Abstract

A near-infrared sensitive hybrid device, based on a Ru-doped BSO photorefractive substrate and polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) layer, is reported. It is found that the photoexcited charge carriers generated in the BSO:Ru substrate create an optically induced space charge field, sufficient to penetrate into the PDLC layer and to re-orient the LC molecules inside the droplets. Beam-coupling measurements at the Bragg regime are performed showing prospective amplification values and high spatial resolution. The proposed structure does not require indium tin oxide (ITO) contacts and alignment layers. Such a device allows all the processes to be controlled by light, thus opening further potential for real-time image processing at the near-infrared range.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (Wiley, 1995).
  2. D. R. Evans, G. Cook, and M. A. Saleh, Opt. Mater. 31, 1059 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Aubourg, J. P. Huignard, M. Hareng, and R. A. Mullen, Appl. Opt. 21, 3706 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  14. U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and J. P. Huignard, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 16, 231 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, and M. Okada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 999 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. V. Marinova, I. Ahmad, and E. Goovaerts, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 113106 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

R. R. Garcia and C. B. Rodriguez, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 561, 68 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

K. Gvozdovskyy, D. R. Shcherbin Evans, and G. Cook, Appl. Phys. B 104, 883 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu, X. Ding, S. S. Lin, J. Shi, I. K. Chiang, and T. J. Huang, Adv. Mater. 23, 1656 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Marinova, R. C. Liu, S. H. Lin, and K. Y. Hsu, Opt. Lett. 36, 1981 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

V. Marinova, I. Ahmad, and E. Goovaerts, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 113106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

D. R. Evans, G. Cook, and M. A. Saleh, Opt. Mater. 31, 1059 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and J. P. Huignard, J. Phys. D 41, 224007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and J. P. Huignard, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 16, 231 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. J. Deer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 254107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

F. Ramaz, L. Rakitina, M. Gospodinov, and B. Briat, Opt. Mater. 27, 1547 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, G. Baird, Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, and S.-T. Wu, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13/12, 1017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

D. C. Jones and G. Cook, Opt. Commun. 232, 399 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

V. Marinova, M. L. Hsieh, S. H. Lin, and K. Y. Hsu, Opt. Commun. 203, 377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Stevens and P. P. Banerjee, Opt. Lett. 27, 1333 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

F. Kajzar, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Miniewicz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2924 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1995 (1)

D. Coates, J. Mater. Chem. 5, 2063 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, and K. Tada, Opt. Eng. 32, 1781 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

P. Sveshtarov and M. Gospodinov, J. Cryst. Growth 113, 186 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, and M. Okada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 999 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

Ahmad, I.

V. Marinova, I. Ahmad, and E. Goovaerts, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 113106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Aubourg, P.

Baird, G.

J. Li, G. Baird, Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, and S.-T. Wu, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13/12, 1017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, P. P.

Bartkiewicz, S.

F. Kajzar, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Miniewicz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2924 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bortolozzo, U.

U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and J. P. Huignard, J. Phys. D 41, 224007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and J. P. Huignard, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 16, 231 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Briat, B.

F. Ramaz, L. Rakitina, M. Gospodinov, and B. Briat, Opt. Mater. 27, 1547 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, I. K.

Y. J. Liu, X. Ding, S. S. Lin, J. Shi, I. K. Chiang, and T. J. Huang, Adv. Mater. 23, 1656 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Coates, D.

D. Coates, J. Mater. Chem. 5, 2063 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cook, G.

K. Gvozdovskyy, D. R. Shcherbin Evans, and G. Cook, Appl. Phys. B 104, 883 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Evans, G. Cook, and M. A. Saleh, Opt. Mater. 31, 1059 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Jones and G. Cook, Opt. Commun. 232, 399 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deer, M. J.

M. J. Deer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 254107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ding, X.

Y. J. Liu, X. Ding, S. S. Lin, J. Shi, I. K. Chiang, and T. J. Huang, Adv. Mater. 23, 1656 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Evans, D. R.

D. R. Evans, G. Cook, and M. A. Saleh, Opt. Mater. 31, 1059 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Frejlich, J.

J. Frejlich, Photorefractive Materials (Wiley-Interscience, 2007).

Fujikake, H.

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, and K. Tada, Opt. Eng. 32, 1781 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, and M. Okada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 999 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, R. R.

R. R. Garcia and C. B. Rodriguez, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 561, 68 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Goovaerts, E.

V. Marinova, I. Ahmad, and E. Goovaerts, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 113106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gospodinov, M.

F. Ramaz, L. Rakitina, M. Gospodinov, and B. Briat, Opt. Mater. 27, 1547 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Sveshtarov and M. Gospodinov, J. Cryst. Growth 113, 186 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gvozdovskyy, K.

K. Gvozdovskyy, D. R. Shcherbin Evans, and G. Cook, Appl. Phys. B 104, 883 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hareng, M.

Hsieh, M. L.

V. Marinova, M. L. Hsieh, S. H. Lin, and K. Y. Hsu, Opt. Commun. 203, 377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, K. Y.

V. Marinova, R. C. Liu, S. H. Lin, and K. Y. Hsu, Opt. Lett. 36, 1981 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Marinova, M. L. Hsieh, S. H. Lin, and K. Y. Hsu, Opt. Commun. 203, 377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, T. J.

Y. J. Liu, X. Ding, S. S. Lin, J. Shi, I. K. Chiang, and T. J. Huang, Adv. Mater. 23, 1656 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huignard, J. P.

U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and J. P. Huignard, J. Phys. D 41, 224007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and J. P. Huignard, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 16, 231 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Aubourg, J. P. Huignard, M. Hareng, and R. A. Mullen, Appl. Opt. 21, 3706 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. C.

D. C. Jones and G. Cook, Opt. Commun. 232, 399 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kajzar, F.

F. Kajzar, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Miniewicz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2924 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (Wiley, 1995).

Kikuchi, H.

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, and K. Tada, Opt. Eng. 32, 1781 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, and M. Okada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 999 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Li, G. Baird, Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, and S.-T. Wu, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13/12, 1017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. H.

V. Marinova, R. C. Liu, S. H. Lin, and K. Y. Hsu, Opt. Lett. 36, 1981 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Marinova, M. L. Hsieh, S. H. Lin, and K. Y. Hsu, Opt. Commun. 203, 377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. S.

Y. J. Liu, X. Ding, S. S. Lin, J. Shi, I. K. Chiang, and T. J. Huang, Adv. Mater. 23, 1656 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.-H.

J. Li, G. Baird, Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, and S.-T. Wu, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13/12, 1017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, R. C.

Liu, Y. J.

Y. J. Liu, X. Ding, S. S. Lin, J. Shi, I. K. Chiang, and T. J. Huang, Adv. Mater. 23, 1656 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Marinova, V.

V. Marinova, R. C. Liu, S. H. Lin, and K. Y. Hsu, Opt. Lett. 36, 1981 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Marinova, I. Ahmad, and E. Goovaerts, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 113106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Marinova, M. L. Hsieh, S. H. Lin, and K. Y. Hsu, Opt. Commun. 203, 377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miniewicz, A.

F. Kajzar, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Miniewicz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2924 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mullen, R. A.

Namikawa, Y.

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, and K. Tada, Opt. Eng. 32, 1781 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Okada, M.

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, and M. Okada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 999 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rakitina, L.

F. Ramaz, L. Rakitina, M. Gospodinov, and B. Briat, Opt. Mater. 27, 1547 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ramaz, F.

F. Ramaz, L. Rakitina, M. Gospodinov, and B. Briat, Opt. Mater. 27, 1547 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H.

J. Li, G. Baird, Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, and S.-T. Wu, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13/12, 1017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Residori, S.

U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and J. P. Huignard, J. Phys. D 41, 224007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and J. P. Huignard, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 16, 231 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, C. B.

R. R. Garcia and C. B. Rodriguez, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 561, 68 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, M. A.

D. R. Evans, G. Cook, and M. A. Saleh, Opt. Mater. 31, 1059 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shcherbin Evans, D. R.

K. Gvozdovskyy, D. R. Shcherbin Evans, and G. Cook, Appl. Phys. B 104, 883 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shi, J.

Y. J. Liu, X. Ding, S. S. Lin, J. Shi, I. K. Chiang, and T. J. Huang, Adv. Mater. 23, 1656 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, D. M.

Sveshtarov, P.

P. Sveshtarov and M. Gospodinov, J. Cryst. Growth 113, 186 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tabiryan, N. V.

Tada, K.

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, and K. Tada, Opt. Eng. 32, 1781 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Takizawa, K.

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, and K. Tada, Opt. Eng. 32, 1781 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, and M. Okada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 999 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Umeton, C.

Wu, S.-T.

J. Li, G. Baird, Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, and S.-T. Wu, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13/12, 1017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, 1993).

Adv. Mater. (1)

Y. J. Liu, X. Ding, S. S. Lin, J. Shi, I. K. Chiang, and T. J. Huang, Adv. Mater. 23, 1656 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

K. Gvozdovskyy, D. R. Shcherbin Evans, and G. Cook, Appl. Phys. B 104, 883 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. J. Deer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 254107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Kajzar, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Miniewicz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2924 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, and M. Okada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 999 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

V. Marinova, I. Ahmad, and E. Goovaerts, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 113106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

P. Sveshtarov and M. Gospodinov, J. Cryst. Growth 113, 186 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

D. Coates, J. Mater. Chem. 5, 2063 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and J. P. Huignard, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 16, 231 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and J. P. Huignard, J. Phys. D 41, 224007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

J. Li, G. Baird, Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, and S.-T. Wu, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13/12, 1017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

R. R. Garcia and C. B. Rodriguez, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 561, 68 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

D. C. Jones and G. Cook, Opt. Commun. 232, 399 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Marinova, M. L. Hsieh, S. H. Lin, and K. Y. Hsu, Opt. Commun. 203, 377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, and K. Tada, Opt. Eng. 32, 1781 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. (2)

F. Ramaz, L. Rakitina, M. Gospodinov, and B. Briat, Opt. Mater. 27, 1547 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Evans, G. Cook, and M. A. Saleh, Opt. Mater. 31, 1059 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, 1993).

J. Frejlich, Photorefractive Materials (Wiley-Interscience, 2007).

I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (Wiley, 1995).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Relative transmittance under different 1064 nm intensities. Solid and dashed lines stand for BSO:Ru/PDLC and PDLC, respectively. (b) Experimental set-up for Gaussian beam illumination through BSO:Ru/PDLC. (c) Beam shape when infrared light is off and on.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Two-beam coupling experiment. (b) Simultaneous behavior of both transmitted beams through hybrid structure and comparison with PDLC reference sample.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Γ(cm1) dependence on Λ(μm). (b) Theoretical simulation of Esc dependence on Λ(μm). Inset graph: selected part interval as experimental one.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Γ=1/l×loge(G),
Γ=2π×Δnλ×cosθ,
nav=ne+2no3,
ESC=iKkBTq1+K2kd2I1I0,
kd2=q2ε·kBTNAND(NDNA),

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