Abstract

We fabricated and measured a compact 3 dB hybrid plasmonic directional coupler for silicon photonics integrated circuits with a length of 21.2 μm. The coupler has a 5050 coupling ratio over a spectral bandwidth of more than 100 nm around a wavelength of 1.55 μm and has an insertion loss of less than 1 dB.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

M. Alam, J. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 394 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (4)

H. Yun, W. Shi, Y. Wang, L. Chrostowski, and N. Jaeger, Proc. SPIE 8915, 89150V (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Gao, Y. Huo, J. Harris, and Z. Zhou, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 2081 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Z. Alam, J. N. Caspers, J. S. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, Opt. Express 21, 16029 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Caspers, J. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, Opt. Lett. 38, 4054 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (6)

2011 (2)

2010 (5)

S.-H. Hsu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 941 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Z. Alam, J. Meier, J. S. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, Opt. Express 18, 12971 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, Y. Song, G. Zhou, Y. Su, and M. Qiu, Opt. Lett. 35, 3153 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Gardes, and D. Thomson, Nat. Photonics 4, 518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Ouattara, M. Knutzen, S. Keller, M. F. Hansen, and A. Boisen, Microelectron. Eng. 87, 1226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

V. Almeida, C. Barrios, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Kirendall and A. Dandridge, J. Phys. D 37, R197 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

1992 (1)

A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, and M. Kawachi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 848 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J.

M. Alam, J. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 394 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Caspers, J. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, Opt. Lett. 38, 4054 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

Alam, M.

M. Alam, J. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 394 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. Alam, J. S. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, Appl. Opt. 50, 2294 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Alam, M. Z.

Almeida, V.

V. Almeida, C. Barrios, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

Barrios, C.

V. Almeida, C. Barrios, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boisen, A.

L. Ouattara, M. Knutzen, S. Keller, M. F. Hansen, and A. Boisen, Microelectron. Eng. 87, 1226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Caspers, J.

Caspers, J. N.

Cheben, P.

Chee, J.

Chen, B.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, H. Li, and M. Li, Sci. Rep. 2, 622 (2012).

Chrostowski, L.

H. Yun, W. Shi, Y. Wang, L. Chrostowski, and N. Jaeger, Proc. SPIE 8915, 89150V (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chu, T.

Dai, D.

Dandridge, A.

C. K. Kirendall and A. Dandridge, J. Phys. D 37, R197 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, L.

L. Gao, Y. Huo, J. Harris, and Z. Zhou, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 2081 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gardes, F.

G. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Gardes, and D. Thomson, Nat. Photonics 4, 518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guan, X.

Halir, R.

Hansen, M. F.

L. Ouattara, M. Knutzen, S. Keller, M. F. Hansen, and A. Boisen, Microelectron. Eng. 87, 1226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J.

L. Gao, Y. Huo, J. Harris, and Z. Zhou, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 2081 (2013).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

He, Y.

Holmström, P.

Hsu, S.-H.

Huo, Y.

L. Gao, Y. Huo, J. Harris, and Z. Zhou, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 2081 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, S.

Iso, M.

Jaeger, N.

H. Yun, W. Shi, Y. Wang, L. Chrostowski, and N. Jaeger, Proc. SPIE 8915, 89150V (2013).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

Jinguji, K.

A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, and M. Kawachi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 848 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kawachi, M.

A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, and M. Kawachi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 848 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

L. Ouattara, M. Knutzen, S. Keller, M. F. Hansen, and A. Boisen, Microelectron. Eng. 87, 1226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kirendall, C. K.

C. K. Kirendall and A. Dandridge, J. Phys. D 37, R197 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Knutzen, M.

L. Ouattara, M. Knutzen, S. Keller, M. F. Hansen, and A. Boisen, Microelectron. Eng. 87, 1226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Y. Chen, H. Li, and M. Li, Sci. Rep. 2, 622 (2012).

Li, M.

Y. Chen, H. Li, and M. Li, Sci. Rep. 2, 622 (2012).

Li, Q.

Lipson, M.

V. Almeida, C. Barrios, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G. Q.

Lou, F.

Lu, H.

Maese-Novo, A.

Mashanovich, G.

G. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Gardes, and D. Thomson, Nat. Photonics 4, 518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meier, J.

M. Z. Alam, J. Meier, J. S. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, Opt. Express 18, 12971 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Z. Alam, J. Meier, J. S. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Baltimore, Maryland, May6, 2007 (2007), paper JThD112.

Mojahedi, M.

Molina-Fernandez, I.

Ortega-Monux, A.

Ouattara, L.

L. Ouattara, M. Knutzen, S. Keller, M. F. Hansen, and A. Boisen, Microelectron. Eng. 87, 1226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R.

V. Almeida, C. Barrios, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, M.

Reed, G.

G. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Gardes, and D. Thomson, Nat. Photonics 4, 518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, J. H.

Shi, W.

H. Yun, W. Shi, Y. Wang, L. Chrostowski, and N. Jaeger, Proc. SPIE 8915, 89150V (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

Song, Y.

Su, Y.

Sun, X.

Takagi, A.

A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, and M. Kawachi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 848 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, D.

G. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Gardes, and D. Thomson, Nat. Photonics 4, 518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thylen, L.

Wagner, S. J.

Wang, J.

Wang, Y.

H. Yun, W. Shi, Y. Wang, L. Chrostowski, and N. Jaeger, Proc. SPIE 8915, 89150V (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Wangüemert-Perez, J. G.

Wosinski, L.

Xu, D.-X.

Yamada, H.

Yuan, Y.

Yun, H.

H. Yun, W. Shi, Y. Wang, L. Chrostowski, and N. Jaeger, Proc. SPIE 8915, 89150V (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, D.

Zhou, G.

Zhou, Z.

L. Gao, Y. Huo, J. Harris, and Z. Zhou, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 2081 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S.

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, and M. Kawachi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 848 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

L. Gao, Y. Huo, J. Harris, and Z. Zhou, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 2081 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

C. K. Kirendall and A. Dandridge, J. Phys. D 37, R197 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

M. Alam, J. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 394 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

L. Ouattara, M. Knutzen, S. Keller, M. F. Hansen, and A. Boisen, Microelectron. Eng. 87, 1226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

G. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Gardes, and D. Thomson, Nat. Photonics 4, 518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

V. Almeida, C. Barrios, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Yun, W. Shi, Y. Wang, L. Chrostowski, and N. Jaeger, Proc. SPIE 8915, 89150V (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Rep. (1)

Y. Chen, H. Li, and M. Li, Sci. Rep. 2, 622 (2012).

Other (2)

M. Z. Alam, J. Meier, J. S. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Baltimore, Maryland, May6, 2007 (2007), paper JThD112.

Lumerical FDTD, www.lumerical.com .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Top view schematic of the fabricated hybrid plasmonic (HP) directional coupler; (b) cross-sectional view of the coupling region showing the symmetric region at L1 and the asymmetric HP region at L2; (c), (d) the power flow profiles of the even and odd modes of the symmetric coupling region (L1); (e), (f) the power flow profiles of the even and odd modes in the asymmetric HP section (L2).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulated coupling coefficient as a function of wavelength for the proposed and realized HP coupler. The red line is calculated using a simplified 2D model explained in [17], and the blue line is the simulation result of a 3D FDTD simulation. The green line shows, for comparison, a standard directional coupler optimized for 5050 splitting at 1.55 μm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Scanning electron microscope picture of a fabricated HP broadband coupler, before coating the device with flowable oxide; (b) an optical microscope picture of the MZI used to test the coupler response. The top arm of the MZI is offset in length by 110 μm. The silver is visible as a yellowish stripe over the green silicon waveguides.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured MZI spectral response after calibrating out the setup and coupling losses.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Deviation of the power coupling coefficient from its optimal η=0.5 as a function of wavelength.

Equations (1)

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η=PAPA+PB.

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