Abstract

A new method for direct writing of localized, circularly symmetric refractive-index changes in optical fibers with a femtosecond laser is demonstrated. The refractive-index changes are characterized using a novel approach employing comparison of numerical simulations to the measured far-field profiles of unmodified and modified fibers. From the analysis, a negative refractive-index change of 0.015±0.005 within a radius of (0.6±0.1)μm is determined.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  20. J.-M. Savolainen, P. Kristensen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and P. Balling, “Broadband mode converters based on refractive-index tailoring by femtosecond laser light,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).

2013

P. Balling and J. Schou, Rep. Prog. Phys. 76, 036502 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

2008

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, M. Dubov, V. K. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, and M. J. Withford, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2266 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

C. Smelser, S. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, Opt. Express 13, 5377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, I. Y. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Dragomir, E. Ampem-Lassen, S. T. Huntington, G. W. Baxter, A. Roberts, and P. M. Farrell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. A 77, 109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. A 76, 351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

1999

1998

Ampem-Lassen, E.

N. M. Dragomir, E. Ampem-Lassen, S. T. Huntington, G. W. Baxter, A. Roberts, and P. M. Farrell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ams, M.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, M. Dubov, V. K. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, and M. J. Withford, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Balling, P.

P. Balling and J. Schou, Rep. Prog. Phys. 76, 036502 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Savolainen, P. Kristensen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and P. Balling, “Broadband mode converters based on refractive-index tailoring by femtosecond laser light,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).

J.-M. Savolainen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, P. Kristensen, and P. Balling, in CLEO, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTh4H.2.

Barty, A.

Baxter, G. W.

N. M. Dragomir, E. Ampem-Lassen, S. T. Huntington, G. W. Baxter, A. Roberts, and P. M. Farrell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, M. Dubov, V. K. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, and M. J. Withford, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2266 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, I. Y. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 2002).

Burghoff, J.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. A 77, 109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chahid-Erraji, A.

Cheng, H.

H. Cheng, J. Grenier, and P. Herman, in CLEO, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CM1H.3.

Chichkov, B.

Dekker, P.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, M. Dubov, V. K. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, and M. J. Withford, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dragomir, N. M.

N. M. Dragomir, E. Ampem-Lassen, S. T. Huntington, G. W. Baxter, A. Roberts, and P. M. Farrell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dubov, M.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, M. Dubov, V. K. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, and M. J. Withford, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2266 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, P. M.

N. M. Dragomir, E. Ampem-Lassen, S. T. Huntington, G. W. Baxter, A. Roberts, and P. M. Farrell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, J. F.

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. A 76, 351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ghatak, A.

A. Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan, An Introduction to Fiber Optics (Cambridge University, 1998).

Grenier, J.

H. Cheng, J. Grenier, and P. Herman, in CLEO, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CM1H.3.

Grobnic, D.

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

J.-M. Savolainen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, P. Kristensen, and P. Balling, in CLEO, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTh4H.2.

J.-M. Savolainen, P. Kristensen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and P. Balling, “Broadband mode converters based on refractive-index tailoring by femtosecond laser light,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).

Guizar-Sicairos, M.

Gutiérrez-Vega, J.

Herman, P.

H. Cheng, J. Grenier, and P. Herman, in CLEO, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CM1H.3.

Hirao, K.

Huntington, S. T.

N. M. Dragomir, E. Ampem-Lassen, S. T. Huntington, G. W. Baxter, A. Roberts, and P. M. Farrell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jovanovic, N.

Kazansky, P.

Khrushchev, I.

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2266 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khrushchev, I. Y.

A. Martinez, I. Y. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, Y.

Kristensen, P.

J.-M. Savolainen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, P. Kristensen, and P. Balling, in CLEO, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTh4H.2.

J.-M. Savolainen, P. Kristensen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and P. Balling, “Broadband mode converters based on refractive-index tailoring by femtosecond laser light,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).

Lancry, M.

Marshall, G.

Marshall, G. D.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, M. Dubov, V. K. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, and M. J. Withford, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, A.

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2266 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, I. Y. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. A 76, 351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mezentsev, V. K.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, M. Dubov, V. K. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, and M. J. Withford, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mihailov, S.

Mitsuyu, T.

Nolte, S.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. A 77, 109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Will, S. Nolte, B. Chichkov, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Opt. 41, 4360 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nouchi, K.

Nugent, K.

Paganin, D.

Poumellec, B.

Roberts, A.

N. M. Dragomir, E. Ampem-Lassen, S. T. Huntington, G. W. Baxter, A. Roberts, and P. M. Farrell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Barty, K. Nugent, D. Paganin, and A. Roberts, Opt. Lett. 23, 817 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Savolainen, J.-M.

J.-M. Savolainen, P. Kristensen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and P. Balling, “Broadband mode converters based on refractive-index tailoring by femtosecond laser light,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).

J.-M. Savolainen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, P. Kristensen, and P. Balling, in CLEO, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTh4H.2.

Schaffer, C. B.

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. A 76, 351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schou, J.

P. Balling and J. Schou, Rep. Prog. Phys. 76, 036502 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Smelser, C.

Steel, M.

Thyagarajan, K.

A. Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan, An Introduction to Fiber Optics (Cambridge University, 1998).

Tuennermann, A.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. A 77, 109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

Watanabe, M.

Will, M.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. A 77, 109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Will, S. Nolte, B. Chichkov, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Opt. 41, 4360 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R.

Withford, M.

Withford, M. J.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, M. Dubov, V. K. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, and M. J. Withford, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 2002).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. A

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. A 76, 351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. A 77, 109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

A. Martinez, I. Y. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, M. Dubov, V. K. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, and M. J. Withford, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2266 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Dragomir, E. Ampem-Lassen, S. T. Huntington, G. W. Baxter, A. Roberts, and P. M. Farrell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Nat. Photonics

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater. Express

Rep. Prog. Phys.

P. Balling and J. Schou, Rep. Prog. Phys. 76, 036502 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. Cheng, J. Grenier, and P. Herman, in CLEO, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CM1H.3.

A. Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan, An Introduction to Fiber Optics (Cambridge University, 1998).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 2002).

J.-M. Savolainen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, P. Kristensen, and P. Balling, in CLEO, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTh4H.2.

J.-M. Savolainen, P. Kristensen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and P. Balling, “Broadband mode converters based on refractive-index tailoring by femtosecond laser light,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Experimental setup: the writing setup consists of a femtosecond laser, a microscope objective, a white-light source, and a fiber mounted on a translational stage. The same stage is used in far-field measurements, where the white-light source is replaced by a 1550 nm laser and the light in the far field is measured by a high-NA fiber connected to a power meter. (b) and (c) Examples of measured far-field intensity profiles on a logarithmic scale (b) before and (c) after modification of the refractive index. The distance d to the fiber end is 16.3 mm. The spatial resolution of the measurement is 50μm as determined by the core diameter of the high-NA fiber.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Illustration of the geometry of the modifications. The modification is at depth D and has length L. (b) Microscope image of a modification. The red dashed lines mark the core–cladding boundary.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured and simulated far-field radial intensity profiles for the three modifications (see text). Modifications 2 and 3 are, respectively, 10 and 20 dBm offset for clarity. The cyan curve with shaded uncertainty is the measured far field of the unmodified SMF. The black dashed curves are the efficiency-corrected numerical solutions. The spatial resolution of the high-NA fiber (50μm) is neglected as the averaging due to this is negligible.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Sum of deviations squared on a logarithmic color scale, as a function of the refractive-index change and the radius of the modification used in the simulation. The error represents the sum of deviations for all three modifications shown in Fig. 3 from their simulated counterparts.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ψ(r,z)=mc0mR0mmod(r)eiβ0mz,
c0m=2π0R0mmod(r)Ψ(r,z=0)rdr.
Ep=002πF0F(r)rdrdϕ,

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