Abstract

We present a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO) containing two magnesium-doped periodically poled lithium niobate crystals in a singly resonant ring cavity, pumped by two mode-locked Yb-fiber lasers. As such, the OPO generates two idler combs (up to 220 mW), covering a wavelength range from 2.7 to 4.2 μm, from which a mid-infrared dual-comb Fourier transform spectrometer is constructed. By detecting the heterodyning signal between the two idler beams a full broadband spectrum of a molecular gas can be observed over 250cm1 within 70 μs with a spectral resolution of 15 GHz. The absorption and dispersion spectra of acetylene and methane have been measured around 3000cm1, indicating that this OPO represents an ideal broadband mid-infrared source for fast chemical sensing.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Schliesser, N. Picque, and T. W. Hansch, Nat. Photonics 6, 440 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  24. G. K. Samanta, A. Aadhi, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, Opt. Express 21, 9520 (2013).
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    [CrossRef]
  29. G. Wysocki and D. Weidmann, Opt. Express 18, 26123 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2014 (2)

Y. Wang, M. G. Soskind, W. Wang, and G. Wysocki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 031114 (2014).
[CrossRef]

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Nat. Commun. 5, 3375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (3)

2012 (4)

2011 (2)

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Leindecker, A. Marandi, R. L. Byer, and K. L. Vodopyanov, Opt. Express 19, 6296 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2009 (3)

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Mandon, G. Guelachvili, and N. Picque, Nat. Photonics 3, 99 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Adler, K. C. Cossel, M. J. Thorpe, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, Opt. Lett. 34, 1330 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

M. J. Thorpe and J. Ye, Appl. Phys. B 91, 397 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Thorpe, D. Balslev-Clausen, M. S. Kirchner, and J. Ye, Opt. Express 16, 2387 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

J. H. Sun, B. J. S. Gale, and D. T. Reid, Opt. Lett. 32, 1414 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, Nature 445, 627 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Gohle, B. Stein, A. Schliesser, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, Science 311, 1595 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

F. Keilmann, C. Gohle, and R. Holzwarth, Opt. Lett. 29, 1542 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Tillman, R. R. J. Maier, D. T. Reid, and E. D. McNaghten, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3366 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Aadhi, A.

Adler, F.

Balslev-Clausen, D.

Baumann, E.

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bernhardt, B.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brehm, M.

Briles, T. C.

Byer, R. L.

Coddington, I.

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cossel, K. C.

de Haseth, J. A.

J. A. de Haseth and P. R. Griffiths, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (Wiley, 2007).

Diddams, S. A.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, Nature 445, 627 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ebrahim-Zadeh, M.

Fang, X.

Fermann, M.

Fermann, M. E.

Foltynowicz, A.

Gale, B. J. S.

Gardiner, T.

Giorgetta, F. R.

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gohle, C.

C. Gohle, B. Stein, A. Schliesser, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Keilmann, C. Gohle, and R. Holzwarth, Opt. Lett. 29, 1542 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Griffiths, P. R.

J. A. de Haseth and P. R. Griffiths, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (Wiley, 2007).

Guelachvili, G.

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Nat. Commun. 5, 3375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Opt. Lett. 37, 4847 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mandon, G. Guelachvili, and N. Picque, Nat. Photonics 3, 99 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hansch, T. W.

A. Schliesser, N. Picque, and T. W. Hansch, Nat. Photonics 6, 440 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Nat. Commun. 5, 3375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Opt. Lett. 37, 4847 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Gohle, B. Stein, A. Schliesser, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hartl, I.

Hollberg, L.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, Nature 445, 627 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Keilmann, C. Gohle, and R. Holzwarth, Opt. Lett. 29, 1542 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ideguchi, T.

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Nat. Commun. 5, 3375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Opt. Lett. 37, 4847 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jacquet, P.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jacquey, M.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, J.

Jones, R. J.

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, Science 311, 1595 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kauppinen, J.

J. Kauppinen and J. Partanen, Fourier Transforms in Spectroscopy (Wiley, 2001).

Keilmann, F.

Kirchner, M. S.

Kobayashi, Y.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leindecker, N.

Maier, R. R. J.

K. A. Tillman, R. R. J. Maier, D. T. Reid, and E. D. McNaghten, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3366 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mandon, J.

J. Mandon, G. Guelachvili, and N. Picque, Nat. Photonics 3, 99 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marandi, A.

Maslowski, P.

Mbele, V.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, Nature 445, 627 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McNaghten, E. D.

K. A. Tillman, R. R. J. Maier, D. T. Reid, and E. D. McNaghten, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3366 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moll, K. D.

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, Science 311, 1595 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, N. R.

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nikodem, M.

M. Nikodem and G. Wysocki, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1260, 101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ozawa, A.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Partanen, J.

J. Kauppinen and J. Partanen, Fourier Transforms in Spectroscopy (Wiley, 2001).

Picque, N.

A. Schliesser, N. Picque, and T. W. Hansch, Nat. Photonics 6, 440 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mandon, G. Guelachvili, and N. Picque, Nat. Photonics 3, 99 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Picqué, N.

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Nat. Commun. 5, 3375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Opt. Lett. 37, 4847 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Poisson, A.

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Nat. Commun. 5, 3375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Opt. Lett. 37, 4847 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Reid, D. T.

Safdi, B.

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, Science 311, 1595 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Samanta, G. K.

Schiller, S.

Schliesser, A.

A. Schliesser, N. Picque, and T. W. Hansch, Nat. Photonics 6, 440 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Gohle, B. Stein, A. Schliesser, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Schliesser, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, and D. van der Weide, Opt. Express 13, 9029 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schunemann, P. G.

Soskind, M. G.

Y. Wang, M. G. Soskind, W. Wang, and G. Wysocki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 031114 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Stein, B.

C. Gohle, B. Stein, A. Schliesser, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J. H.

Swann, W. C.

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thorpe, M. J.

Tillman, K. A.

K. A. Tillman, R. R. J. Maier, D. T. Reid, and E. D. McNaghten, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3366 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Udem, T.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Gohle, B. Stein, A. Schliesser, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van der Weide, D.

Vladimir, P.

P. Vladimir, Laser Heterodyning (Springer, 2009).

Vodopyanov, K. L.

Wang, W.

Y. Wang, M. G. Soskind, W. Wang, and G. Wysocki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 031114 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, M. G. Soskind, W. Wang, and G. Wysocki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 031114 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Weidmann, D.

Wysocki, G.

Y. Wang, M. G. Soskind, W. Wang, and G. Wysocki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 031114 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. Nikodem and G. Wysocki, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1260, 101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Wysocki and D. Weidmann, Opt. Express 18, 26123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

Zhang, Z.

Zolot, A. M.

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. (1)

M. Nikodem and G. Wysocki, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1260, 101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. J. Thorpe and J. Ye, Appl. Phys. B 91, 397 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. A. Tillman, R. R. J. Maier, D. T. Reid, and E. D. McNaghten, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3366 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, M. G. Soskind, W. Wang, and G. Wysocki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 031114 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun. (1)

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Nat. Commun. 5, 3375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (3)

J. Mandon, G. Guelachvili, and N. Picque, Nat. Photonics 3, 99 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Schliesser, N. Picque, and T. W. Hansch, Nat. Photonics 6, 440 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, Nature 445, 627 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

C. Gohle, B. Stein, A. Schliesser, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, Science 311, 1595 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

P. Vladimir, Laser Heterodyning (Springer, 2009).

J. A. de Haseth and P. R. Griffiths, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (Wiley, 2007).

J. Kauppinen and J. Partanen, Fourier Transforms in Spectroscopy (Wiley, 2001).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup of the OPO cavity. p1–2, s1–2, i1–2, pumps, signals, and idler beams, respectively, corresponding to different pump lasers. FL1–2, focal lenses (f=100mm). M1–M4, curved mirrors (r=100mm). CM1–CM6, chirped mirrors (100fs2 at 1500 nm). DM1–2, dichroic mirrors. GeFL1–2, germanium focal lenses (f=100mm). PZT, piezo actuator.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Spectral intensity distribution of the signal using eight poling periods, 27.91 to 31.59 μm, covering a wavelength region between 4800 and 7200cm1. (b) Spectral intensity distribution of the idler light using eight poling periods, resulting in a wavelength coverage between 2400 and 3600cm1.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Average output power of the idler at the eight different crystal periods.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental setup of the dual-comb FTS. Two Yb-fiber mode-locked lasers (MLL1–2) are coupled to a singly resonant ring cavity OPO. Synchronized to a reference clock (Ck), the difference between the repetition frequencies is Δf. The OPO generates two spatially separated idler beams. One idler beam probes the gas sample in a 30 cm long single pass cell (Gas Cell) and is recombined with the second idler beam at the beam splitter (BS). Both overlapped beams are focused and the beating signal is detected by a Peltier cooled fast IR detector (D). The FFT of the detector signal is calculated by a FPGA, giving a spectral image of the gas sample. The light from the other side of the beam splitter is analyzed by a commercial rapid-scan FTS.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Time domain interferogram (upper panel) of acetylene (C2H2, 10% in N2, pressure 100 mbar, 30 cm path length, Δf=46Hz). Lower panel: Power spectrum (red) and dispersion information (green) in the RF domain obtained by considering the 120 μs interferogram.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Time domain interferogram of methane (CH4) over 12 μs. (b) Apodized power spectrum calculated from a 60 μs recorded interferogram. (c) Comparison between the measured (purple curve) and simulated (black curve, HITRAN database) absorption spectrum of methane. The Q branch (at 3050cm1), the R branch (right side), and the beginning of the P branch (left side) of the ν3 vibrational transition of methane can be clearly observed. The green curve shows the dispersion information after background removal.

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