Abstract

We describe a digital holography technique that, with the simplicity of an in-line configuration, produces holograms where the real and virtual images are completely separated, as in an off-axis configuration. An in-line setup, in which the object is imaged near the sensor, is modified by placing a shifted knife-edge aperture that blocks half the frequency spectrum at the focal plane of the imaging lens. This simple modification of the in-line holographic configuration allows discriminating the virtual and real images. As a fluid velocimetry technique, the use of this aperture removes the minimum defocusing distance requisite and reduces the out-of-plane velocity measurement errors of classical in-line holography. Results with different test objects are shown.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. U. Schnars and W. Jüptner, Digital Holography (Springer, 2005).
  2. J. Müller, V. Kebbel, and W. Jüptner, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 706 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. Palero, M. P. Arroyo, and J. Soria, Exp. Fluids 43, 185 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. D. Hinsch, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, R61 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Meng, G. Pang, Y. Pu, and S. H. Woodward, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 673 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Talapatra and J. Katz, J. Fluid Mech. 711, 161 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Malkiel, J. Sheng, J. Katz, and J. R. Strickle, J. Exp. Biol. 206, 3657 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Sheng, E. Malkiel, and J. Katz, Appl. Opt. 45, 3893 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Denis, C. Fournier, T. Fournel, and C. Ducottet, Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 074004 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. N. Leith and J. Upatnieks, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1123 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Burke, C. Hess, and V. Kebbel, “Digital holography for whole field spray diagnostics,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Application of Laser Techniques to Fluids Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 2002.
  12. J. Lobera, N. Andrés, and M. P. Arroyo, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 718 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. Palero, J. Lobera, and M. P. Arroyo, Exp. Fluids 39, 397 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. Palero, J. Lobera, and M. P. Arroyo, Exp. Fluids 49, 471 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

S. Talapatra and J. Katz, J. Fluid Mech. 711, 161 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

V. Palero, J. Lobera, and M. P. Arroyo, Exp. Fluids 49, 471 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

L. Denis, C. Fournier, T. Fournel, and C. Ducottet, Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 074004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

V. Palero, M. P. Arroyo, and J. Soria, Exp. Fluids 43, 185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

V. Palero, J. Lobera, and M. P. Arroyo, Exp. Fluids 39, 397 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

J. Müller, V. Kebbel, and W. Jüptner, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Meng, G. Pang, Y. Pu, and S. H. Woodward, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lobera, N. Andrés, and M. P. Arroyo, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 718 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

E. Malkiel, J. Sheng, J. Katz, and J. R. Strickle, J. Exp. Biol. 206, 3657 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

K. D. Hinsch, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, R61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

Andrés, N.

J. Lobera, N. Andrés, and M. P. Arroyo, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 718 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arroyo, M. P.

V. Palero, J. Lobera, and M. P. Arroyo, Exp. Fluids 49, 471 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Palero, M. P. Arroyo, and J. Soria, Exp. Fluids 43, 185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Palero, J. Lobera, and M. P. Arroyo, Exp. Fluids 39, 397 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lobera, N. Andrés, and M. P. Arroyo, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 718 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Burke, J.

J. Burke, C. Hess, and V. Kebbel, “Digital holography for whole field spray diagnostics,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Application of Laser Techniques to Fluids Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 2002.

Denis, L.

L. Denis, C. Fournier, T. Fournel, and C. Ducottet, Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 074004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ducottet, C.

L. Denis, C. Fournier, T. Fournel, and C. Ducottet, Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 074004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fournel, T.

L. Denis, C. Fournier, T. Fournel, and C. Ducottet, Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 074004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, C.

L. Denis, C. Fournier, T. Fournel, and C. Ducottet, Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 074004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hess, C.

J. Burke, C. Hess, and V. Kebbel, “Digital holography for whole field spray diagnostics,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Application of Laser Techniques to Fluids Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 2002.

Hinsch, K. D.

K. D. Hinsch, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, R61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jüptner, W.

J. Müller, V. Kebbel, and W. Jüptner, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

U. Schnars and W. Jüptner, Digital Holography (Springer, 2005).

Katz, J.

S. Talapatra and J. Katz, J. Fluid Mech. 711, 161 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Sheng, E. Malkiel, and J. Katz, Appl. Opt. 45, 3893 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Malkiel, J. Sheng, J. Katz, and J. R. Strickle, J. Exp. Biol. 206, 3657 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kebbel, V.

J. Müller, V. Kebbel, and W. Jüptner, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Burke, C. Hess, and V. Kebbel, “Digital holography for whole field spray diagnostics,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Application of Laser Techniques to Fluids Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 2002.

Leith, E. N.

Lobera, J.

V. Palero, J. Lobera, and M. P. Arroyo, Exp. Fluids 49, 471 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Palero, J. Lobera, and M. P. Arroyo, Exp. Fluids 39, 397 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lobera, N. Andrés, and M. P. Arroyo, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 718 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Malkiel, E.

J. Sheng, E. Malkiel, and J. Katz, Appl. Opt. 45, 3893 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Malkiel, J. Sheng, J. Katz, and J. R. Strickle, J. Exp. Biol. 206, 3657 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meng, H.

H. Meng, G. Pang, Y. Pu, and S. H. Woodward, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Müller, J.

J. Müller, V. Kebbel, and W. Jüptner, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Palero, V.

V. Palero, J. Lobera, and M. P. Arroyo, Exp. Fluids 49, 471 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Palero, M. P. Arroyo, and J. Soria, Exp. Fluids 43, 185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Palero, J. Lobera, and M. P. Arroyo, Exp. Fluids 39, 397 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pang, G.

H. Meng, G. Pang, Y. Pu, and S. H. Woodward, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pu, Y.

H. Meng, G. Pang, Y. Pu, and S. H. Woodward, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schnars, U.

U. Schnars and W. Jüptner, Digital Holography (Springer, 2005).

Sheng, J.

J. Sheng, E. Malkiel, and J. Katz, Appl. Opt. 45, 3893 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Malkiel, J. Sheng, J. Katz, and J. R. Strickle, J. Exp. Biol. 206, 3657 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Soria, J.

V. Palero, M. P. Arroyo, and J. Soria, Exp. Fluids 43, 185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Strickle, J. R.

E. Malkiel, J. Sheng, J. Katz, and J. R. Strickle, J. Exp. Biol. 206, 3657 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Talapatra, S.

S. Talapatra and J. Katz, J. Fluid Mech. 711, 161 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Upatnieks, J.

Woodward, S. H.

H. Meng, G. Pang, Y. Pu, and S. H. Woodward, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Exp. Fluids (3)

V. Palero, J. Lobera, and M. P. Arroyo, Exp. Fluids 39, 397 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Palero, J. Lobera, and M. P. Arroyo, Exp. Fluids 49, 471 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Palero, M. P. Arroyo, and J. Soria, Exp. Fluids 43, 185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Exp. Biol. (1)

E. Malkiel, J. Sheng, J. Katz, and J. R. Strickle, J. Exp. Biol. 206, 3657 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluid Mech. (1)

S. Talapatra and J. Katz, J. Fluid Mech. 711, 161 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (5)

L. Denis, C. Fournier, T. Fournel, and C. Ducottet, Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 074004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lobera, N. Andrés, and M. P. Arroyo, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 718 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Hinsch, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, R61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Meng, G. Pang, Y. Pu, and S. H. Woodward, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Müller, V. Kebbel, and W. Jüptner, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

U. Schnars and W. Jüptner, Digital Holography (Springer, 2005).

J. Burke, C. Hess, and V. Kebbel, “Digital holography for whole field spray diagnostics,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Application of Laser Techniques to Fluids Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 2002.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fourier transform of holograms recorded (left) with a square aperture and (right) with a shifted aperture. The real and virtual aperture images are denoted with red and green colored rectangles, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

USAF target digital in-line holograms (top row) and corresponding reconstructed images (bottom row) for a classical (left column) and a shifted aperture (right column) setup.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Zoomed image of groups 6 and 7 obtained from the classical (left) and the shifted aperture (right) holograms.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Amplified area of 300×300 pixel from holograms of particles recorded with square (left) and shifted (right) apertures.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Z–X view of the particle position obtained from holograms recorded with square (left) and shifted (right) apertures.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Initial and final particle position for three different initial object angles for classical (top) and the shifted-aperture (bottom) holograms.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Measured displacement in the z direction versus the theoretical displacement for data from classical (left) and shifted aperture (right) holograms.

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