Abstract

Synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) is effective in restoring lateral resolution of ultrasonic images for scans with focusing-related distortions. Although successfully applied in pulse-echo ultrasonics, the physical nature of an optoacoustic modality requires a modified algorithm to return accurate results. The SIR-SAFT method reported here uses the spatial impulse response (SIR) of the transducer to weight the contributions to the SAFT and is tailored to provide significant resolution and signal gains for out-of-focus sources in scanning optoacoustic microscopy systems. Furthermore, the SIR-SAFT is implemented in full three dimensions, applicable to signals both far of and at the focus of the ultrasonic detector. The method has been further shown to outperform conventional SAFT algorithms for both simulated and experimental optoacoustic data.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014

H. Estrada, J. Turner, M. Kneipp, and D. Razansky, Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 045601 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013

M. A. A. Caballero, A. Rosenthal, A. Buehler, D. Razansky, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 60, 1234 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Aguirre, A. Giannoula, T. Minagawa, L. Funk, P. Turon, and T. Durduran, Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 2813 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S.-L. Chen, Z. Xie, L. J. Guo, and X. Wang, Photoacoustics 1, 30 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

2010

A. Rosenthal, D. Razansky, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29, 1275 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Methods 7, 603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Nilsen and S. Holm, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57, 1329 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

L. V. Wang, Nat. Photonics 3, 503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2006

M.-L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 31, 474 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M.-L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Proc. SPIE 6086, 60861F (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

M.-L. Li, W.-J. Guan, and P.-C. Li, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 51, 63 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1998

C. Frazier and W. O’Brien, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 45, 196 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1986

K. Langenberg, M. Berger, T. Kreutter, K. Mayer, and V. Schmitz, NDT Int. 19, 177 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Aguirre, J.

Ángel Araque Caballero, M.

Berger, M.

K. Langenberg, M. Berger, T. Kreutter, K. Mayer, and V. Schmitz, NDT Int. 19, 177 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Buehler, A.

M. A. A. Caballero, A. Rosenthal, A. Buehler, D. Razansky, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 60, 1234 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Caballero, M. A. A.

M. A. A. Caballero, A. Rosenthal, A. Buehler, D. Razansky, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 60, 1234 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.-L.

S.-L. Chen, Z. Xie, L. J. Guo, and X. Wang, Photoacoustics 1, 30 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Deng, Z.

Durduran, T.

Estrada, H.

H. Estrada, J. Turner, M. Kneipp, and D. Razansky, Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 045601 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Frazier, C.

C. Frazier and W. O’Brien, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 45, 196 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Funk, L.

Gateau, J.

Giannoula, A.

Gong, H.

Guan, W.-J.

M.-L. Li, W.-J. Guan, and P.-C. Li, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 51, 63 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L. J.

S.-L. Chen, Z. Xie, L. J. Guo, and X. Wang, Photoacoustics 1, 30 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Holm, S.

C. Nilsen and S. Holm, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57, 1329 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hu, S.

Jensen, J. A.

J. A. Jensen, in 10th Nordicbaltic Conference on Biomedical Imaging (1996), Vol. 4, pp. 351–353.

Kneipp, M.

H. Estrada, J. Turner, M. Kneipp, and D. Razansky, Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 045601 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Kreutter, T.

K. Langenberg, M. Berger, T. Kreutter, K. Mayer, and V. Schmitz, NDT Int. 19, 177 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Langenberg, K.

K. Langenberg, M. Berger, T. Kreutter, K. Mayer, and V. Schmitz, NDT Int. 19, 177 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.-L.

M.-L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Proc. SPIE 6086, 60861F (2006).
[CrossRef]

M.-L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 31, 474 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M.-L. Li, W.-J. Guan, and P.-C. Li, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 51, 63 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, P.-C.

M.-L. Li, W.-J. Guan, and P.-C. Li, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 51, 63 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Q.

Ma, R.

Maslov, K.

Mayer, K.

K. Langenberg, M. Berger, T. Kreutter, K. Mayer, and V. Schmitz, NDT Int. 19, 177 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Minagawa, T.

Nilsen, C.

C. Nilsen and S. Holm, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57, 1329 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ntziachristos, V.

M. A. A. Caballero, A. Rosenthal, A. Buehler, D. Razansky, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 60, 1234 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Ma, S. Söntges, S. Shoham, V. Ntziachristos, and D. Razansky, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 1724 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Ángel Araque Caballero, A. Rosenthal, J. Gateau, D. Razansky, and V. Ntziachristos, Opt. Lett. 37, 4080 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Methods 7, 603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Rosenthal, D. Razansky, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29, 1275 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, W.

C. Frazier and W. O’Brien, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 45, 196 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Razansky, D.

H. Estrada, J. Turner, M. Kneipp, and D. Razansky, Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 045601 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. A. A. Caballero, A. Rosenthal, A. Buehler, D. Razansky, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 60, 1234 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Ma, S. Söntges, S. Shoham, V. Ntziachristos, and D. Razansky, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 1724 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Ángel Araque Caballero, A. Rosenthal, J. Gateau, D. Razansky, and V. Ntziachristos, Opt. Lett. 37, 4080 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Rosenthal, D. Razansky, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29, 1275 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rosenthal, A.

M. A. A. Caballero, A. Rosenthal, A. Buehler, D. Razansky, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 60, 1234 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Ángel Araque Caballero, A. Rosenthal, J. Gateau, D. Razansky, and V. Ntziachristos, Opt. Lett. 37, 4080 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Rosenthal, D. Razansky, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29, 1275 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schmitz, V.

K. Langenberg, M. Berger, T. Kreutter, K. Mayer, and V. Schmitz, NDT Int. 19, 177 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Shoham, S.

Söntges, S.

Stoica, G.

M.-L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Proc. SPIE 6086, 60861F (2006).
[CrossRef]

M.-L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 31, 474 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Turner, J.

H. Estrada, J. Turner, M. Kneipp, and D. Razansky, Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 045601 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Turon, P.

Wang, L. V.

L. V. Wang, Nat. Photonics 3, 503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 33, 929 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M.-L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Proc. SPIE 6086, 60861F (2006).
[CrossRef]

M.-L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 31, 474 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

S.-L. Chen, Z. Xie, L. J. Guo, and X. Wang, Photoacoustics 1, 30 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Z.

S.-L. Chen, Z. Xie, L. J. Guo, and X. Wang, Photoacoustics 1, 30 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

Zhang, H. F.

Biomed. Opt. Express

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging

A. Rosenthal, D. Razansky, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29, 1275 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control

M. A. A. Caballero, A. Rosenthal, A. Buehler, D. Razansky, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 60, 1234 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Nilsen and S. Holm, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57, 1329 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Frazier and W. O’Brien, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 45, 196 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M.-L. Li, W.-J. Guan, and P.-C. Li, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 51, 63 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett.

H. Estrada, J. Turner, M. Kneipp, and D. Razansky, Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 045601 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Methods

V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Methods 7, 603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

L. V. Wang, Nat. Photonics 3, 503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

NDT Int.

K. Langenberg, M. Berger, T. Kreutter, K. Mayer, and V. Schmitz, NDT Int. 19, 177 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Photoacoustics

S.-L. Chen, Z. Xie, L. J. Guo, and X. Wang, Photoacoustics 1, 30 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

M.-L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Proc. SPIE 6086, 60861F (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. A. Jensen, in 10th Nordicbaltic Conference on Biomedical Imaging (1996), Vol. 4, pp. 351–353.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of five acoustic sources at different depths from the focus, F, of the ultrasound transducer, with lines of equal-delay marked for each source. Two transducer positions, (x0,y0) and (xn,y0), are shown; position (xn,y0) has the central slice of Wnmij(t) underlaid.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Superposition image of the sinogram for the simulated data (nine spheres shown). (b)–(e) Results of applying the different methods. (a)–(c) also present acoustic signals at x=0 immediately below.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

MAP images with annotated measures of FWHM for a 30 μm suture orientated obliquely to the focal plane after different SAFT-based processing; a photograph of the suture phantom (without the scattering layer) is annotated with the approximate ROI.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Volume rendering of experimental optoacoustic microscopy data of a loosely knotted 30 μm suture for (a) the sinogram, (b) results of CF-SAFT processing, and (c) the results of CF-SIR-SAFT processing.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Measures of Resolution (FWHM [µm] Lateral/Axial) and SNR (dB) Performance for SAFT, SIR-SAFT, CF-SAFT, and CF-SIR-SAFTa

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δt=sgn(ttf)(trtr)={<0,ift<tf,=0,ift=tf,>0ift>tf,
SSAFT(t)=Σi=0w1S(i,tΔt),
Snm(t)=Wnmij(t)Dij(tΔt),
CFnm(t)=|Snm(t)|2N(t)(Wmnij(t)|Dij(tΔt)|)2,

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