Abstract

We report on the application of an external electric field and its tuning effect in the guiding properties of a composite AgPO3/silica photonic bandgap fiber. The application of an electric field leads to the poling of the soft glass inclusion, resulting in the formation of a silver-induced plasmonic band, predominantly affecting the short wavelength guiding regimes while inducing polarization dependent losses. These spectral effects are attributed to the formation of silver nanoparticles within the AgPO3 glass matrix, driven by thermal poling.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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I. Konidakis, C. P. E. Varsamis, and E. I. Kamitsos, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357, 2684 (2011).
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N. Noginova, A. V. Yakim, J. Soimo, L. Gu, and M. A. Noginov, Phys. Rev. B 84, 035447 (2011).
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A. Csaki, F. Jahn, I. Latka, T. Henkel, D. Malsch, T. Schneider, K. Schröder, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, R. Spittel, D. Zopf, and W. Fritzsche, Small 6, 2584 (2010).
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M. Hautakorpi, M. Mattinen, and H. Ludvigsen, Opt. Express 16, 8427 (2008).
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M. A. Schmidt, L. N. Prill Sempere, H. K. Tyagi, C. G. Poulton, and P. S. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. B 77, 033417 (2008).
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2006 (1)

L. Baia, M. Baia, W. Kiefer, J. Popp, and S. Simon, J. Chem. Phys. 327, 63 (2006).

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2002 (2)

N. M. Litchinitser, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Lett. 27, 1592 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. v. Plessen, and J. Feldmann, New J. Phys. 4, 93 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

D. Faccio, A. Busacca, W. Belardi, V. Pruneri, P. G. Kazansky, T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, B. Grappe, M. Cooper, and C. N. Pannell, Electron. Lett. 37, 107 (2001).
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2000 (1)

R. K. Brow, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264, 1 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, Science 282, 1476 (1998).
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J. M. Hutchinson, M. D. Ingram, and A. H. J. Robertson, Philos. Mag. B 66, 449 (1992).
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1974 (1)

U. Kreibig, J. Phys. F 4, 999 (1974).
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Argyros, A.

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R. He, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Nat. Photonics 6, 174 (2012).
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Baia, L.

L. Baia, M. Baia, W. Kiefer, J. Popp, and S. Simon, J. Chem. Phys. 327, 63 (2006).

Baia, M.

L. Baia, M. Baia, W. Kiefer, J. Popp, and S. Simon, J. Chem. Phys. 327, 63 (2006).

Belardi, W.

D. Faccio, A. Busacca, W. Belardi, V. Pruneri, P. G. Kazansky, T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, B. Grappe, M. Cooper, and C. N. Pannell, Electron. Lett. 37, 107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T.

Birks, T. A.

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, Science 282, 1476 (1998).
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Broeng, J.

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, Science 282, 1476 (1998).
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Brow, R. K.

R. K. Brow, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264, 1 (2000).
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Busacca, A.

D. Faccio, A. Busacca, W. Belardi, V. Pruneri, P. G. Kazansky, T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, B. Grappe, M. Cooper, and C. N. Pannell, Electron. Lett. 37, 107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Canagasabey, A.

Cialla, D.

B. Seise, A. Csaki, A. Schwuchow, W. Fritzsche, K. Weber, D. Cialla, and J. Popp, Biomed. Tech. 57, 339 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Coen, S.

Cooper, M.

D. Faccio, A. Busacca, W. Belardi, V. Pruneri, P. G. Kazansky, T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, B. Grappe, M. Cooper, and C. N. Pannell, Electron. Lett. 37, 107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Corbari, C.

Cordeiro, C. M. B.

Csaki, A.

B. Seise, A. Csaki, A. Schwuchow, W. Fritzsche, K. Weber, D. Cialla, and J. Popp, Biomed. Tech. 57, 339 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Csaki, F. Jahn, I. Latka, T. Henkel, D. Malsch, T. Schneider, K. Schröder, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, R. Spittel, D. Zopf, and W. Fritzsche, Small 6, 2584 (2010).
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de Sterke, C. M.

Eggleton, B. J.

Faccio, D.

D. Faccio, A. Busacca, W. Belardi, V. Pruneri, P. G. Kazansky, T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, B. Grappe, M. Cooper, and C. N. Pannell, Electron. Lett. 37, 107 (2001).
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Fritzsche, W.

B. Seise, A. Csaki, A. Schwuchow, W. Fritzsche, K. Weber, D. Cialla, and J. Popp, Biomed. Tech. 57, 339 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Csaki, F. Jahn, I. Latka, T. Henkel, D. Malsch, T. Schneider, K. Schröder, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, R. Spittel, D. Zopf, and W. Fritzsche, Small 6, 2584 (2010).
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Gopalan, V.

R. He, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Nat. Photonics 6, 174 (2012).
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Granzow, N.

Grappe, B.

D. Faccio, A. Busacca, W. Belardi, V. Pruneri, P. G. Kazansky, T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, B. Grappe, M. Cooper, and C. N. Pannell, Electron. Lett. 37, 107 (2001).
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Gu, L.

N. Noginova, A. V. Yakim, J. Soimo, L. Gu, and M. A. Noginov, Phys. Rev. B 84, 035447 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hassani, A.

Hautakorpi, M.

He, R.

R. He, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Nat. Photonics 6, 174 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Headley, C.

Healy, N.

R. He, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Nat. Photonics 6, 174 (2012).
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Helander, P.

Henkel, T.

A. Csaki, F. Jahn, I. Latka, T. Henkel, D. Malsch, T. Schneider, K. Schröder, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, R. Spittel, D. Zopf, and W. Fritzsche, Small 6, 2584 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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J. M. Hutchinson, M. D. Ingram, and A. H. J. Robertson, Philos. Mag. B 66, 449 (1992).
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Hutter, E.

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, Adv. Mater. 16, 1685 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ibsen, M.

Ingram, M. D.

J. M. Hutchinson, M. D. Ingram, and A. H. J. Robertson, Philos. Mag. B 66, 449 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jahn, F.

A. Csaki, F. Jahn, I. Latka, T. Henkel, D. Malsch, T. Schneider, K. Schröder, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, R. Spittel, D. Zopf, and W. Fritzsche, Small 6, 2584 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kamitsos, E. I.

I. Konidakis, C. P. E. Varsamis, and E. I. Kamitsos, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357, 2684 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

A. Canagasabey, C. Corbari, Z. Zhang, P. G. Kazansky, and M. Ibsen, Opt. Lett. 32, 1863 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, A. Busacca, W. Belardi, V. Pruneri, P. G. Kazansky, T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, B. Grappe, M. Cooper, and C. N. Pannell, Electron. Lett. 37, 107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, W.

L. Baia, M. Baia, W. Kiefer, J. Popp, and S. Simon, J. Chem. Phys. 327, 63 (2006).

Knight, J. C.

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, Science 282, 1476 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Konidakis, I.

I. Konidakis, G. Zito, and S. Pissadakis, Opt. Lett. 37, 2499 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Konidakis, C. P. E. Varsamis, and E. I. Kamitsos, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357, 2684 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kreibig, U.

U. Kreibig, J. Phys. F 4, 999 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamurthi, M.

R. He, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Nat. Photonics 6, 174 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kuhlmey, B. T.

Latka, I.

A. Csaki, F. Jahn, I. Latka, T. Henkel, D. Malsch, T. Schneider, K. Schröder, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, R. Spittel, D. Zopf, and W. Fritzsche, Small 6, 2584 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leon-Saval, S.

Litchinitser, N. M.

Ludvigsen, H.

Malsch, D.

A. Csaki, F. Jahn, I. Latka, T. Henkel, D. Malsch, T. Schneider, K. Schröder, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, R. Spittel, D. Zopf, and W. Fritzsche, Small 6, 2584 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Markos, C.

Mattinen, M.

Monro, T. M.

D. Faccio, A. Busacca, W. Belardi, V. Pruneri, P. G. Kazansky, T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, B. Grappe, M. Cooper, and C. N. Pannell, Electron. Lett. 37, 107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Myrén, N.

Noginov, M. A.

N. Noginova, A. V. Yakim, J. Soimo, L. Gu, and M. A. Noginov, Phys. Rev. B 84, 035447 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Noginova, N.

N. Noginova, A. V. Yakim, J. Soimo, L. Gu, and M. A. Noginov, Phys. Rev. B 84, 035447 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Norin, L.

Olsson, H.

Pannell, C. N.

D. Faccio, A. Busacca, W. Belardi, V. Pruneri, P. G. Kazansky, T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, B. Grappe, M. Cooper, and C. N. Pannell, Electron. Lett. 37, 107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Peacock, A. C.

R. He, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Nat. Photonics 6, 174 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pissadakis, S.

Plessen, G. v.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. v. Plessen, and J. Feldmann, New J. Phys. 4, 93 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Popp, J.

B. Seise, A. Csaki, A. Schwuchow, W. Fritzsche, K. Weber, D. Cialla, and J. Popp, Biomed. Tech. 57, 339 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Baia, M. Baia, W. Kiefer, J. Popp, and S. Simon, J. Chem. Phys. 327, 63 (2006).

Poulton, C. G.

M. A. Schmidt, L. N. Prill Sempere, H. K. Tyagi, C. G. Poulton, and P. S. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. B 77, 033417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prill Sempere, L. N.

M. A. Schmidt, L. N. Prill Sempere, H. K. Tyagi, C. G. Poulton, and P. S. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. B 77, 033417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pruneri, V.

D. Faccio, A. Busacca, W. Belardi, V. Pruneri, P. G. Kazansky, T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, B. Grappe, M. Cooper, and C. N. Pannell, Electron. Lett. 37, 107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

D. Faccio, A. Busacca, W. Belardi, V. Pruneri, P. G. Kazansky, T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, B. Grappe, M. Cooper, and C. N. Pannell, Electron. Lett. 37, 107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, A. H. J.

J. M. Hutchinson, M. D. Ingram, and A. H. J. Robertson, Philos. Mag. B 66, 449 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. S. J.

N. Granzow, P. Uebel, M. A. Schmidt, A. S. Tverjanovich, L. Wondraczek, and P. S. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 36, 2432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Schmidt, L. N. Prill Sempere, H. K. Tyagi, C. G. Poulton, and P. S. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. B 77, 033417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, Science 282, 1476 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

Sazio, P. J. A.

R. He, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Nat. Photonics 6, 174 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M. A.

N. Granzow, P. Uebel, M. A. Schmidt, A. S. Tverjanovich, L. Wondraczek, and P. S. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 36, 2432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Schmidt, L. N. Prill Sempere, H. K. Tyagi, C. G. Poulton, and P. S. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. B 77, 033417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, T.

A. Csaki, F. Jahn, I. Latka, T. Henkel, D. Malsch, T. Schneider, K. Schröder, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, R. Spittel, D. Zopf, and W. Fritzsche, Small 6, 2584 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schröder, K.

A. Csaki, F. Jahn, I. Latka, T. Henkel, D. Malsch, T. Schneider, K. Schröder, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, R. Spittel, D. Zopf, and W. Fritzsche, Small 6, 2584 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, K.

A. Csaki, F. Jahn, I. Latka, T. Henkel, D. Malsch, T. Schneider, K. Schröder, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, R. Spittel, D. Zopf, and W. Fritzsche, Small 6, 2584 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schwuchow, A.

B. Seise, A. Csaki, A. Schwuchow, W. Fritzsche, K. Weber, D. Cialla, and J. Popp, Biomed. Tech. 57, 339 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Csaki, F. Jahn, I. Latka, T. Henkel, D. Malsch, T. Schneider, K. Schröder, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, R. Spittel, D. Zopf, and W. Fritzsche, Small 6, 2584 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Seise, B.

B. Seise, A. Csaki, A. Schwuchow, W. Fritzsche, K. Weber, D. Cialla, and J. Popp, Biomed. Tech. 57, 339 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Simon, S.

L. Baia, M. Baia, W. Kiefer, J. Popp, and S. Simon, J. Chem. Phys. 327, 63 (2006).

Sjödin, N.

Skorobogatiy, M.

Soimo, J.

N. Noginova, A. V. Yakim, J. Soimo, L. Gu, and M. A. Noginov, Phys. Rev. B 84, 035447 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sönnichsen, C.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. v. Plessen, and J. Feldmann, New J. Phys. 4, 93 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sparks, J. R.

R. He, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Nat. Photonics 6, 174 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Spittel, R.

A. Csaki, F. Jahn, I. Latka, T. Henkel, D. Malsch, T. Schneider, K. Schröder, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, R. Spittel, D. Zopf, and W. Fritzsche, Small 6, 2584 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Svennebrink, J.

Tverjanovich, A. S.

Tyagi, H. K.

M. A. Schmidt, L. N. Prill Sempere, H. K. Tyagi, C. G. Poulton, and P. S. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. B 77, 033417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Uebel, P.

Varsamis, C. P. E.

I. Konidakis, C. P. E. Varsamis, and E. I. Kamitsos, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357, 2684 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vlachos, K.

Weber, K.

B. Seise, A. Csaki, A. Schwuchow, W. Fritzsche, K. Weber, D. Cialla, and J. Popp, Biomed. Tech. 57, 339 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wilk, T.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. v. Plessen, and J. Feldmann, New J. Phys. 4, 93 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wondraczek, L.

Yakim, A. V.

N. Noginova, A. V. Yakim, J. Soimo, L. Gu, and M. A. Noginov, Phys. Rev. B 84, 035447 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yannopoulos, S. N.

Zhang, Z.

Zito, G.

Zopf, D.

A. Csaki, F. Jahn, I. Latka, T. Henkel, D. Malsch, T. Schneider, K. Schröder, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, R. Spittel, D. Zopf, and W. Fritzsche, Small 6, 2584 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, Adv. Mater. 16, 1685 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Tech. (1)

B. Seise, A. Csaki, A. Schwuchow, W. Fritzsche, K. Weber, D. Cialla, and J. Popp, Biomed. Tech. 57, 339 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

D. Faccio, A. Busacca, W. Belardi, V. Pruneri, P. G. Kazansky, T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, B. Grappe, M. Cooper, and C. N. Pannell, Electron. Lett. 37, 107 (2001).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) SEM scans of a cleaved cross section of AgPO3/LMA-10 fiber before electric field exposure with detail (b) of an infiltrated capillary. (c) and (d) details of infiltrated channels from a different cross section of the same fiber after electric field exposure. Poling voltage: 800 V.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) SEM scans of a cleaved cross section of AgPO3-layered/LMA-10 fiber with magnified images of glass layer deposited on the fiber capillaries before (b) and after electric field exposure (c) and (d) Poling voltage: 800 V.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Typical transmission spectra of 1 cm long AgPO3/LMA-10 (black line) and AgPO3-layered/LMA-10 (red line) fibers prior to thermal poling. The spectra are normalized to the transmission spectrum of a pristine LMA-10 PCF. Triangles denote ARROW model predictions (see text).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transmission spectra of 1 cm long AgPO3/LMA-10 (a) and AgPO3-layered/LMA-10 (b) fibers after electric field exposure, filtered through a Rochon polarizer at different angles. The spectra are normalized to the transmission spectrum of a pristine LMA-10 PCF. Connection lines in (a) are only used as a guideline for the eye. Poling voltage: 800 V.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Micro-Raman spectra of AgPO3 splat quenched glass before (black line) and after (red dashed line) thermal poling. (b) Measured absorption coefficient difference, Δα, of AgPO3 splat quenched glass before and after thermal poling treatment (red line) and polarization-dependent stop-band poling loss of AgPO3/LMA-10 fibers, poled using different voltages (connected lines).

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