (2010).

Vernon, J. P.

J. P. Vernon, S. V. Serak, R. S. Hakobyan, A. K. Aleksanyan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. White, T. J. Bunning, and N. V. Tabiryan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 201101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Vieu, C.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, Appl. Surf. Sci. 164, 111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Walker, R.

H. Audorff, R. Walker, L. Kador, and H. Schmidt, Proc. SPIE 7233, 72330O (2009).

Wang, Y.

White, T. J.

J. P. Vernon, S. V. Serak, R. S. Hakobyan, A. K. Aleksanyan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. White, T. J. Bunning, and N. V. Tabiryan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 201101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.

D. Moss, V. Ta’eed, B. Eggleton, D. Freeman, S. Madden, M. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, S. Janz, and D. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4860 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

J. Zhu, H. Zhang, Z. Zhu, Q. Li, and G. Jin, Opt. Commun. 322, 66 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Z.

Y. Chen, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. Psaltis, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, H. Zhang, Z. Zhu, Q. Li, and G. Jin, Opt. Commun. 322, 66 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z.

J. Zhu, H. Zhang, Z. Zhu, Q. Li, and G. Jin, Opt. Commun. 322, 66 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Eng. Mater. (1)

A. Lasagni, D. Acevedo, C. Barbero, and F. Mücklich, Adv. Eng. Mater. 9, 99 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

Y. Chen, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. Psaltis, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Moss, V. Ta’eed, B. Eggleton, D. Freeman, S. Madden, M. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, S. Janz, and D. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4860 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Vernon, S. V. Serak, R. S. Hakobyan, A. K. Aleksanyan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. White, T. J. Bunning, and N. V. Tabiryan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 201101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, Z. Li, M. D. Henry, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 031109 (2009).

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, Appl. Surf. Sci. 164, 111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem.C (1)

R. Kirby, R. G. Sabat, J. Nunzi, and O. Lebel, J. Mater. Chem.C 2, 841 (2014).

J. Polym. Sci. B (1)

A. Priimagi and A. Shevchenko, J. Polym. Sci. B 52, 163 (2014).

Nonlinear Opt. Quantum Opt. (1)

M. Saphiannikova, V. Toshchevikov, and J. Ilnytskyi, Nonlinear Opt. Quantum Opt. 41, 27 (2010).

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Zhu, H. Zhang, Z. Zhu, Q. Li, and G. Jin, Opt. Commun. 322, 66 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

J. K. Kim, Y. Jung, B. H. Lee, K. Oh, C. Chun, and D. Kim, Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 240 (2007).

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

H. M. Shang, S. L. Toh, Y. Fu, C. Quan, and C. J. Tay, Opt. Lasers Eng. 36, 487 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Audorff, R. Walker, L. Kador, and H. Schmidt, Proc. SPIE 7233, 72330O (2009).

Other (1)

B. Janjua and G. Jabbour, in 2013 IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC) (IEEE, 2013), pp. 578–579.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic demonstrating the optical geometry of a cross section of a CDG.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Typical localized diffraction efficiency of circular SRG in real time as it is inscribed by a CDG. The sudden drop just after 600 s is attributed to when the inscribing laser is turned off. Inset (a): Circular SRG produced in azo–glass and coated with gold. Inset (b): Circular diffraction pattern from SRG.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

AFM scan of circular SRG generated by a 20.8 deg CDG.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Theoretical and measured results of the SRG pitch versus CDG mirror angle θ. Measured results include data points taken from AFM, SEM, and diffraction angle measurements. The theoretical curve is plotted using Eq. (2).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

SEM image of circular SRG generated from a 20.8 deg CDG. (a) At 2000 times magnification, the grating peaks can be visually resolved showing a highly regular grating pattern. (b) At 15000 times magnification gratings are clearly resolved.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ACBC=DCsin2θ.
Λ=λcsc2θ.
y=xtan2θtanθ.

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